Eleanor of Aquitaine was queen consort of France and England and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right. As a member of the Ramnulfids rulers in southwestern France, she was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in western Europe during the High Middle Ages, she was patron of literary figures such as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure, Bernart de Ventadorn. She was a leader of the Second Crusade; as the duchess of Aquitaine, Eleanor was the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after becoming duchess upon the death of her father, William X, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI; as queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon afterwards, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage, but her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III. However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment, as 15 years of marriage had not produced a son; the marriage was annulled on 21 March 1152 on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree.
Their daughters were declared legitimate, custody was awarded to Louis, Eleanor's lands were restored to her. As soon as the annulment was granted, Eleanor became engaged to the Duke of Normandy, who became King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry was 11 years younger; the couple married on Whitsun, 18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanor's first marriage, in Poitiers Cathedral. Over the next 13 years, she bore eight children: five sons; however and Eleanor became estranged. Henry imprisoned her in 1173 for supporting their son Henry's revolt against him, she was not released until 6 July 1189, when her husband Henry died and their third son, Richard the Lionheart, ascended the throne. As queen dowager, Eleanor acted as regent. Eleanor lived well into the reign of Richard's heir and her youngest son, John. Eleanor's year of birth is not known precisely: a late 13th-century genealogy of her family listing her as 13 years old in the spring of 1137 provides the best evidence that Eleanor was born as late as 1124.
On the other hand, some chronicles mention a fidelity oath of some lords of Aquitaine on the occasion of Eleanor's fourteenth birthday in 1136. This, her known age of 82 at her death make 1122 more the year of birth, her parents certainly married in 1121. Her birthplace may have been Poitiers, Bordeaux, or Nieul-sur-l'Autise, where her mother and brother died when Eleanor was 6 or 8. Eleanor was the oldest of three children of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, whose glittering ducal court was renowned in early 12th-century Europe, his wife, Aenor de Châtellerault, the daughter of Aimery I, Viscount of Châtellerault, Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard, William IX's longtime mistress as well as Eleanor's maternal grandmother, her parents' marriage had been arranged by Dangereuse with her paternal grandfather William IX. Eleanor is said to have been named for her mother Aenor and called Aliénor from the Latin Alia Aenor, which means the other Aenor, it became Eléanor in the langues d'oïl of northern Eleanor in English.
There was, another prominent Eleanor before her—Eleanor of Normandy, an aunt of William the Conqueror, who lived a century earlier than Eleanor of Aquitaine. In Paris as the queen of France, she was called Helienordis, her honorific name as written in the Latin epistles. By all accounts, Eleanor's father ensured. Eleanor came to learn arithmetic, the constellations, history, she learned domestic skills such as household management and the needle arts of embroidery, sewing and weaving. Eleanor developed skills in conversation, games such as backgammon and chess, playing the harp, singing. Although her native tongue was Poitevin, she was taught to read and speak Latin, was well versed in music and literature, schooled in riding and hunting. Eleanor was extroverted, lively and strong-willed, her four-year-old brother William Aigret and their mother died at the castle of Talmont on Aquitaine's Atlantic coast in the spring of 1130. Eleanor became the heir presumptive to her father's domains; the Duchy of Aquitaine was the richest province of France.
Poitou, where Eleanor spent most of her childhood, Aquitaine together was one-third the size of modern France. Eleanor had only one other legitimate sibling, a younger sister named Aelith called Petronilla, her half-brother Joscelin was acknowledged by William X as a son, but not as his heir. The notion that she had another half-brother, has been discredited. During the first four years of Henry II's reign, her siblings joined Eleanor's royal household. In 1137 Duke William X took his daughters with him. Upon reaching Bordeaux, he left them in the charge of the archbishop of Bordeaux, one of his few loyal vassals; the duke set out for the Shrine of Saint James of Compostela in the company of other pilgrims. However, he died on Good Friday of that year. Eleanor, aged 12 to 15 became the duchess of Aquitaine, thus the most eligible heiress in Europe; as these were the days when kidnapping an heiress was seen as a viable option for obtaining a title, William dictated a will on the day he died that bequeathed his domains to Eleanor and appointed King Louis VI of France as her guardian.
William requested of the king that he take care of both the lands and the duchess, find her a suitable husband. However, until a husband was found, the king had t
Hastula cinerea, common name the grey Atlantic auger, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Terebridae, the auger snails. The length of the shell varies between 68 mm; this species occurs in the Atlantic Ocean off Angola, Cape Verde and Brazil. Dautzenberg, Ph.. Contribution à l'étude de la faune de Madagascar: Mollusca marina testacea. Faune des colonies françaises, III. Société d'Editions coloniales: Paris. 321-636, plates IV-VII pp. Bouchet P. Les Terebridae de l'Atlantique oriental. Bollettino Malacologico 18: 185-216. Bratcher T. & Cernohorsky W. O.. Living terebras of the world. A monograph of the recent Terebridae of the world. American Malacologists, Florida & Burlington, Massachusetts. 240pp. Terryn Y.. Terebridae: A Collectors Guide. Conchbooks & NaturalArt. 59pp + plates. Adams, C. B. 1850. Description of supposed new species of marine shells which inhabit Jamaica. Contributions to Conchology, 4: 56-68, 109-123 Rosenberg, G.. Gastropoda of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 579–699 in: Felder, D.
L. and D. K. Camp, Gulf of Mexico–Origins and Biota. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas Fedosov, A. E.. Phylogenetic classification of the family Terebridae. Journal of Molluscan Studies "Impages cinerea". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019
The Trey o' Hearts is a 1914 American 15-chapter action film serial directed by Wilfred Lucas and Henry MacRae. It was written by Allan Dwan and Bess Meredyth, based on a story of the same name by Louis Joseph Vance; the first chapter ran 3 reels. The film is considered to be lost; some sources list Lon Chaney in the cast. An evil young woman named Judith Trine and her father are plotting to destroy Alan Law, because for many years her father hated Alan's father, now they have transferred that hatred onto Alan himself. Judith's twin sister Rose is in love with Alan; as the serial progresses, Alan manages to survive a number of life-threatening events. Over time, Judith finds herself falling in love with Alan. On the day of their wedding in a chapel and Alan are struck by lightning. Rose is killed, Alan is badly injured. Unbeknownst to Alan, Judith nurses him back to health. Cleo Madison as Rose Trine / Judith Trine George Larkin as Alan Law, the hero Edward Sloman as Seneca Trine, the father Tom Walsh as Barcus Roy Hanford as Marrophat, the villain Charles Brinley Doris Pawn George Backus Flower o’ Flames White Water The Sea Venture Dead Reckoning The Sunset Tide The Crack o’ Doom The Stalemate The Mock Rose As the Crow Flies Steel Ribbons The Painted Hills The Mirage The Jaws of Death The First Law The Last Trump List of film serials List of film serials by studio List of lost films The Trey o' Hearts on IMDb