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Elasmobranchii is a subclass of Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fish, including the sharks and the rays and sawfish. Members of this subclass are characterised by having five to seven pairs of gill clefts opening individually to the exterior, rigid dorsal fins and small placoid scales on the skin; the teeth are in several series. The details of this jaw anatomy vary between species, help distinguish the different elasmobranch clades; the pelvic fins in males are modified to create claspers for the transfer of sperm. There is no swim bladder; the earliest elasmobranch fossils came from the Devonian and many surviving orders date back to the Cretaceous, or earlier. Many species became extinct during the Permian and there was a burst of adaptive radiation during the Jurassic. Elasmobranchii is one of the two subclasses of cartilaginous fish in the class Chondrichthyes, the other being Holocephali. Members of the elasmobranchii subclass have no swim bladders, five to seven pairs of gill clefts opening individually to the exterior, rigid dorsal fins, small placoid scales.

The teeth are in several series. Extant elasmobranchs exhibit several archetypal jaw suspensions: amphistyly, orbitostyly and euhyostyly. In amphistyly, the palatoquadrate has a postorbital articulation with the chondrocranium from which ligaments suspend it anteriorly; the hyoid articulates with the mandibular arch posteriorly, but it appears to provide little support to the upper and lower jaws. In orbitostyly, the orbital process hinges with the orbital wall and the hyoid provides the majority of suspensory support. In contrast, hyostyly involves an ethmoid articulation between the upper jaw and the cranium, while the hyoid most provides vastly more jaw support compared to the anterior ligaments. In euhyostyly known as true hyostyly, the mandibular cartilages lack a ligamentous connection to the cranium. Instead, the hyomandibular cartilages provide the only means of jaw support, while the ceratohyal and basihyal elements articulate with the lower jaw, but are disconnected from the rest of the hyoid.

The eyes have a tapetum lucidum. The inner margin of each pelvic fin in the male fish is grooved to constitute a clasper for the transmission of sperm; these fish are distributed in tropical and temperate waters. Many fish maintain buoyancy with swim bladders; however elasmobranchs lack swim bladders, maintain buoyancy instead with large livers that are full of oil. This stored oil may function as a nutrient when food is scarce. Deep sea sharks are targeted for their oil, because the livers of these species can weigh up to 20% of their total weight. Fossilised shark teeth are known from the early Devonian, around 400 million years ago. During the following Carboniferous period, the sharks underwent a period of diversification, with many new forms evolving. Many of these became extinct during the Permian, but the remaining sharks underwent a second burst of adaptive radiation during the Jurassic, around which time the skates and rays first appeared. Many surviving orders of elasmobranch date earlier.

Elasmobranchs are a marine taxon, but we know several species that live in freshwater environment. They can be divided into two groups; the euryhaline elasmobranchs, which are marine species that may survive and reproduce in freshwater environment, the obligated freshwater elasmobranchs. The second group contains elasmobranchs; this group contains only one clade: the subfamily Potamotrygoninae. This clade is endemic to one specific region: tropical, subtropical water and wetland of South America. Recent researches in Paraná river have shown that obligated freshwater elasmobranchs were more susceptible to anthropogenic threats as overfishing and destruction of habitats due to the small place they live in compared to the marine species. New research has highlighted the importance of coastal wetlands, like mangroves and seagrasses, as habitats for many species of elasmobranch Compagno's 2005 Sharks of the World arranges the class as follows: Subclass Elasmobranchii †Plesioselachus †Order Squatinactiformes †Order Protacrodontiformes †Infraclass Cladoselachimorpha †Order Cladoselachiformes †Infraclass Xenacanthimorpha †Order Xenacanthiformes Infraclass Euselachii †Order Ctenacanthiformes †Division Hybodonta †Order Hybodontiformes Division Neoselachii Subdivision Selachii Superorder Galeomorphi Order Heterodontiformes Order Orectolobiformes Order Lamniformes Order Carcharhiniformes Superorder Squalomorphii Order Hexanchiformes Order Squaliformes †Order Protospinaciformes Order Squatiniformes Order Pristiophoriformes Subdivision Batoidea Order Torpediniformes Order Pristiformes Order Rajiformes Order Myliobatiformes Recent molecular studies suggest the Batoidea are not derived selachians as thought.

