New Mexico State Register of Cultural Properties
The New Mexico State Register of Cultural Properties is a register of historic and prehistoric properties located in the state of New Mexico. It is maintained by the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division of the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs; the Cultural Properties Review Committee meets at least six times a year. The committee lists properties in the State Register and forwards nominations to the National Register. Properties listed on the New Mexico State Register of Cultural Properties: List of National Historic Landmarks in New Mexico National Register of Historic Places listings in New Mexico Official website
John Udell was an American farmer and Baptist lay preacher, known for two detailed diaries he kept of his travels to California across the Great Plains of the United States. He traversed the overland route four times between 1850 and 1859, returning by sea on his first three trips. After his fourth and final trip to California he remained there, settling in Solano County and in Sonoma County, his first diary, Incidents of Travel to California Across the Great Plains, was published in 1856. His second diary, Journal of John Udell, Kept During a Trip Across the Plains, was first published in 1859 and is an account of his last trip to California as a member of the Rose-Baley Party. Modern accounts of John Udell's early life are based on his autobiographical sketch published in 1856 as part of Incidents of Travel to California Across the Great Plains and summarized in Lyle H. Wright's introduction to the 1946 edition of Udell's second diary, Journal of John Udell, Kept During a Trip Across the Plains.
Born in New York City, he was the eldest of John Udell's 13 children. According to Udell, his great-grandfather Lionel had been a physician and innkeeper in Exeter, England, he emigrated to the United States in the late 17th century, settling in Stonington, Connecticut where he continued to practice as a physician. Udell's grandfather had a shipping business in Stephentown, New York, but after his death, his business partners "absconded" with the company's cash, leaving large debts to be paid by Udell's father. For a while his father, who had worked as a merchant seaman out of New York, ran a sloop on the Hudson River belonging to the Schermerhorn family; the young John Udell served as the cabin-boy. In 1810, Udell's father moved the family to the wilderness of northeastern Pennsylvania where he took up farming, it was in Pennsylvania. He would remain a devout member of the faith until his death, preaching to small gatherings and once marrying a couple on one of his westward wagon trains. However, according to Lyle Wright, there is no evidence that he was formally trained or ordained as a minister.
The Udell family found it difficult to make a living from the farm in Pennsylvania and in early 1816, John Udell travelled to Ohio to seek a new home for his parents settling the family in New Lyme. There he married Emily Merrill in December 1816, she was born in Connecticut. In the ensuing years and his wife moved many times as he tried his hand at farming and business in a variety of locations in Ohio and Missouri, he had a large family to support. He and Emily had four sons and four daughters, he supplemented his income by working as a travelling salesman or as a day-laborer for other farmers. In 1819 on the advice of a neighbor, he took up distilling whiskey from his surplus grain, he ran his own stills for another three years but wrote of his decision to enter the distillery business: I consented to do so. But now I think that making and vending so much to intoxicate men was wrong, reprehensible in a Christian. Before his transcontinental journeys, Udell had been an inveterate traveller. In 1818, shortly after the birth of his first child, he walked 500 miles from Ohio to upstate New York in search of higher-paid work, travelling via Niagara Falls, Lake Ontario, the Genesee Falls, Canandaigua Lake.
The trip proved unsuccessful. According to Udell, he had to sell his clothes at Canandaigua to buy enough food for his return journey to Ohio which he walked at a pace of 40 miles a day. Udell made his first overland trip to California in 1850 to seek his fortune in the Gold Rush, his sons and Henry, accompanied him. When Udell returned to Ohio after failing to make any money as a miner, they remained in California settling in Allendale, a small town in Solano County; as with his next two trips, Udell had travelled outward on the California Trail and had travelled part of the way back by sea rather than retracing the overland route. His second and third trips to California were in 1852 and 1854, they were no more successful. He had to support himself there with a series of odd jobs. In 1856, a year after his arrival back in Ohio, he published his first diary, Incidents of Travel to California Across the Great Plains, which detailed the 1850, 1852, 1854 journeys. Udell undertook his final overland journey to California in 1858.
This time he travelled with his wife Emily. They were in their mid-60s and the intention was to stay in California permanently, living out their old age near their sons Oliver and Henry, they began their journey in Missouri travelling via the Santa Fe Trail. They joined the Rose-Baley Party, the first emigrant party to attempt the final stretch to California via Beale's Wagon Road, at the time little more than a rough trail. In July the party camped near Inscription Rock in New Mexico. Several members of the party, including Leonard Rose, Gillum Baley, Udell, carved their names into the stone, their inscriptions can still be seen today. On 30 August, as the emigrants were preparing to cross the Colorado River, the first of the party's wagons to arrive at the crossing were attacked by Mojave Indians, leaving twelve emigrants wounded and eight dead, including five children. Having lost most of their livestock and fearful of further attacks, the party decided to trek the 500 miles back to Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Udell wrote in his diary o
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Juan de Oñate
Juan de Oñate y Salazar was a conquistador from New Spain and colonial governor of the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México in the viceroyalty of New Spain. He led early Spanish expeditions to the Great Plains and Lower Colorado River Valley, encountering numerous indigenous tribes in their homelands there. Oñate founded settlements in the province, now in the Southwestern United States. Today Oñate is known for the 1599 Acoma Massacre. Following a dispute that led to the death of thirteen Spaniards at the hands of the Acoma, including Oñate's nephew, Juan de Zaldívar, Oñate ordered a brutal retaliation against Acoma Pueblo; the Pueblo was destroyed. Around 800-1000 Acoma were killed. Of the 500 or so survivors, at a trial at Ohkay Owingeh, Oñate sentenced most to twenty years of forced "personal servitude" and additionally mandated that all men over the age of twenty-five have a foot cut off, he was banished from New Mexico and exiled from Mexico City for five years, convicted by the Spanish government of using "excessive force" against the Acoma people.
Today, Oñate remains a controversial figure in New Mexican history: in 1998 the right foot was cut off a statue of the conquistador that stands in Alcalde, New Mexico in protest of the massacre, significant controversy arose when a large equestrian statue of Oñate was erected in El Paso, Texas in 2006. Oñate was born either in 1550 or 1552, at Zacatecas in New Spain to a family of Spanish-Basque colonists and silver mine owners, his father was the conquistador and silver baron Cristóbal de Oñate, a descendant of the noble house of Haro. His mother was Doña Catalina Salazar y de la Cadena, a descendant by her maternal line of a famous Jewish converso family, the Ha-Levi's, his ancestor Cadena fought in the 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Al-Andalus, was the first to break through the line of defense protecting Mohammad Ben Yacub. The family was granted another coat of arms, thereafter were known as "Cadenas". Juan de Oñate married Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma, granddaughter of Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of the Triple Alliance, the great-granddaughter of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotzin.
In response to a bid by Juan Bautista de Lomas y Colmenares, subsequently rejected by the King, in 1595 Philip II's Viceroy /Luis de Velasco selected Oñate from two other candidates to organize the resources of the newly acquired territory. The agreement with Viceroy Velasco tasked Oñate with two goals, his second goal was to capture Capt. Francisco Leyva de Bonilla as he was transporting other criminals, his stated objective otherwise was to spread Catholicism by establishing new missions in Nuevo México. Oñate is credited with founding the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, was the province's first colonial governor, acting from 1598 to 1610, he held his colonial government at Ohkay Owingeh, renamed the pueblo there'San Juan de los Caballeros'. In late 1595, the Viceroy de Zúñiga, followed his predecessor's advice and in the summer of 1596 delayed Oñate's expedition in order to review the terms of the original agreement signed, before the previous Viceroy had left office. In March 1598, Oñate's expedition moved out and forded the Rio Grande south of present-day El Paso and Ciudad Juárez in late April.
On the Catholic calendar day of Ascension, April 30, 1598, the exploration party assembled on the south bank of the Rio Grande. In an Ascension Day ceremony, Oñate led the party in prayer, as he claimed all of the territory across the river for the Spanish Empire. Oñate's original terms would have make this land a separate viceroyalty to the crown in New Spain. All summer, Oñate's expedition party followed the middle Rio Grande Valley to present day northern New Mexico, where he engaged with Pueblo Indians. Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, a captain of the expedition, chronicled Oñate's conquest of New Mexico's indigenous peoples in his epic Historia de la Nueva México, published in 1610. In October 1598, a skirmish erupted when a squad of Oñate's men demanded supplies from the Acoma Pueblo, although the Acoma themselves needed their stored food to survive the coming winter; the Acoma resisted and 11 Spaniards were killed, including Juan de Zaldívar. In January 1599, Oñate condemned the conflict as an uprising and ordered the pueblo destroyed, a mandate carried out by Juan de Zaldívar's brother, Vicente de Zaldívar, in an offensive known as the Acoma Massacre.
