An electoral district known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, riding, division, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is an administrative subdivision of a larger state created to provide its population with representation in the larger state’s legislative body. That body, in turn, determines each districts’ boundaries and whether each will be represented by a single member or multiple members. Only voters who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. District representatives may be elected via a first-past-the-post system, a proportional representative system, or another voting method, they may be selected via a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage. The names for electoral districts vary across countries and for the office being elected; the term constituency is used to refer to an electoral district in British English, but it can refer to the body of eligible voters or all the residents of the represented area or only those who voted for a certain candidate.
The terms precinct and election district are more common in American English. In Australia and New Zealand, electoral districts are called electorates, however elsewhere the term electorate refers to the body of voters. In India electoral districts are referred to as "Nirvachan Kshetra" in Hindi, which can be translated to English as "electoral area" though the official English translation for the term is "constituency"; the term "Nirvachan Kshetra" is used while referring to an electoral district in general irrespective of the legislature. When referring to a particular legislatorial constituency, it is referred to as "Kshetra" along with the name of the legislature, in Hindi. Electoral districts for municipal or other local bodies are called "wards". In Canada, districts are colloquially called ridings. Local electoral districts are sometimes called wards, a term which designates administrative subdivisions of a municipality. In local government in the Republic of Ireland voting districts are called "electoral areas".
District magnitude is the number of representatives elected from a given district to the same legislative body. A single-member district has one representative. Voting systems that seek proportional representation inherently require multi-member districts, the larger the district magnitude the more proportional a system will tend to be Non-proportional systems may use multi-member districts, as in the House of Commons until 1950, Singapore's Group Representation Constituency, or the New Hampshire House of Representatives. Under proportional representation systems, district magnitude is an important determinant of the makeup of the elected body. With a larger number of winners, candidates are able to represent proportionately smaller minorities; the geographic distribution of minorities affects their representation – an unpopular nationwide minority can still secure a seat if they are concentrated in a particular district. A small party with diffuse support is more to win more seats with larger multi-member districts rather than smaller single-member districts where they may not have enough support in any particular seat.
District magnitude can sometimes vary within the same system during an election. In the Republic of Ireland, for instance, national elections to Dáil Éireann are held using a combination of 3, 4, 5 member districts. In Hong Kong, the magnitude ranges from 5 to 9, respective to the geographic constituencies' populations; the only democracies with one single nationwide electoral district and no other territorial correctors are Fiji, The Netherlands, Mozambique, South Africa and Serbia. Main articles: Apportionment and RedistrictingApportionment is the process of allocating a number of representatives to different regions, such as states or provinces. Apportionment changes are accompanied by redistricting, the redrawing of electoral district boundaries to accommodate the new number of representatives; this redrawing is necessary under single-member district systems, as each new representative requires their own district. Multi-member systems, vary depending on other rules. Ireland, for example, redraws its electoral districts after every census while Belgium uses its existing administrative boundaries for electoral districts and instead modifies the number of representatives allotted to each.
Israel and the Netherlands are among the few counties that avoid the need for apportionment by electing legislators at-large. Apportionment is done on the basis of population. Seats in the United States House of Representatives, for instance, are reapportioned to individual states every 10 years following a census, with some states that have grown in population gaining seats. By contrast, seats in the Cantonal Council of Zürich are reapportioned in every election based on the number of votes cast in each district, only made possible by use of multi-member districts, the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by contrast, is ap
In the Matter of TRENDnet, Inc. F. T. C. File No. 122-3090, is the first legal action taken by the Federal Trade Commission against "the marketer of an everyday product with interconnectivity to the Internet and other mobile devices – referred to as the Internet of things." The FTC found that TRENDnet had violated Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act by falsely advertising that IP Cameras it sold could transmit video on the internet securely. On January 16, 2014 the FTC issued a Decision and Order obliging TRENDnet, among other things, to cease misrepresenting the extent to which its products protect the security of live feeds captured and the personal information, accessible through those devices. TRENDnet is a California corporation that, among other things, sells networking devices, such as routers, IP security cameras that allow users to conduct remote surveillance of their homes and businesses over the Internet, it began selling digitally connected cameras under the trade name "SecurView" in 2010.