Instead and rays are a monophyletic superorder within Elasmobranchii that shares a common ancestor with the selachians. Cartilaginous versus bony fishes List of Elasmobranch cestodes, tape worms which in

The Volcano Ogre

The Volcano Ogre is a science fiction novel by Lin Carter, the third his "Zarkon, Lord of the Unknown" series. It was first published in hardcover by Doubleday in 1976, with a paperback edition following from Popular Library in November 1978, it was reissued by Wildside Press in 1999. An ebook edition was issued by Thunderchild Publishing in October 2017. Prince Zarkon and his Omega Crew investigate a legendary island monster on the South Pacific atoll of Rangatoa, a flaming creature that rises from the mouth of a living volcano to spread terror and death. To learn the truth about the menace, they must descend into its fiery lair deep within the bowels of the Earth. Robert M. Price characterizes the Zarkon series as "five delightful novels... Lin Carter's loving homage to Doc Savage and his creator Lester Dent." They celebrate "'the gloriously fourth-rate,' the pulps, radio and movies he loved as a kid." He notes that "he novels manage quite to walk the tightrope between salute and parody," and "the humor never seems to impede or undermine the action."

While "t is not difficult to pick out a flaw here and there" and the series is "not free from Carter's later-career sloppiness... on the whole these books are vastly superior to much of what else he was writing during the same period. The Zarkon novels all command a crisp, snappy prose, sometimes reminiscent of Lester Dent's."The book was reviewed by Don D'Ammassa in Delap's F & SF Review, August 1976, Frederick Patten in Science Fiction & Fantasy Book Review, May 1979. The setting of the atoll of Rangatoa was lifted by the author from the 1933 Doc Savage novel Pirate of the Pacific. Carter's introduction claims the lava-devil is an actual regional legend, but cites as authority the fictional work Polynesian Mythology by Harold Hadley Copeland (protagonist of his own Cthulhu Mythos story "The Dweller in the Tomb."

Untying the Not

Untying the Not is the sixth release and fourth studio album of Colorado based jam band, The String Cheese Incident. UtN is indeed a strong deviation from their previous rock and bluegrass sounds and shows heavy influence from guest producer Martin Glover. Untying the Not is much darker than the band's previous lighthearted studio releases, full of minor keys and introspection on topics such as death, which are most evidenced in the tracks "Elijah" and "Mountain Girl." It shows significant evidence of the band's recent habit of introducing techno and trance elements into the mix, such as on the track entitled "Valley of the Jig", a successful fusion of techno and bluegrass stylings. "Wake Up" - 5:46 "Sirens" - 5:07 "Looking Glass" - 5:44 "Orion's Belt " - 2:50 "Mountain Girl " - 4:57 "Lonesome Road Blues " - 1:24 "Elijah " - 2:41 "Valley of the Jig" - 4:03 "Tinder Box" - 4:24 "Just Passin' Through" - 4:46 "Who Am I?" - 4:23 "Time Alive" - 5:11 "On My Way" - 3:02 Bill Nershi – acoustic guitar, Slide Guitar, Lap Steel Guitar Keith MoseleyBass Guitar, vocals Kyle Hollingsworth - Accordion, Piano, Mellotron.

