Electric guitar

An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings; the pickup uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker, which converts it into audible sound. The electric signal can be electronically altered to change the timbre of the sound; the signal is modified using effects such as reverb, distortion and "overdrive". Invented in 1932, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitar players, who wanted to play single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker, Charlie Christian. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the most important instrument in popular music, it has evolved into an instrument, capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music and jazz.

It served as a major component in the development of electric blues and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music. Electric guitar design and construction varies in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck and pickups. Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge, which lets players "bend" the pitch of notes or chords up or down, or perform vibrato effects; the sound of an electric guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending and hammering-on, using audio feedback, or slide guitar playing. There are several types of electric guitar, including: the solid-body guitar. In pop and rock music, the electric guitar is used in two roles: as a rhythm guitar, which plays the chord sequences or progressions, riffs, sets the beat. In a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In large rock and metal bands, there is a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist. Many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century.

Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins and banjos to amplify the sound. Hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, there are many claimants to have been the first to invent an electric guitar. Electric guitars were designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers; the demand for amplified guitars began during the big band era. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932; the first electrically amplified stringed instrument to be marketed commercially was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium "frying pan" was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.

George Beauchamp, along with Adolph Rickenbacker, invented the electromagnetic pickups. Coils that were wrapped around a magnet would create an electromagnetic field that amplified the vibrations of the guitar strings. Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. By the time it was patented, other manufacturers were making their own electric guitar designs. By early-mid 1935, Electro String Instrument Corporation had achieved mainstream success with the A-22 "Frying Pan" steel guitar, set out to capture a new audience through its release of the Electro-Spanish Model B and the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts, the first full 25" scale electric guitar produced; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was revolutionary for its time, providing players a full 25" scale, with easy access to 17 frets free of the body.

Unlike other lap-steel electrified instruments produced during the time, the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was designed to play standing vertical, upright with a strap. The Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was the first instrument to feature a hand-operated vibrato as a standard appointment, a device called the "Vibrola," invented b

HMS Cossack (F03)

HMS Cossack was a Tribal-class destroyer named after the Cossack people of the Russian and Ukrainian steppe. She became famous for the boarding of the German supply ship Altmark in Norwegian waters, the associated rescue of sailors captured by the Admiral Graf Spee, she was torpedoed by U-563 on 23 October 1941, sank 4 days on 27 October. The Tribals were intended to counter the large destroyers being built abroad and to lend gun support to the existing destroyer flotillas and were thus larger and more armed than the preceding I class; the ships displaced 1,891 long tons at 2,519 long tons at deep load. They had an overall length of 377 feet, a beam of 36 feet 6 inches and a draught of 11 feet 3 inches; the destroyers were powered by two Parsons geared steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by three Admiralty three-drum boilers. The turbines gave a maximum speed of 36 knots; the ships carried enough fuel oil to give them a range of 5,700 nautical miles at 15 knots.

The ships' complement consisted of 190 officers and ratings, although the flotilla leaders carried an extra 20 officers and men for the Captain and his staff. The primary armament of the Tribal-class destroyers was eight quick-firing 4.7-inch Mark XII guns in four twin-gun mounts, designated'A','B','X', and'Y' from front to rear. For anti-aircraft defence, they carried a single quadruple mount for the 40-millimetre QF two-pounder Mk II "pom-pom" AA gun and two quadruple mounts for the 0.5-inch Mark III machine gun. The ships were fitted with a single above-water quadruple mount for 21-inch torpedoes; the Tribals were not intended as anti-submarine ships, but they were provided with ASDIC, one depth charge rack and two throwers for self-defence, although the throwers were not mounted in all ships. Heavy losses to German air attack during the Norwegian Campaign demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the Tribals' anti-aircraft suite and the RN decided in May 1940 to replace'X' mount with two QF 4-inch Mark XVI dual-purpose guns in a twin-gun mount.