It sells its IP cameras under the trade name "SecurView," and tells consumers that they may use the cameras to monitor "babies at home, patients in the hospital and banks, more."" By default, these IP cameras are subject to security settings such as a requirement to enter a username and password in order to access the video and audio feeds over the Internet." Between 2010 and 2012, TRENDnet's "Secureview" line made $19 million in revenue, accounting for 10 percent of the company's total revenue during that time period. The security breach was first exploited when a blogger named "SomeLuser" was able to identify the web addresses of live feeds coming from TRENDnet's ATV-IP110w cameras. SomeLuser realized that the live stream of any camera could be accessed by making a "mjpg.cgi" request to the device's IP address, thereby bypassing the need to enter login credentials. On January 10, 2012 SomeLuser uploaded this information into the Shodan search engine which made 350 live feeds viewable by anyone.
By the time the breach came to TRENDnet's attention, over 700 cameras were accessible via Shodan."Among other things, these compromised live feeds displayed private areas of users' homes and allowed the unauthorized surveillance of infants sleeping in their cribs, young children playing, adults engaging in typical daily activities. The breach was reported in news articles online, many of which featured photos taken from the compromised live feeds or hyperlinks to access such feeds. Based on the cameras' IP addresses, news stories depicted the geographical location of many of the compromised cameras." TRENDnet learned of the breach on January 13, 2012 when a customer who read about the breach contacted TRENDnet's technical support staff to report the issue. TRENDnet released a firmware update designed to rectify the software's vulnerability, halted the shipping new products to market, spent "substantive resources" notifying all previous customers; the FTC's Complaint identified four "practices that, taken together, failed to provide reasonable security to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information, namely the live feeds from the IP cameras."
The FTC alleged that TRENDnet misrepresented the adequacy of its security measures to consumers while it: "transmitted user login credentials in clear, readable text over the Internet, despite the existence of free software, publicly available since at least 2008, that would have enabled respondent to secure such transmissions. "The FTC. does not have the legal authority to impose fines in such cases. But TRENDnet agreed to a consent order prohibiting similar practices, so the commission has the ability to seek penalties in the future." "TRENDnet's settlement prohibits it from misrepresenting the security of its cameras or the security, confidentiality or integrity of the information that its devices transmit. Further, it cannot misrepresent consumer control over the security of information the devices store, access or transmit. TRENDnet must establish a comprehensive information security program designed to address security risks that could let hackers access or use its devices; the Order will terminate on January 16, 2034.
One commentator noted that the message to all companies developing products for the Internet of Things is that "the FTC is watching and has served notice that it intends to play an active role in enforcing its regulatory authority in that context." This case, however shows. This action was based on
CBD Architects known as Chicago Building Design, P. C. is an American commercial architecture firm specializing in hospitality design. Founded in Chicago, CBD has diversified to offices in Miami and New Orleans, with licensed architects in nine states: Colorado, Illinois, Louisiana, Montana, New York, Texas and Wisconsin; the firm was founded by Jeremiah Johnson in 1998 and incorporated as Chicago Building Design, P. C. in 2000. It adopted the name, CBD Architects, to reflects its growth to designs in Miami, New Orleans, New York. CBD Architects specializes in commercial architecture's hospitality design market. Other firm services include permits, occupancy drawings, public right of way, building code violation assistance. Notable designs include: STK Chicago of The ONE Group — River North, Chicago Pomp & Circumstance by Hubbard Inn owners — Old Town, Chicago Bangers & Lace — Evanston Gino's East — River North and South Loop, Chicago Celeste — River North, Chicago Siena Tavern — River North, Chicago Stout Barrel House & Galley — River North, Chicago The Boarding House — River North, Chicago Public House — River North, Chicago Hubbard Inn — River North, Chicago Official website