Execution by electrocution, performed using an electric chair, is a method of execution originating in the United States in which the condemned person is strapped to a specially built wooden chair and electrocuted through electrodes fastened on the head and leg. The head and leg are shaved before execution; this execution method, conceived in 1881 by a Buffalo, New York, dentist named Alfred P. Southwick, was developed throughout the 1880s as a "humane alternative" to hanging, first used in 1890; this execution method has been used in the United States and for a period of several decades, in the Philippines. While death was theorized to result from damage to the brain, it was shown in 1899 that it results from ventricular fibrillation and eventual cardiac arrest. Once the person was attached to the chair, various cycles of alternating current would be passed through the individual's body in order to cause fatal damage to the internal organs; the first, more powerful jolt of electric current is intended to cause immediate unconsciousness, ventricular fibrillation, eventual cardiac arrest.
The second, less powerful jolt is intended to cause fatal damage to the vital organs. Although the electric chair has long been a symbol of the death penalty in the United States, its use is in decline due to the rise of lethal injection, believed to be a more humane method of execution. While some states still maintain electrocution as a method of execution, today it is only maintained as a secondary method that may be chosen over lethal injection at the request of the prisoner, except in Tennessee, where it may be used without input from the prisoner if the drugs for lethal injection are not available; as of 2014, electrocution is an optional form of execution in the states of Alabama, South Carolina, Virginia, all of which allow the prisoner to choose lethal injection as an alternative method. In the state of Kentucky, the electric chair has been retired, except for those whose capital crimes were committed prior to March 31, 1998, who choose electrocution. Electrocution is authorized in Kentucky in the event that lethal injection is found unconstitutional by a court.
The electric chair is an alternate form of execution approved for potential use in Arkansas and Oklahoma if other forms of execution are found unconstitutional in the state at the time of execution. On February 8, 2008, the Nebraska Supreme Court determined that execution by electric chair was a "cruel and unusual punishment" under the state's constitution; this brought executions of this type to an end in Nebraska, the only remaining state to retain electrocution as its sole method of execution. In the late 1870s to early 1880s, the spread of arc lighting, a type of brilliant outdoor street lighting that required high voltages in the range of 3000–6000 volts, was followed by one story after another in newspapers about how the high voltages used were killing people unwary linemen, a strange new phenomenon that seemed to instantaneously strike a victim dead without leaving a mark. One of these accidents, in Buffalo, New York, on August 7, 1881, led to the inception of the electric chair; that evening a drunken dock worker, looking for the thrill of a tingling sensation he had noticed before, managed to sneak his way into a Brush Electric Company arc lighting power house and grabbed the brush and ground of a large electric dynamo.
He died instantly. The coroner who investigated the case brought it up at a local Buffalo scientific society. Another member, Alfred P. Southwick, a dentist who had a technical background, thought some application could be found for the curious phenomenon. In 1881, after hearing of a man killed "instantly" after contact with an electric dynamo, Southwick joined physician George E. Fell and the head of the Buffalo ASPCA in a series of experiments electrocuting hundreds of stray dogs, they ran trials with the dog in water and out of water, varied the electrode type and placement until they came up with a repeatable method to euthanize animals using electricity. Southwick went on in the early 1880s to advocate that this method be used as a more humane replacement for hanging in capital cases, coming to national attention when he published his ideas in scientific journals in 1882 and 1883, he worked out calculations based on the dog experiments, trying to develop a scaled-up method that would work on humans.
Early on in his designs he adopted a modified version of the dental chair as a way to restrain the condemned, a device that from on would be called the electric chair. After a series of botched hangings in the United States, there was mounting criticism of that form of capital punishment and the death penalty in general. In 1886, newly elected New York State governor David B. Hill set up a three-member death penalty commission, chaired by the human rights advocate and reformer Elbridge Thomas Gerry and included New York lawyer and politician Matthew Hale and Southwick, to investigate a more humane means of execution; the commission members surveyed the history of execution and sent out a fact-finding questionnaire to government officials and medical experts all around the state asking for their opinion. A slight majority of respondents recommended hanging over electrocution, with a few instead recommending the abolition of capital punishment; the commission contacted electrical experts, including Thomson-Houston Electric Company's Elihu Thomson and the inventor Thomas Edison (who recommended AC
Radical 95 玄 meaning "dark" or "profound" is 1 of 23 Kangxi radicals composed of 5 strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary there are only six characters to be found under this radical. Fazzioli, Edoardo. Chinese calligraphy: from pictograph to ideogram: the history of 214 essential Chinese/Japanese characters. Calligraphy by Rebecca Hon Ko. New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-89659-774-1. Lunde, Ken. "Appendix J: Japanese Character Sets". CJKV Information Processing: Chinese, Korean & Vietnamese Computing. Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-0-596-51447-1. Unihan Database - U+7384 Chinese Etymology Chinese Text Project
John Ray Dunning was an American physicist who played key roles in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bombs. He specialized in neutron physics, did pioneering work in gaseous diffusion for isotope separation, he was Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University from 1950 to 1969. John Ray Dunning was born in Shelby, Nebraska, on September 24, 1907, the son of Albert Chester Dunning, a grain dealer, his wife Josephine Dunning née Thelen, he graduated from Shelby High School in 1925,and entered Nebraska Wesleyan University where he became a member of Phi Kappa Tau fraternity, received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1929. After graduation, Dunning commenced a doctoral program at Columbia University. In 1932, James Chadwick discovered the neutron, which influenced Dunning's career, as he thereafter devoted much of his professional interest to the characteristics and uses of this particle. Dunning's research was enthusiastically supported at Columbia by George B.
Pegram. In 1933, Dunning was an instructor at Columbia University from 1929 to 1932, a university fellow from 1932 to 1933, he received his Ph. D. in 1934, writing his thesis on "The Emission and Scattering of Neutrons" under Pegram's supervision. Dunning married Esther Laura Blevins in 1930, they had two children, John Ray, Jr. who became a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Sonoma State University, Ann Adele. After gaining his doctorate at Columbia, Dunning continued teaching and research there, becoming an assistant professor in 1935, an associate professor there in 1938. Dunning was a central figure at Columbia on neutron research, went on to publish 24 papers on neutrons between 1934 and 1938. In 1936, Dunning received a Traveling Fellowship, which he used to meet and discuss his neutron physics research with many eminent European nuclear physicists including Niels Bohr, James Chadwick, Werner Heisenberg, Ernest Rutherford. Dunning followed the work of Ernest Lawrence on the cyclotron. Dunning wanted a more powerful neutron source and the cyclotron appeared as an attractive tool to achieve this end.
Government funding was not available for such projects in those days, university budgets were tight. Nonetheless, during 1935 and 1936 he was able construct a cyclotron using many salvaged parts to reduce costs and funding from industrial and private donations, it was announced in 2007 that Columbia University has decided to junk a 70-year-old atom smasher, the nation's oldest artefact of the nuclear era. After being decommissioned in 1965, the machine sat in the basement of Pupin Hall, home of Columbia's physics department, it was scrapped in 2008, although some components are in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. In December 1938, the German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann sent a manuscript to Naturwissenschaften reporting they had detected the element barium after bombarding uranium with neutrons, they communicated these results to Lise Meitner, with her nephew Otto Frisch interpreted these results as being the result of nuclear fission. Frisch confirmed this experimentally on January 13, 1939.
Before it was published, Meitner’s and Frisch’s interpretation of the work of Hahn and Strassmann crossed the Atlantic Ocean with Niels Bohr, to lecture at Princeton University. Isidor Isaac Rabi and Willis Lamb, two Columbia University physicists working at Princeton, heard the news and carried it back to Columbia. Rabi said he told Fermi, it was soon clear to a number of scientists at Columbia that they should try to detect the energy released in the nuclear fission of uranium from neutron bombardment. On 25 January 1939, Dunning was a member of the Columbia team that conducted the first nuclear fission experiment in the United States. In the Other members of the team were Herbert L. Anderson, Eugene T. Booth, Enrico Fermi, G. Norris Glasoe, Francis G. Slack. Bohr argued that it was the uranium-235 isotope, responsible for fission. Dunning realised that if this was the case an atomic bomb would be possible, his thoughts turned to devising a process for uranium enrichment, by 1940 he was investigating gaseous diffusion, which he felt offered the best route to enrichment on an industrial scale.
The researchers at Columbia became the Manhattan Project's Substitute Alloy Materials Laboratories. Dunning headed the laboratory division responsible for all aspects of the gaseous diffusion program, including engineering problems, pilot plants and research activities. Four papers co-written with James Rainwater, William W. Havens, Jr. and Chien-Shiung Wu appeared in 1947 and 1948, but much remained classified. Due to the secrecy of this work and three of his colleagues were awarded $300,000 each in lieu of patent royalties. For his part, Dunning was awarded the Medal for Merit by President Harry S. Truman, his citation read: for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding service to the War Department, in accomplishments involving great responsibility and scientific distinction in connection with the development of the greatest military weapon of all time, the atomic bomb. As a physical researcher, he took a leading part in the initiation of the early phases of the project.
A physicist of national distinction, Dr. Dunning's unselfish and unswerving devotion to duty have contributed to the success of the Atomic Bomb project. In 1946, Dunning became Thayer Lindsley Professor of Applied Science at Columbia. In the immediate post-war
The 1969 Cal State Hayward Pioneers football team represented California State College at Hayward in the 1969 NCAA College Division football season. Cal State Hayward competed in the Far Western Conference; the Pioneers were led by fourth-year head coach Les Davis. They played home games at Pioneer Stadium in California; the Pioneers finished the season with a record of nine wins and one loss. They outscored their opponents 262–165 for the 1969 season; the 1969 team was the most successful in the 29 years of Cal State Hayward football. They finished the season # 15 in the UPI Small College rankings, they had fewest losses. It was the only season they were undefeated in the conference and won the conference championship outright. No Cal State Hayward Pioneers players were selected in the 1970 NFL Draft
Mount Whitecap is located in the northern Wind River Range in the U. S. state of Wyoming. Situated 2.25 mi southwest of Gannett Peak, Mount Whitecap is in the Bridger Wilderness of Bridger-Teton National Forest. Baby Glacier lies just to the east of the peak and Split Mountain is 1 mi southeast. Mount Whitecap is the 30th tallest peak in Wyoming. Encountering bears is a concern in the Wind River Range. There are other concerns as well, including bugs, adverse snow conditions and nighttime cold temperatures. There have been notable incidents, including accidental deaths, due to falls from steep cliffs and due to falling rocks, over the years, including 1993, 2007, 2015 and 2018. Other incidents include a injured backpacker being airlifted near SquareTop Mountain in 2005, a fatal hiker incident in 2006 that involved state search and rescue; the U. S. Forest Service does not offer updated aggregated records on the official number of fatalities in the Wind River Range
This is a list of media in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, including Kitchener, Waterloo and the surrounding area. Waterloo Region is within the coverage area of the clear-channel station CJBC, the Toronto outlet of Ici Radio-Canada Première. Stations from neighbouring cities such as Hamilton, London and Toronto can be received in some areas of the Waterloo Region; the only broadcast television station based in Waterloo Region is CTV owned-and-operated station CKCO-DT, branded on-air as CTV Kitchener. It is owned by Bell Media; the region is served by Rogers TV, a community channel based in Kitchener available only to Rogers Cable subscribers providing local talk shows, coverage of special events, local hockey games. Television stations and rebroadcasters based in the vicinity of Waterloo Region are: Waterloo Region received CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé from rebroadcasters of Toronto's CBLT-DT and CBLFT-DT before the rebroadcasters were shut down by the CBC in 2012 due to budget cuts.
Although other networks / systems such as City and CTV Two are not available over the air, stations from adjacent markets for most such services are available on the basic service of most pay television subscriptions. The incumbent cable television provider in Waterloo Region is Rogers Cable; the daily newspaper serving Waterloo Region is Metroland Media Group's Waterloo Region Record. In addition to the regional newspaper, Metroland publishes local newspapers for the individual communities in the region. In Kitchener, it has published Kitchener Post since June 2011. Equivalent local newspapers exist for Waterloo and Cambridge in the form of Waterloo Chronicle and Cambridge Times, respectively. Prior to 2004, a separate local newspaper, Cambridge Reporter, was published, but has since been merged with the Cambridge Times; the regional townships are served by their own local newspapers. The Observer is aimed towards readers in Elmira and Wellesley, New Hamburg Independent for New Hamburg and Wilmot.
The Ayr News is aimed towards the surrounding township of North Dumfries. A\J: Alternatives Journal, circulation about 5,000, based at the University of Waterloo since 1984, is a bi-monthly national Canadian magazine exploring environmental science, issues and debate, it is the official publication of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada. Chinese Canadian Voice, the first Chinese community monthly magazine based in Cambridge, covering community news and events in Southwestern Ontario, published since 2013 Exchange Magazine for Business, circulation 20,000, is an 8 time a year business magazine and Monday to Friday online business daily, publishing in the Waterloo Region since 1983. Stare City Guide, a locally owned publication based in Waterloo that promotes noteworthy independent businesses in the Kitchener-Waterloo area, published since 2010. Visitor Guide, circulation 100,000, is a 3 time a year tourist magazine, published in Waterloo Region since 1978. Grand magazine, published by Metroland Media Group and delivered to upscale suburban neighbourhoods.