An estimated 800-1000 Acoma died in the siege of the pueblo, the 500 survivors were put on trial and sentenced by Oñate. All men and women older than 12 were enslaved for 20 years. In addition, men older than 25 had one foot amputated. In 1601, Oñate undertook a large expedition east to the Great Plains region of central North America; the expedition party included 130 Spanish soldiers and 12 Franciscan priests—similar to the expedition of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire—and a retinue of 130 American Indian soldiers and servants. The expedition possessed 350 mules. Oñate journeyed across the plains eastward from New Mexico in a renewed search for Quivira, the fabled "city of gold." As had the earlier Coronado Expedition in the 1540s, Oñate encountered Apaches in the Texas Panhandle region. Oñate proceeded eastward. Leaving the river behind in a sandy area where his ox carts could not pass, he went across country, the land becam
El Malpais National Monument
El Malpais National Monument is a National Monument located in western New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. The name El Malpais is from the Spanish term Malpaís, meaning badlands, due to the barren and dramatic volcanic field that covers much of the park's area, it is on the Trails of one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. The lava flows, cinder cones, other volcanic features of El Malpais are part of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, the second largest volcanic field in the Basin and Range Province; this volcanically active area on the southeast margin of the Colorado Plateau is at the intersection of the Rio Grande Rift Basin, with its deep normal faulting, the ancient Jemez Lineament. These two features provide the crustal weaknesses that recent magmatic intrusions and Cenozoic volcanism are attributed to; the rugged Pahoehoe and A'a' lava flows of the Zuni-Bandera eruptions filled a large basin, created by normal faulting associated with the Rio Grande Rift, between the high mesas of the Acoma Pueblo to the east, Mt. Taylor to the north, the Zuni Mountain anticline to the northwest.
Vents associated with these flows include Bandera Crater, El Calderon, several other cinder cones. Some of the oldest Douglas Fir trees on earth, of the Pseudotsuga subspecies Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, can be found living in El Malpais Monument; the area around El Malpais was used for resources and travel by Oasisamerica cultures, Native Americans, Spanish colonial and pioneer exploration. Archaeological sites remain in the park. In the 1940s the Malpais lava field was one of the eight candidate sites considered by the Manhattan Project to test detonate the first atomic bomb, the Trinity nuclear test, which did occur to the south at White Sands Proving Ground; the Department of Defense did use the site as a bombing range to train pilots during World War II. After the war, the Bureau of Land Management became the administrator of the area. In 1987, President Reagan created El Malpais National Monument and designated it a unit of the National Park Service, it is jointly managed with the nearby El Morro National Monument.
El Malpais has many lava tubes open to explore with a free caving permit, available at NPS-staffed facilities. There are four caves accessible by permit: Junction and Xenolith caves in the El Caldron area, Big Skylight and Giant Ice caves in the Big Tubes area. From December 2010 to June 2013, all caves were temporarily closed to recreational use to protect bats from the spread of White Nose Syndrome until a permitting process, including visitor screening for WNS, could be implemented. A nearby scenic overlook at Sandstone Bluffs offers spectacular panoramic views over the monument's lava flows; the U. S. National Park Service protects and interprets El Malpais National Monument, they operate two Visitor Centers with natural history displays, literature and staff with helpful information. El Malpais Visitor Center is just south of Exit 85 off I-40 in New Mexico; the El Malpais Information Center is 28 miles down Highway 53 south of I-40 Exit 81. The adjacent El Malpais National Conservation Area is protected and managed by the U.
S. Bureau of Land Management, they staff the El Malpais National Conservation Area Ranger Station 8 miles down State Highway 117 south of I-40 Exit 89. The Cibola National Forest conserves large natural areas and habitats in the surrounding region as well; the second portion of the book Brave New World by Aldous Huxley takes place on the "savage reservation", located on land encompassing the parks area. The malpais is the setting for "Flint" by Louis L'Amour. Flint is a successful business man who thinks he is dying of cancer and returns to a hidden campsite within the malpais he had learned of in his youth. A scene in Cormac McCarthy's novel Blood Meridian takes place on the malpais. Mabery, Marilyn; the Volcanic Eruptions of El Malpais: A Guide to the Volcanic History and Formations of El Malpais National Monument. Ancient City Press. P. 83. ISBN 1-58096-007-3. BLM: El Malpais National Conservation Area website Offbeat New Mexico – El Malpais TopoQuest USGS Quad Map
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units