A eulogy is a speech or writing in praise of a person or thing one who died or retired or as a term of endearment. Eulogies may be given as part of funeral services. In the US, they take place in a funeral home after a wake. In the US, some denominations either discourage or do not permit eulogies at services to maintain respect for traditions. Eulogies can praise people who are still alive; this takes place on special occasions like birthdays, office parties, retirement celebrations, etc. Eulogies should not be confused with elegies. Catholic priests are prohibited by the rubrics of the Mass from presenting a eulogy for the deceased in place of a homily during a funeral Mass; the modern use of the word eulogy was first documented in the 15th century and came from the Medieval Latin term eulogium. Eulogium at that time has since turned into the shorter eulogy of today. Eulogies are delivered by a family member or a close family friend in the case of a dead person. For a living eulogy given in such cases as a retirement, a senior colleague could deliver it.
On occasions, eulogies are given to those who are ill or elderly in order to express words of love and gratitude before they die. Eulogies are not limited to people, however. A successful eulogy may provide comfort or inspiration as well as establish a connection to the person whom the eulogy is in behalf of; the following section will explore some well-known eulogies. President Ronald Reagan’s eulogy for the Challenger space shuttle crew: I know it is hard to understand, but sometimes painful things like this happen. It's all part of the process of discovery. It's all part of expanding man's horizons; the future doesn’t belong to the fainthearted. The Challenger crew was pulling us into the future, we’ll continue to follow them. Charles Spencer’s eulogy for his sister, Princess Diana: Diana was the essence of compassion, of duty, of style, of beauty. All over the world she was a symbol of selfless humanity, a standard-bearer for the rights of the downtrodden, a British girl who transcended nationality, someone with a natural nobility, classless, who proved in the last year that she needed no royal title to continue to generate her particular brand of magic.
Jawaharlal Nehru’s eulogy for Mahatma Gandhi: The first thing to remember now is that no one of us dare misbehave because we’re angry. We have to behave like strong and determined people, determined to face all the perils that surround us, determined to carry out the mandate that our great teacher and our great leader had given us, remembering always that if, as I believe, his spirit looks upon us and sees you, nothing would displease his soul so much as to see that we have indulged in any small behavior or any violence. So we must not do that, but that does not mean that we should be weak, but rather that we should in strength and in unity face all the troubles and difficulties and conflicts must be ended in the face of this great disaster. A great disaster is a symbol to us to remember all the big things of life and forget the small things, of which we have thought too much. Ted Kennedy's eulogy for his brother Robert F. Kennedy: My brother need not be idealized, or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life.
Those of us who loved him and who take him to his rest today, pray that what he was to us and what he wished for others will some day come to pass for all the world. As he said many times, in many parts of this nation, to those he touched and who sought to touch him: Some men see things as they are and say why. There are many different types of eulogies; some of them are meant to be a biography of the person’s life. The short biography is a retelling of what the individual went through in their life; this can be done to highlight major points in the deceased’s life. Another version is by telling a more personal view on, it entails retelling memories that are shared between the deceased. Memories and experiences are all things that can be included in a retelling of the personal eulogy. Consolatio Funeral oration Obituary Panegyric Requiem Types of speeches
Guadalupe "Lupe" Ontiveros was an American actress best known for portraying Yolanda Saldívar in the film Selena. She acted in numerous films and television shows playing a maid or, near the end of her career, an all-knowing grandmother, she was nominated for an Emmy Award for her work on Desperate Housewives and received critical acclaim for her role in Chuck & Buck, for which she won the National Board of Review award for Best Supporting Actress, was nominated for an Independent Spirit Award. Ontiveros was born in El Paso, the daughter of Luz "Lucita" Castañón and Juan Moreno, middle-class Mexican immigrants who overcame a lack of formal education to become owners of a tortilla factory and two restaurants in El Paso, she graduated from El Paso High School and went on to study at Texas Woman's University in Denton, where she received a bachelor's degree in social work. She was raised Roman Catholic. After her marriage and her husband moved to California to realize his dream of starting an automotive business.