To better control the guns, the existing rangefinder/director was modified to accept a Type 285 gunnery radar as they became available. The number of depth charges was increased to 46 early in the war, still more were added later. To increase the firing arcs of the AA guns, the rear funnel was shortened and the mainmast was reduced to a short pole mast, she was laid down at the Walker Naval Yard of Vickers-Armstrongs in Newcastle upon Tyne on 9 June 1936, launched on 8 June 1937 by Mrs. S. V. Goodall, commissioned on 7 June 1938 and completed on 14 June 1938. During her trials Cossack made 36.223 knots at 366.4 RPM with 44,430 shp at 2,030 long tons. Cossack's first action was under the command of Philip Vian; this was the Altmark Incident in Jøssingfjord, Norway which resulted in the freeing of the Admiral Graf Spee's prisoners who were being held aboard the supply ship Altmark and the death of eight crew members of the German ship. In the incident the German tanker rammed her with the stern at an angle of about 30° at the level of her bridge and drove the destroyer towards the fiord wall.

The Norwegian officers present reported that only the mass of ice piled up prevented the destroyer being crushed onto the rocky shore. The powerful engines of the destroyer made her escape from the squeeze possible. Cossack arrived at Leith on 17 February with the 299 freed prisoners, she had to be docked for her propellor and A-brackets to be checked in case they had been damaged by the thick ice in the fiord. They were unharmed, but her stern plating had to be repaired where it had been bumping against Altmark; the Norwegian Government subsequently protested at Cossack's breach of Norway's neutrality and demanded the return of the prisoners, with the German government further protesting at the act of violence committed against Altmark. Cossack participated in the Second Battle of Narvik in April 1940; that year, she was part of the force, assigned to hunt for a German surface raider, reported breaking out into the North Atlantic. The force consisted of the battlecruiser Hood, the light cruiser Edinburgh, the destroyers Electra, Echo and Cossack.

The report turned out to be false, so after spending a week at sea, including Christmas Day, she returned to port on New Year's Eve. In May 1941, she participated in the destruction of the German battleship Bismarck. While escorting Convoy WS-8B to the Middle East and four other destroyers broke off on 26 May, headed towards the area where Bismarck had been reported, they found Bismarck that evening and made several torpedo attacks in the evening and into the next morning. No hits were scored, but they kept the Bismarck's gunners from getting any sleep, making it easier for the battleships to attack the Bismarck the next morning. On 23 October 1941, Cossack was escorting a convoy from Gibraltar to the United Kingdom when she was struck by a single torpedo fired by the German submarine U-563 commanded by Klaus Bargsten, she was taken in tow by a tug from Gibraltar on 25 October, but the weather worsened and the tow was slipped on 26 October. Cossack sank in the Atlantic west of Gibraltar on 27 October 1941.

159 of her crew were lost. Brice, Martin H.. The Tribals. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0245-2. English, John. Afridi to Nizam: British Fleet Destroyers 1937–43. Gravesend, Kent: World

Jacome Gonsalves

Rev. Fr. Jacome Gonsalves,CO was an Oratorian priest and missionary in Sri Lanka known as Ceylon. Fr. Jacome Gonsalves arrived in Ceylon during the Dutch occupation, when the Dutch were imposing Calvinism as the official religion after taking over from the Portuguese, he helped St. Joseph Vaz in services, he did a massive service using his knowledge on Tamil Languages. He is known as the "Father of Catholic Literature in Sri Lanka" because of the massive service he had done, he had written many books, prayers and translated many hymns. Some of those hymns and prayers are in popular use among Tamil Catholics. Jacome Gonsalves was the eldest son of Thomas Gonsalves and Mariana de Abreu, living in the parish of Our Lady of Piety, he was born on 8 June 1676. He was a Konkani Brahmin by lineage, his family had been Christian for 2 or 3 generations, being among the first converts at the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa. Gonsalves studied at the Jesuit College of Goa, he enrolled in the University of Goa, obtained the degree of Bachelor of Arts.