Vocals Michael KangMandolin, vocals Michael Travispercussion, vocals Jason Hann - Drums, percussion Kenny Brooks - Saxophone Chet Helms - Spoken Word Carolyn Garcia - Spoken Word Gary The Cab Driver - Spoken Word Michael Gosney - Spoken Word Julia Butterfly Hill - Spoken Word Aly Itzaina - Spoken Word Richard MacLaury - Spoken Word Rock Raffa - Spoken Word Youth - Arranger, Artwork, Producer Clive Goddard - Engineer Stephen Marcussen - Mastering Rail Jon Rogut - Digital Editing Michael Travis - Arranger Kenny Brooks - Guest Appearance Mike Cresswell - Digital Editing Chet Helms - Guest Appearance The String Cheese Incident - Arranger Michael Kang - Arranger Keith Moseley - Arranger Bill Nershi - Arranger Kyle Hollingsworth - Arranger Alex Grey - Cover Art Carolyn Garcia - Guest Appearance Gary The Cab Driver - Guest Appearance Michael Gosney - Guest Appearance Julia Butterfly Hill - Guest Appearance April Itzaina - Guest Appearance Richard MacLaury - Guest Appearance Adam Pickard - Engineer Rock Raffa - Guest Appearance

John Pardon

John Vincent Pardon is an American mathematician who works on geometry and topology. He is known for having solved Gromov's problem on distortion of knots, for which he was awarded the 2012 Morgan Prize, he is a full professor of mathematics at Princeton University. Pardon's father, William Pardon, is a mathematics professor at Duke University, when Pardon was a high school student at the Durham Academy he took classes at Duke, he was a three-time gold medalist at the International Olympiad in Informatics, in 2005, 2006, 2007. In 2007, Pardon placed second in the Intel Science Talent Search competition, with a generalization to rectifiable curves of the carpenter's rule problem for polygons. In this project, he showed that every rectifiable Jordan curve in the plane can be continuously deformed into a convex curve without changing its length and without allowing any two points of the curve to get closer to each other, he published this research in the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society in 2009.

Pardon went to Princeton University, where after his sophomore year he took graduate-level mathematics classes. At Princeton, Pardon solved a problem in knot theory posed by Mikhail Gromov in 1983 about whether every knot can be embedded into three-dimensional space with bounded stretch factor. Pardon showed that, on the contrary, the stretch factor of certain torus knots could be arbitrarily large, his proof was published in the Annals of Mathematics in 2011, earned him the Morgan Prize of 2012. Pardon took part in a Chinese-language immersion program at Princeton, was part of Princeton's team at an international debate competition in Singapore, broadcast on Chinese television; as a cello player he was a two-time winner of the Princeton Sinfonia concerto competition. He graduated as Princeton's valedictorian, he went to Stanford University for his graduate studies, where his accomplishments included solving the three-dimensional case of the Hilbert–Smith conjecture. He completed his Ph. D. in 2015, under the supervision of Yakov Eliashberg, continued at Stanford as an assistant professor.

In 2015, he was appointed to a five-year term as a Clay Research Fellow. Since fall 2016, he has been a full professor of mathematics at Princeton University. In 2017, Pardon received National Science Foundation Alan T. Waterman Award for his contributions to geometry and topology, he was elected to the 2018 class of fellows of the American Mathematical Society. In 2018 he was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Rio de Janeiro. Pardon, John, "On the unfolding of simple closed curves", Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 361: 1749–1764, arXiv:0809.1404, doi:10.1090/S0002-9947-08-04781-8, MR 2465815. Pardon, John, "On the distortion of knots on embedded surfaces", Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, 174: 637–646, arXiv:1010.1972, doi:10.4007/annals.2011.174.1.21, MR 2811613. Pardon, John, "Central limit theorems for random polygons in an arbitrary convex set", Annals of Probability, 39: 881–903, doi:10.1214/10-AOP568, MR 2789578. Pardon, John, "The Hilbert–Smith conjecture for three-manifolds", Journal of the American Mathematical Society, 26: 879–899, doi:10.1090/S0894-0347-2013-00766-3, MR 3037790.

Pardon, John. "An algebraic approach to virtual fundamental cycles on moduli spaces of pseudo-holomorphic curves". Geometry & Topology. 20: 779–1034. Doi:10.2140/gt.2016.20.779. MR 3493097. Pardon, John. "Contact homology and virtual fundamental cycles". Journal of the American Mathematical Society. 32: 825–919. Doi:10.1090/jams/924. MR 3981989. Home page of John Pardon at Princeton, with 11 papers 21 Questions With … John Pardon ’11, University Press Club, Princeton


KOFY-TV, virtual channel 20, is an independent television station licensed to San Francisco, United States and serving the San Francisco Bay Area. Owned by CNZ Communications, LLC, it is sister to Class A station KCNZ-CD. KOFY's studios are located on Marin Street in the Bernal Heights neighborhood of San Francisco, its transmitter is located atop San Bruno Mountain; the station's signal is relayed on low-power digital translator station K27EE-D in Ukiah. The construction permit for channel 20 was first awarded to Lawrence A. Harvey as KBAY-TV on March 11, 1953. Harvey owned industrial interests in Torrance and had attempted to pursue construction permits in Los Angeles and Salem, Oregon. Despite an apparent attempt to sign on September 15, KBAY-TV did not make the air. Leonard and Lily Averett, doing business as Bay Television, acquired the unbuilt construction permit in January 1955 for no consideration. A third southern Californian, Sherrill Corwin, acquired channel 20 in 1957 for the $1,750 the Averetts had spent on the venture, but KBAY-TV was still not built.

In late 1964, Corwin filed to sell KBAY-TV to Overmyer Communications Company, a broadcaster owned by Daniel H. Overmyer, who would start the short-lived Overmyer Network; the sale application was approved, in October. 1966 was a busy year: the station filed to move its facility from KGO's tower on Avanzada Street to Mount Sutro, while the call letters were changed to KEMO-TV, for Daniel's son, Edward Manning Overmyer. Channel 20 would sign on as KEMO-TV on April 1, 1968, it was jointly owned by the U. S. Communications Corporation station group of Philadelphia, holding an 80% interest and the remaining 20% by Corwin. Overmyer had sold 80% interest in the construction permits for WBMO-TV in Atlanta, WSCO-TV in Cincinnati, KEMO-TV in San Francisco, WECO-TV in Pittsburgh and KJDO-TV in Houston to AVC Corporation on March 28, 1967, with FCC approval of their sale coming December 8, 1967. None of the stations were on the air at the time of the FCC approval of the sale. Beside KEMO-TV, U. S. Communications operated WPHL-TV in Philadelphia, WATL in Atlanta, WXIX-TV in Cincinnati and WPGH-TV in Pittsburgh.

KEMO-TV showed conventional independent fare, along with The Adults Only Movie, a series of art films, not featuring sex or nudity—it was named "Adults Only" due to the films' lack of appeal to children. KEMO offered Japanese live-action programs and cartoons dubbed into English including Speed Racer, Ultraman, 8 Man, Prince Planet, Johnny Cypher in Dimension Zero and The King Kong Show. With a mixture of locally produced and syndicated programming, KEMO-TV remained on the air for three years to the day, powering down its transmitter at midnight on March 31, 1971, to avoid paying the following month's PG&E electricity bill; the former owner of KMPX-FM in San Francisco, Leon Crosby bought KEMO-TV that year and it returned to the air on February 4, 1972. With an eclectic type of programming, KEMO featured shows such as Solesvida and Amapola Presents Show co-hosted by Amapola and Ness Aquino, to name a few. In 1973, Crosby purchased WPGH-TV, the dark U. S. Communications station in Pittsburgh, bringing it back on the air January 14, 1974.

From 1972 to 1980, KEMO aired stock market programming in the mornings, religious programming in midday, local Spanish programming in the weekday afternoons and evenings, local Italian and imported Japanese programming on Sunday nights, B-grade movies overnight, with Oakland carpet store owner Leon Heskett hosting the films. Leon Crosby's KEMO signed off on September 30, 1980; the station was sold to FM radio pioneer James Gabbert (who owned popular music station KIOI, who returned it to the air on October 6, 1980, as KTZO, with a upgraded general entertainment format, featuring off-network drama shows, old movies, rejected CBS and NBC shows preempted by KPIX-TV and KRON-TV, music videos, religious shows. But while its independent competitors at that time, KTVU, KICU-TV and KBHK landed stronger syndicated programs, a majority of KTZO's programming lineup at most consisted of low-budget programs, which continued into its early years as KOFY. Most memorable were the station identification breaks featuring pets dogs, of Bay Area viewers that would look on cue at a television screen showing the station's logo.

In fact, these proved to be immensely popular—so much so that KTZO/KOFY began working with the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals by displaying pets that could be adopted, along with a phone number to call with the pet's name on screen. These IDs were retired in 1998, having aired alongside "official" WB-issued KOFY IDs for the first three years of the network's existence. Other popular programming during the early and mid-1980s included the TV-20 Dance Party, a Sunday late-night movie program; the Sunday program included studio segments at the beginning and commercial breaks of the movie, hosted by Gabbert and set in the fictional "Sleazy Arms Hotel" bar. Viewers were invited to join Gabbert on the set and for a time, enjoy a spons

1982 Northern Ireland Assembly election

The 1982 Northern Ireland Assembly elections were held on 20 October 1982 in an attempt to re-establish devolution and power-sharing in Northern Ireland. Although the Northern Ireland Assembly lasted until 1986 it met infrequently and achieved little; the electoral system proved to be hugely controversial. While there was general acceptance that the elections should take part using the Single Transferable Vote system, the decision to use the same twelve constituency boundaries used in the 1973 Assembly election rather than the new seventeen constituency boundaries which were adopted in the 1983 general election was criticised; the problem was that the Boundary Commission for Northern Ireland's Final Recommendations, which recommended that all future Assembly elections should be held using seventeen constituencies each electing five members, had not yet been approved by Parliament and therefore remained, provisional recommendations. The consequence of this was that the elections were held using constituencies which varied in size and electorate, ranging from Belfast West with an electorate of 57,726 to South Antrim with an electorate of 131,734.

In the latter constituency this resulted in huge administrative problems with a record 27 candidates standing necessitating 23 counts over 36 hours with the count not completed until two days after the election. A further result of the disparity in electorates was that the number of members returned for each constituency varied from four members in Belfast West to ten members in South Antrim. On the Unionist side, the Assembly was welcomed, with some hailing it nostalgically as'a new Stormont'. Many Nationalists were suspicious of the new body; the Irish Independence Party, which had moderate electoral success in the elections of the previous year announced that they would boycott the elections and called on other nationalists to follow suit. However Sinn Féin was keen to test its electoral support and both it and the Social Democratic and Labour Party announced that they would contest the elections but refuse to take any seats which they won; the smaller People's Democracy, which had won two council seats in an electoral alliance with the Irish Republican Socialist Party the previous year, did likewise.

Great interest centred on the performance of Sinn Féin, fighting its first full election and on the inter-Unionist rivalry between the Democratic Unionist Party and the Ulster Unionist Party. The former had pulled ahead in the European election of 1979 and the Local Council Elections of 1981 but had suffered a setback in the 1982 by-election which followed the murder of Robert Bradford; the results were seen as a triumph for the new electoral strategy of Sinn Féin which gained 5 seats and narrowly missed winning seats in Belfast North and Fermanagh and South Tyrone. The SDLP were disappointed with their 14 seats and one of these was subsequently lost in a by-election to the UUP as Seamus Mallon was disqualified following a successful UUP election petition on the grounds that he was ineligible as he was a member of Seanad Éireann at the time. On the Unionist side the UUP gained a clear lead over the DUP, while the United Ulster Unionist Party failed to make an impact and, as a result, folded two years later.

In the centre Alliance Party consolidated with 10 seats including unexpected wins in North and West Belfast. The Workers' Party failed to make a breakthrough despite respectable vote shares in places like North and West Belfast. Members of the 1982 Northern Ireland Assembly Northern Ireland Assembly Elections 1982 Full Counting Details