Club Atlético Osasuna, or simply Osasuna, is a Spanish football team based in Pamplona, Navarre. Founded in 1920, it plays in La Liga, holding home games at the 19. The teams home kit is red shirt, navy blue shorts, black socks with red back, whereas the one is navy blue shirt, orange shorts. The word osasuna means health in Basque, founded in 1920, Osasuna first reached Segunda División in 1932. It made it to La Liga three seasons later, the club achieved its first ever UEFA Cup qualification in 1985–86 after finishing sixth, eventually reaching the third round in the 1990–91 edition. Finishing last in 1993–94, the spent six years in the second level. In 2005, it reached the Copa del Rey final for the first time, on 27 November 2005, Osasuna played its 1, 000th game in La Liga. Osasuna were drawn in Group D of the 2006–07 UEFA Cup along with Parma, Lens and Heerenveen. The club qualified for the stage, finishing second in its group, and were drawn against Bordeaux. The Spaniards progressed 1–0 on aggregate, drawing 0–0 away before winning 1–0 in Pamplona through an extra time winner by Javad Nekounam, next up were Rangers, and Osasuna again progressed following a 1–1 draw in Scotland and a 1–0 win at home.
The club was drawn against German side Bayer Leverkusen in the quarter-finals, regarded as severe underdogs, Osasuna not only progressed to the semi-finals but did so in style. In the semi-finals, the club was drawn against holders and fellow Spanish side Sevilla, in the following two seasons, Osasuna struggled heavily in the league. Osasuna had varied success following those seasons, but struggled again from 2012 to 2014 and it subsequently won all its playoff games – against Gimnàstic de Tarragona in the preliminary stage and Girona in the final stage – to achieve promotion once again to La Liga. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, the team was disbanded in June 2014 in the midst of financial turmoil, weeks after the male teams relegation to Segunda
Real Sociedad de Fútbol, S. A. D. more commonly referred to as Real Sociedad or La Real, is a Spanish football club based in the city of San Sebastián, Basque Country, founded on 7 September 1909. It plays its matches at the 32, 000-capacity Anoeta Stadium. Real Sociedad won the Liga title in 1980–81 and 1981–82, the club has won the Copa del Rey twice, in 1909 and 1987. It contests the Basque derby against rivals Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad were founder members of La Liga in 1928, and its longest spell in the top flight was for 40 seasons, from 1967 to 2007. The club has competed in the UEFA Champions League twice, in the 2003–04 season, the club progressed to the round of 16 before losing to Lyon. Real Sociedad has several sections, womens football and field, field hockey. The clubs name means Royal Society of Football in Spanish, during the Second Spanish Republic, it was renamed Donostia Club de Fútbol. The club is nicknamed in Basque as Erreala or the txuri-urdin, the colours stem from the flag of San Sebastián, a blue canton on a white field.
Football was introduced to San Sebastián in the early 1900s by students, in 1904, they formed the San Sebastian Recreation Club and in 1905 the club competed in the Copa del Rey. In May 1905, the San Sebastian Football Club was formed as a branch of the club. In 1909, it applied to enter the Copa del Rey and this team defeated Club Español de Madrid 3–1 in the final. Out of the confusion, the Sociedad de Futbol was formed on 7 September 1909, in 1910, Spanish clubs played in two rival cup competitions and Sociedad de Futbol entered the Copa UECF as Vasconia de San Sebastián. In the same year, King Alfonso XIII – who used San Sebastián as his summer capital – gave the club his patronage, Real Sociedad were founder members of La Liga in 1928. The team came fourth with Francisco Paco Bienzobas finishing as top scorer, the teams name was changed to Donostia Club de Futbol in 1931 with the advent of the Second Spanish Republic, but changed back to Real Sociedad after the Spanish Civil War in 1939.