During a period of dissatisfaction with her career as a social worker, Ontiveros was trying to decide whether to go back to school for a nursing degree when she saw an article about a need for local film extras. With her husband's encouragement, she took the job and parlayed it into a long stage and screen career. Prior to acting, she had worked for 18 years as a social worker, she continued as an activist with many of the same causes with which she worked in that profession, such as domestic violence prevention and AIDS awareness and prevention. Ontiveros once estimated that she had played a maid at least 150 times on screen. I've given every maid I've portrayed soul and heart." In part because of her history in this role, she was chosen as the narrator for the documentary Maid in America. One of Ontiveros' most prominent early movie roles was in the 1983 Gregory Nava film El Norte, in which she played a seamstress and maid who acts as mentor to a newly arrived immigrant girl from Guatemala.
In a 2004 interview with the Dominican newspaper Listin Diario, she called El Norte "the film that always will remain in me... tells the immigrants' story" when asked to name her favorite film from her long career. She played the housekeeper, Rosalita, a Spanish maid hired to assist in the packing and moving of the Walsh family in the hit adventure film The Goonies and a housekeeper in Dolly Dearest, she had a cameo appearance in Blood in Blood Out as Carmen, a drug dealer who Paco busts in an undercover cop sting while pretending to be a drug dealer. Ontiveros worked with Nava including My Family/Mi Familia and Selena. In the latter film she portrayed the murderer of Tejano superstar Selena, she appeared in the Academy Award-winning film As Good as It Gets. In 2000 she was featured in the film Chuck & Buck, in which she played Beverly, a tough theater director who puts on a play written by one of the film's main characters, she said in multiple interviews that she accepted the role before seeing the script on the basis of being asked to play a character, not defined by Hispanic ethnicity.
For that role, she was nominated for Best Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture at the 2000 Independent Spirit Awards. Ontiveros, during her acting career participated in the web series Los Americans, characterized by having a multigenerational focus, a middle class family living in Los Angeles. During the series, she participated with Esai Morales, Tony Plana, Yvonne DeLaRosa, JC Gonzalez, Raymond Cruz and Ana Villafañe, she co-starred with America Ferrera in the 2002 film Real Women Have Curves, as the overbearing mother of Ferrera's character. Her performance received excellent reviews and earned her and her co-star a Special Jury Prize at the prestigious Sundance Film Festival, she and Ferrera appeared together again in the family comedy Our Family Wedding. She continued to work in the studio and independent films, such as This Christmas in 2007 and My Uncle Rafael in 2012. Ontiveros had a recurring role in the 2004–05 season of American prime time soap opera series Desperate Housewives as Juanita Solis, Gabrielle's suspicious mother-in-law.
She received an Emmy nomination as Best Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for this role. In 2004 she began a role as Abuela Elena, the grandmother of the title characters in the animated PBS children's series Maya & Miguel; the multicultural and bilingual series introduced a deaf character, after a sign language-themed episode was suggested by the actress, who had two deaf adult sons. She was a star of the short-lived the WB's Greetings from Tucson, playing the grandmother in an upwardly mobile family of mixed Irish and Mexican heritage, she had recurring guest roles in the series Veronica's Closet, for which she won an ALMA Award in 1998, in the short-lived soap opera Pasadena. She was a guest star in Hill Street Blues, Red Shoe Diaries, Resurrection Blvd. Cory in the House and King of the Hill, among many other series. After deciding she wanted an acting career, Ontiveros began in earnest, following up full-day sessions at her first career with evening work at Nosotros, a community theater in Los Angeles.
In 1978 she was cast as Dolores in Luis Valdez’s historic play Zoot Suit in her first major theatrical role. She went on to reprise the role on Broadway—it was the first Mexican American theatrical production to play there—and in the 1982 film version, she was a founding member of the Latino Theater Company. In August 2006, the Kaiser Permanente insurance compa
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and French are predominantly spoken. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao; the term was used by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish and French are predominant are not included in definitions of Latin America. Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean, it has an area of 19,197,000 km2 13% of the Earth's land surface area.
As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,573,397 million and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", that it could, ally itself with "Latin Europe" overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". Further investigations of the concept of Latin America are by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review, the studies of Leslie Bethell, the monograph by Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Latin America: The Allure and Power of an Idea. Historian John Leddy Phelan (located the origins of “Latin America” in the French occupation of Mexico, his argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.
The idea of a "Latin race" was taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France. French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called “Latin America” to emphasize the shared Latin background of France with the former colonies of Spain and Portugal; this led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the 1860s. However, though Phelan thesis is still mentioned in the U. S. academy, two Latin American historians, the Uruguayan Arturo Ardao and the Chilean Miguel Rojas Mix proved decades ago that the term "Latin America" was used earlier than Phelan claimed, the first use of the term was opposite to support imperialist projects in the Americas. Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América latina, Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de América latina: Unión continental, socialista y libertaria".
As Michel Gobat reminds in his article "The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism and Race", "Arturo Ardao, Miguel Rojas Mix, Aims McGuinness have revealed the term'Latin America' had been used in 1856 by Central and South Americans protesting U. S. expansion into the Southern Hemisphere". Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, José María Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". So, regarding when the words "Latin" and "America" were combined for the first time in a printed work, the term "Latin America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in Paris; the conference had the title "Initiative of the America.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics." The following year the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo used the term in his poem "The Two Americas". Two events related with the U. S. played a central role in both works. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo works: the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico lost a third of its territory; the second event, the Walker affair, happened the same year both works were written: the decision by U. S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year and attempted to reinstate slavery there, where it had been abolished for three decades In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the Mexican-American War and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. For Bilbao, "Latin America" w
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people. Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. While such generalizations may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals. Stereotypes may arise for a number of reasons. Explicit stereotypes are those people who are willing to admit to other individuals, it refers to stereotypes that one is aware that one holds, is aware that one is using to judge people. People can attempt to consciously control the use of explicit stereotypes though their attempt to control may not be effective. Only males play. In fact half of all gamers are female, when including mobile phone gaming. Women are more to play mobile phone games than traditional video games. Implicit stereotypes are those that lay on individuals' subconsciousness, that they have no control or awareness of. In social psychology, a stereotype is any thought adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole.
These thoughts or beliefs may or may not reflect reality. Within psychology and across other disciplines, different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping exist, at times sharing commonalities, as well as containing contradictory elements; the term stereotype comes from the French adjective stéréotype and derives from the Greek words στερεός, "firm, solid" and τύπος, hence "solid impression on one or more idea/theory." The term comes from the printing trade and was first adopted in 1798 by Firmin Didot to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography. The duplicate printing plate, or the stereotype, is used for printing instead of the original. Outside of printing, the first reference to "stereotype" was in 1850, as a noun that meant image perpetuated without change. However, it was not until 1922 that "stereotype" was first used in the modern psychological sense by American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion. Stereotypes and discrimination are understood as related but different concepts.
Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component and occurs without conscious awareness, whereas prejudice is the affective component of stereotyping and discrimination is one of the behavioral components of prejudicial reactions. In this tripartite view of intergroup attitudes, stereotypes reflect expectations and beliefs about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one's own, prejudice represents the emotional response, discrimination refers to actions. Although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other. According to Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, evaluate those characteristics. Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are: Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance Unwillingness to rethink one's attitudes and behavior Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields Stereotype content refers to the attributes that people think characterize a group.
Studies of stereotype content examine what people think of others, rather than the reasons and mechanisms involved in stereotyping. Early theories of stereotype content proposed by social psychologists such as Gordon Allport assumed that stereotypes of outgroups reflected uniform antipathy. For instance and Braly argued in their classic 1933 study that ethnic stereotypes were uniformly negative. By contrast, a newer model of stereotype content theorizes that stereotypes are ambivalent and vary along two dimensions: warmth and competence. Warmth and competence are predicted by lack of competition and status. Groups that do not compete with the in-group for the same resources are perceived as warm, whereas high-status groups are considered competent; the groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence elicit distinct emotions. The model explains the phenomenon that some out-groups are admired but disliked, whereas others are liked but disrespected; this model was empirically tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content.
Early studies suggested that stereotypes were only used by rigid and authoritarian people. This idea has been refuted by contemporary studies that suggest the ubiquity of stereotypes and it was suggested to regard stereotypes as collective group beliefs, meaning that people who belong to the same social group share the same set of stereotypes. Modern research asserts that full understanding of stereotypes requires considering them from two complementary perspectives: as shared within a particular culture/subculture and as formed in the mind of an individual person. Stereotyping can serve cognitive functions on an interpersonal level, social functions on an intergroup level. For stereotyping to function on an intergroup level, an individual must see themselves as part of a group and being part of that group must be salient for the individual. Craig McGarty, Russell Spears, Vincent Y. Yzerbyt argued that the cognitive functions of stereotyping are best understood in relation to its social functions, vice versa.
Stereotypes can help make sense of the w
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Guatemalan Civil War
The Guatemalan Civil War ran from 1960 to 1996. It was fought between the government of Guatemala and various leftist rebel groups supported chiefly by ethnic Maya indigenous people and Ladino peasants, who together make up the rural poor; the government forces of Guatemala have been condemned for committing genocide against the Maya population of Guatemala during the civil war and for widespread human rights violations against civilians. Democratic elections during the Guatemalan Revolution in 1944 and 1951 had brought popular leftist governments to power, but a United States-backed coup d'état in 1954 installed the military regime of Carlos Castillo Armas, followed by a series of conservative military dictators. In 1970, Colonel Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio became the first of a series of military dictators representing the Institutional Democratic Party or PID; the PID dominated Guatemalan politics for twelve years through electoral frauds favoring two of Col. Carlos Arana's proteges; the PID lost its grip on Guatemalan politics when General Efraín Ríos Montt, together with a group of junior army officers, seized power in a military coup on 23 March 1982.
In the 1970s continuing social discontent gave rise to an insurgency among the large populations of indigenous people and peasants, who traditionally bore the brunt of unequal land tenure. During the 1980s, the Guatemalan military assumed absolute government power for five years. In the final stage of the civil war, the military developed a parallel, semi-visible, low profile but high-effect, control of Guatemala's national life, it is estimated that 200,000 people were "disappeared" during the conflict. As well as fighting between government forces and rebel groups, the conflict included, much more a large-scale, coordinated campaign of one-sided violence by the Guatemalan state against the civilian population from the mid-1960s onward; the military intelligence services and an affiliated intelligence organization known as La Regional or Archivo – headquartered in an annex of the presidential palace – were responsible for coordinating killings and "disappearances" of opponents of the state and suspected insurgents and those deemed by the intelligence services to be collaborators.
The Guatemalan state was the first in Latin America to engage in widespread use of forced disappearances against its opposition with the number of disappeared estimated at between 40,000 and 50,000 from 1966 until the end of the war. In rural areas where the insurgency maintained its strongholds, the repression amounted to wholesale slaughter of the peasantry and massacres of entire villages. In the early 1980s, the killings are considered to have taken on the scale of genocide. Most human rights abuses were at the hands of the military and intelligence services. Victims of the repression included indigenous activists, suspected government opponents, returning refugees, critical academics, left-leaning politicians, trade unionists, religious workers and street children; the "Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico" has estimated that 93% of human right abuses in the conflict have been committed by government forces and 3% by the guerrillas. In 2009, Guatemalan courts sentenced Felipe Cusanero as the first person convicted of the crime of ordering forced disappearances.
This was followed by the 2013 genocide trial of former president Efraín Ríos Montt for the killing and disappearances of more than 1,700 indigenous Ixil Maya during his 1982–83 rule. The first former head of state to be tried for genocide by his own country's judicial system, Montt was found guilty the day following the conclusion of his trial and was sentenced to 80 years in prison; the trial began again on 23 July 2015 but did not reach a verdict before the Montt's death on 1 April 2018. After the 1871 revolution, the Liberal government of Justo Rufino Barrios escalated coffee production in Guatemala, which required much land and many workers. To find the people needed for the work, Barrios established the Settler Rule Book, which forced the native population to work for low wages for the landowners, who were Criollos and German settlers. Barrios confiscated the common native land, protected during the Spanish Colony and during the Conservative government of Rafael Carrera, distributed to his Liberal friends, who became important landowners.