In 1696 he began theological studies at the Academy of St Thomas Aquinas in Goa, where he held the post of organist. This seems to have led him to develop a taste for poetry and music, he was ordained to the priesthood by Rt. Rev. Agostinho de Anunciação, Archbishop of Goa, in April 1700 at the Cathedral of St. Catherine, he decided to enter the Oratorian Congregation of Goa. He was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the University of St Paul's in Goa, he relinquished it the same year to go to Sri Lanka. He reached Sri Lanka on 30 August 1705, arriving at Talaimannar. At the time, he knew Konkani, Portuguese and Spanish. During the long journey he studied Tamil, he mastered this language during his first assignment on the islands of Mannar, Arippu and other places in the Munnar district. He learnt Dutch. Fr Joseph Vaz sent him to Kandy to learn Sinhala. Fr Gonsalves studied with the Buddhist monks at the Malwatta chapter, known for their high and elegant Sinhala. After, he conducted his services in areas around Negombo and Kalutara from February, 1709.

In the same year, he converted more than 1300 to Catholic. First months of 1710, he stayed at Kandy. While he was servicing between Sitawaka and Colombo, he was tortured by Dutch, who were controlling the coastline of Sri Lanka; because of the extreme illness of St. Fr. Joseph Vaz, he came back to Kandy. There he did his funeral. Due to the dislocating of his temporomandibular joint in 1711, he went to the royal doctors to Puttlam and Colombo. Thereafter he stayed at Kandy till 1713, he built a church near Palace of Hanguranketha. And he went to service in Negombo and Colombo, he was appointed as the Sub Chief of Bishop of Cochin and as the chief of the all Oratorians in Sri Lanka. He serviced in the Northern areas till 1725. Thenafter he serviced in Colombo and nearby areas, he serviced as a peacemaker of King in 1726. He took place in stopping a revolt, going to be in 1729. Though the chiefs of Congregation of Oratory asked him to return Goa, through Bishop of Cochin, Fr Jacome Gonsalvez rejected the appeal, thinking of his service at Sri Lanka.

He wrote many of his works near Negombo. Since there was no printing press, he employed 12 Sinhala clerks to copy his works. Fr Jacome Gonsalves has been called: "the most successful missionary that this island had, the creator of Catholic literature in Ceylon, whose name is still held in benediction and whose literary works in Sinhalese and Tamil are still in daily use in the church of this island." Fr. Jacome Gonsalvez is known as the "Father of Catholic Literature of Sri Lanka"; that is. He has written 42 books including 22 in Sinhala, 14 in Tamil, 5 in Portuguese, 1 in Dutch. දේව වේද පුරාණය is a compendium of the Bible in 2 parts, including 28 chapters under පුරාණ දේව වාක්‍ය and 2 chapters under අභිනව දේව වාක්‍ය. With a content of 400 printed pages, this was the largest book, written in Kandyan Era; this has been influenced by Thomas Stephens' Khristapurana. This is the greatest book written by Fr. Jacome Gonsalvez; this has been written as the whole creation of world has been done in Sri Lanka, with usage of creative illusions and allusions.

His description of the Garden of Eden includes local trees: jackfruit, sugar cane, king coconut, sandalwood, blue lotus. දේව වේද සංක්ෂපය is a summary of Deva Veda Puranaya written in 1713. This has been written as a questionnaire. Suvishesha Visheshanaya සුවිශේෂ විසර්ජනය is a book written in 1730, it consists of gospels read on Sundays, debt festivals and feasts of important saints, sermons on those days. දුක ප රාප ති ප රසංගය is a book written on torture of Jesus. It has 9 sermons which are divided among 7 weeks including 6 weeks of holy week; this has done a great job to the liturgy in lent. Here ප රසංගය has come from Tamil word பிரசங்கம். So it means Sermon of Torture. In early years, this was used as the script for Easter plays. ධර්මෝද්‍යානය (Dhar