The team has fluctuated between the Primera and Segunda divisions, in one period managing to be relegated and promoted seven times. Around that time, the sculptor Eduardo Chillida was the teams goalkeeper until injury put a stop to his football career. This qualified La Real for the 1981–82 European Cup, where they were eliminated in the first round by CSKA Sofia of Bulgaria, the second leg in Spain was a 0–0 draw. The club retained the Liga title the season, beating Barcelona by 47 points to 45
Province of Alicante
Alicante, or Alacant, is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the Valencian Community. The second and third biggest cities in the Valencian Community are located in this province, Alicante is bordered by the provinces of Murcia on the southwest, Albacete on the west, Valencia on the north, and the Mediterranean Sea on the east. The province is named after its capital, the city of Alicante, according to the 2009 population data, Alicante ranks as the 4th most populous province in Spain, with 1,917,012 inhabitants. Cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the province are Alicante, Torrevieja, Benidorm, Elda, Alicante is the only province in Spain whose capital city does not exceed 20% of the total population. The province has the largest ratio of population among all Spanish provinces. The total of 446,368 foreigners are registered in the province, out of 141 municipalities that make up the province, foreign population is above 25% in 54 municipalities, and above 50% in 19 municipalities.
It has an area of 5.816,5 km², all of these peaks are a part of the Subbaetic Range. The coast extends from the cape, Cap de la Nau, with regard to water sources, due to the dry rain regime there are no major rivers, but mostly ramblas, which fill in with water when torrential rains occur. The only remarkable streams are the Vinalopó, and the river Segura, other minor seasonal creeks are Girona, Algar and Ebo. There are saline wetlands and marshlands along the coast such El Fondo, all of them are key Ramsar Sites which make the Alicante province of high relevance for both migratory and resident seabirds and waterbirds. The climate is strikingly diverse for such a reduced area, three major areas can be cited Most of the province belongs to a Semi-arid climate. It roughly goes along the plain from La Vila Joiosa through the southernmost border. Summers are very long, hot to very hot and very dry, winters are cool to mild and its most prominent feature is very scarce precipitation, per year and most likely to happen during spring and autumn.
The reasons for lack of precipitation is mostly the marked rain shadow effect caused by hills to the west of the Alicante province. Most of its few rainy days happen during Autumn and Spring, the predominant vegetation in this part of the province is Matorral Scrublands including thyme, esparto and the like. Proper Mediterranean climate is present in the areas around Cap de la Nau, mostly to its North but to its South. It roughly goes along the plain from the northern border of the province through the Benidorm area. The north slopes of the mountains in the Marina Alta have a remarkably wetter microclimate which allows to accumulate an average of up to 900mm, due to the Orographic lift phenomenon with most of the precipitation occurring in Autumn and Spring
Athletic Bilbao B
Bilbao Athletic, officially named Athletic Club B is the reserve team of Athletic Bilbao, club based in Bilbao, in the autonomous community of Basque Country. The team will play in the Segunda División B in the 2016-17 season, founded in 1964, the team holds home matches at the San Mamés, with a 53, 500-seat capacity, or at the small stadium attached to the clubs training facility at Lezama. Reserve teams in Spain play in the football pyramid as their senior team rather than a separate league. However, reserves cannot play in the division as their senior team. Therefore, Bilbao Athletic are ineligible for promotion to La Liga, reserve teams are no longer permitted to enter the Copa del Rey. In addition, only players, or under-25 with a professional contract. In recent years most of Bilbao Athletics players have been graduates from the youth setup via the farm team. This team was put together at the suggestion of José Antonio Aguirre, the team went on tour to raise funds for the Basque cause, and played in Europe and Mexico.
However, the Campeonato de Vicaya continued to be played, with their best players on tour with the Basque national team, Athletic Bilbao could only field weakened sides and, as a result, chose to enter under the name Bilbao Athletic. Despite this, they won the championship, the clubs name was derived from the two clubs that merged in 1903 to become Athletic Bilbao – Bilbao Football Club and Athletic Club. The name was revived in 1964, when Athletic Bilbao decided to establish a team with Agustín Gaínza as coach. The new Bilbao Athletic initially played in regional leagues before winning promotion to Tercera División in 1966, under Rafa Iriondo. Bilbao Athletic dropped back down to the level in 1996. After 19 seasons in the Segunda División B, Bilbao Athletic returned to the second tier after defeating Cádiz CF, 3–1 on aggregate, Athletic successfully applied to compete in the 2014–15, 2015–16 and 2016–17 versions of the England-based Premier League International Cup. Most of Athletics players in this Under-23 tournament have been drawn from Bilbao Athletic with some additions from Basconia, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Biscay Championships, 1938–39 Segunda División B, 1982–83, 1988–89 Tercera División, 1966–67, 1968–69 For playing big matches, they use San Mamés, CD Basconia Team history at Athletic Bilbaos official website Futbolme team profile La Cantera De Lezama - Unofficial website focusing on Athletic’s youth teams
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between two divisions based on their performance for the completed season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings. This process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, the number of teams exchanged between the divisions is almost always identical. Such variations will almost inevitably cause an effect through the lower divisions. Even in the absence of such circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European football league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. The system is said to be the characteristic of the European form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions and they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation.