In the 1890s, the United States began to implement the Monroe Doctrine, pushing out European colonial powers and establishing U. S. hegemony over resources and labor in Latin American nations. The dictators that ruled Guatemala during the late 19th and early 20th centuries were accommodating to U. S. business and political interests. Unlike other Latin American nations, such as Haiti and Cuba, the U. S. did not have to use overt military force to maintain dominance in Guatemala. Th
Mexico–United States border
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains; the Mexico–US border is the most crossed border in the world, with 350 million documented crossings annually. The total length of the continental border is 3,145 kilometers. From the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the course of the Rio Grande to the border crossing at Ciudad Juárez, El Paso, Texas. Westward from El Paso–Juárez, it crosses vast tracts of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts to the Colorado River Delta and San Diego–Tijuana, before reaching the Pacific Ocean; the Mexico–United States border extends 3,145 kilometers, in addition to the maritime boundaries of 29 kilometers in the Pacific Ocean and 19 kilometers in the Gulf of Mexico. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, the continental border follows the middle of the Rio Grande—according to the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo between the two nations, "along the deepest channel" —from its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico a distance of 2,020 kilometers to a point just upstream of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez.
It follows an alignment westward overland and it is marked by monuments for a distance of 859 kilometers to the Colorado River, when it reaches its highest elevation at the intersection with the Continental Divide. It follows the middle of that river toward the north with a distance of 39 kilometers, follows an alignment overland toward the west and marked by monuments with a distance of 227 kilometers to the Pacific Ocean. Per the La Paz Agreement, the official "border area" extends 100 kilometers "on either side of the inland and maritime boundaries" from the Gulf of Mexico west into the Pacific Ocean. There is a 100-mile border zone; the Rio Grande meanders along the Texas–Mexico border. As a result, the United States and Mexico have a treaty by which the Rio Grande is maintained as the border, with new cut-offs and islands being transferred to the other nation as necessary; the Boundary Treaty of 1970 between Mexico and the United States settled all outstanding boundary disputes and uncertainties related to the Rio Grande border.
The region is characterized by deserts, rugged hills, abundant sunshine, two major rivers—the Colorado and the Rio Grande. The U. S. states along the border, from west to east, are California, New Mexico, Texas. The Mexican states along the border are Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. Among the U. S. states, Texas has the longest stretch of the border with Mexico, while California has the shortest. Among the states in Mexico, Chihuahua has the longest border with the United States, while Nuevo León has the shortest. Texas borders four Mexican states—Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Chihuahua—the most of any U. S. states. New Mexico and Arizona each borders two Mexican states. California borders only Baja California. Three Mexican states border two U. S. states each: Baja California borders California and Arizona. Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila each borders only one U. S. state: Texas. Along the border are 23 U. S. counties and 39 Mexican municipalities. The border separating Mexico and the United States is the most crossed international boundary in the world, with 350 million legal crossings taking place annually.
There are 48 U. S.–Mexico border crossings, with 330 ports of entry. At these points of entry, people trying to get into the U. S. are required to open their bags for inspection. Border crossings take place by roads, pedestrian walkways and ferries. From west to east, below is a list of the border city "twinnings"; the total population of the borderlands—defined as those counties and municipios lining the border on either side—stands at some 12 million people. The Mexico–United States border is the world's most transited border; the San Ysidro Port of Entry is located between San Ysidro and Tijuana, Baja California. 50,000 vehicles and 25,000 pedestrians use this entry daily. Due to business of this entry port, it has influenced the every day life-style of people that live in these border towns; the world's busiest border is having an impact on communities on both sides of the border. The average wait time to cross into the United States is an hour. Having thousands of vehicles transit through the border every day is causing air pollution in San Ysidro and Tijuana.
The emission of carbon monoxide and other vehicle related air contaminants have been linked to health complications such as cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, birth outcomes, premature death, obesity and other respiratory diseases. Due to the high levels of traffic collusion and the extended wait times, mental health is impacted by the border's business, affecting the person's stress levels and aggressive behavior; the San Ysidro border is militarized, separated by three walls, border patrol agents and ICE. Tijuana is the next target for San Diegan developers due to the fast-growing city, its lower cost of living, cheap prices and proximity to San Diego. While this would benefit the tourist aspect of the city, it is damaging to low-income residents that will no longer be able to