In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian teams final games serve little purpose, although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated, some leagues offer parachute payments to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. If these are not satisfied, a team may be promoted in their place. While the primary purpose of the system is to maintain competitive balance. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most recently in 2006, when the initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B. An exception is the proposed UEFA Nations League, which will feature promotion and relegation across four levels, in tennis, the Davis Cup has promotion and relegation where each group uses a knockout tournament format in which first-round losers play off to avoid relegation. In the United States and Australia, teams are not promoted or relegated. The USL set up two leagues, now known as the United Soccer League and the Premier Development League, although the system is now in place, it is not compulsory and is rarely used
Valencian is the variety of Catalan as spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered a language from Catalan by a slight majority of the people from the Valencian Community, however. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect, Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language has been established as its regulator, the AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages, important works include Joanot Martorells chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs Marchs poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety, the earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs damor.
The official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution, article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that, The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, and receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language, special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language, Valencian is not one of the recognized languages of the European Union. Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community, roughly a quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, the survey simply collects the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification.
The statistics hide the fact that in the areas where the language is still strong, according to a survey in 2008, there is a downward trend in everyday Valencian users. The lowest numbers are in the cities of Valencia and Alicante. All in all, in the 1993–2006 period, the number of speakers fell by 10 per cent, some children of Valencian speakers go to private schools run by the church where the curriculum is in Castilian and consequently this becomes their preferred language. For more general information on the features of Valencian, see Catalan language, note that there is a great deal of variety within the Valencian Community, and by no means do the features below apply to every local version. Valencian has a system of seven stressed vowels /a/, /e/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /ɔ/, the vowel /e/ is retracted and /o/ is advanced both in stressed and unstressed syllables
Real Madrid Castilla
Real Madrid Castilla is a Spanish football team that plays in Segunda División B. It is Real Madrids reserve team, and is therefore a part of Real Madrids youth academy. They play their games at Alfredo di Stéfano Stadium. Unlike the English football league system, reserve teams in Spain play in the league system as their senior team rather than a separate league. Reserve teams, cannot play in the division as their senior team. Therefore, Real Madrid B are ineligible for promotion to the Primera División, reserve teams are no longer permitted to enter the Copa del Rey. In addition, only players, or under-25 players with a professional contract. In 1948, Agrupación Deportiva Plus Ultra, an amateur team, playing in the Tercera División. Originally formed in 1930, the team took its name from the motto of Spain. Real gave AD Plus Ultra financial support and in return were given first refusal on the clubs best players, by 1949, they made their debut in the Segunda División and in 1952, the club became the official Real reserve team.
In 1959, they reached the quarter-finals of the Copa del Rey, luis Aragonés briefly played for Plus Ultra and Miguel Muñoz began his coaching career at the club. As Castilla CF, the team enjoyed something of a golden age, during this era, with a team that included Agustín, Ricardo Gallego and Francisco Pineda, Castilla reached the final of the 1979–80 Copa del Rey. During their cup run, they beat four Primera División teams, including Hércules, Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad, the latter two eventually finished second and third in the Primera División. In the final, they played Real Madrid but lost 6–1, because Real won the Primera División, Castilla qualified for the European Cup Winners Cup. Despite beating West Ham United 3–1 in the game at the Santiago Bernabéu, they lost the return 5–1 after extra time. Castilla reached the quarter-finals of the Copa del Rey on three occasions, in 1984,1986, and 1988. In 1984, with Amancio Amaro as coach, Castilla won the Segunda División, amaros tenure as coach saw the rise of the famous La Quinta del Buitre – Emilio Butragueño, Manolo Sanchís, Martín Vazquéz, Míchel, and Miguel Pardeza.
Castilla were ineligible for promotion, because Real Madrid were already in the Primera División, in the 1987–88 season, they finished third in the Segunda División, but were once again ineligible for promotion
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shorts, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection.
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition.
The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread