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Electrical length

In telecommunications and electrical engineering, electrical length refers to the length of an electrical conductor in terms of the phase shift introduced by transmission over that conductor at some frequency. Depending on the specific context, the term "electrical length" is used rather than simple physical length to incorporate one or more of the following three concepts: When one is concerned with the number of wavelengths, or phase, involved in a wave's transit across a segment of transmission line one may specify that electrical length, while specification of a physical length, frequency, or velocity factor is omitted; the electrical length is typically expressed as N wavelengths or as the phase φ expressed in degrees or radians. Thus in a microstrip design one might specify a shorted stub of 60° phase length, which will correspond to different physical lengths when applied to different frequencies. Or one might consider a 2 meter section of coax which has an electrical length of one quarter wavelength at 25 MHz and ask what its electrical length becomes when the circuit is operated at a different frequency.

Due to the velocity factor of a particular transmission line, for instance, the transit time of a signal in a certain length of cable is equal to the transit time over a longer distance when travelling at the speed of light. So a pulse sent down a 2 meter section of coax would arrive at the end of the coax at the same time that the same pulse arrives at the end of a bare wire of length 3 meters, one might refer to the 2 meter section of coax as having an electrical length of 3 meters, or an electrical length of ½ wavelength at 50 MHz. Since resonant antennas are specified in terms of the electrical length of their conductors, the attainment of such an electrical length is loosely equated with electrical resonance, that is, a purely resistive impedance at the antenna's input, as is desired. An antenna, made too long, for instance, will present an inductive reactance, which can be corrected by physically shortening the antenna. Based on this understanding, a common jargon in the antenna trade refers to the achievement of resonance at the antenna terminals as electrically shortening that too-long antenna when an electrical matching network has performed that task without physically altering the antenna's length.

Although the terminology is inexact, this use is widespread as applied to the use of a loading coil at the bottom of a short monopole to "electrically lengthen" it and achieve electrical resonance as seen through the loading coil. The first use of the term "electrical length" assumes a sine wave of some frequency, or at least a narrowband waveform centered around some frequency f; the sine wave will repeat with a period of T = ​1⁄f. The frequency f will correspond to a particular wavelength λ along a particular conductor. For conductors which transmit signals at the speed of light c, the wavelength is given by λ = ​c⁄f. A distance L along that conductor corresponds to N wavelengths where N. In the figure at the right, the wave shown is seen to be N = 1.5 wavelengths long. A wave crest at the beginning of the graph, moving towards the right, will arrive at the end after a time 1.5 T. The electrical length of that segment is said to be "1.5 wavelengths" or, expressed as a phase angle, "540°" where N wavelengths corresponds to φ = 360°•N.

In radio frequency applications, when a delay is introduced due to a transmission line, it is the phase shift φ, of importance, so specifying a design in terms of the phase or electrical length allows one to adapt that design to an arbitrary frequency by employing the wavelength λ applying to that frequency. In a transmission line, a signal travels at a rate controlled by the effective capacitance and inductance per unit of length of the transmission line; some transmission lines consist only of bare conductors, in which case their signals propagate at the speed of light, c. More the signal travels at a reduced velocity κc, where κ is the velocity factor, a number less than 1, representing the ratio of that velocity to the speed of light. Most transmission lines contain a dielectric material filling some or all of the space in between the conductors; the relative permittivity or dielectric constant of that material increases the distributed capacitance in the cable, which reduces the velocity factor below unity.

It is possible for κ to be reduced due to a relative permeability of that material, which increases the distributed inductance, but this is never the case. Now, if one fills a space with a dielectric of relative permittivity ϵ r the velocity of an electromagnetic plane wave is reduced by the velocity factor: κ = v p c = 1 ϵ r μ r ≈ 1 ϵ r; this reduced velocity factor would apply to propagation of signals along wires immersed in a large space filled with that dielectric. However, with only part of the space around the co

Robert W. Edgren

Robert Wadsworth Edgren was a nationally syndicated American political and sports cartoonist, reporter and Olympic athlete. Edgren was born in Illinois. During the 1890s Edgren studied at the Mark Hopkins Art Institute. Edgren attended the University of California at Berkeley where he was a member of the first Western track team to enter competitive events in the East, he competed in the discus and shot put for the American Olympic team at the 1906 Summer Olympics in Athens. He began his journalism career in 1895 at The San Francisco Examiner, he was given the "inconsequential" job of a "handy man" with the Examiner but his work on the build-up to the historic 1897 world heavyweight championship between Bob Fitzsimmons and "Gentleman Jim" Corbett launched his career. He was transferred to the Hearst paper in New York, The Evening Journal, where he was appointed political cartoonist, he was dispatched to Cuba to cover the Spanish–American War in 1898. Reporting from the scenes of intense fighting, Edgren became famous for his "Sketches from Death," images of war atrocities that shocked readers of Hearst papers across America.

When William Randolph Hearst himself told Edgren, "Don't exaggerate so much," an angered Edgren produced 500 photographs to prove the accuracy of his drawings. The images were displayed before the United States Congress, causing a sensation. Edgren was captured by the Spanish, who intended to try him in a military court, but the young reporter escaped and, disguised as a tugboat engineer, made his way to safety at Key West, Florida. In 1904, Edgren was hired by Joseph Pulitzer as sports editor of The Evening World; the position gave him a national readership, as his writings and "Miracle of Sports" cartoons were syndicated widely. Edgren gained a reputation among his colleagues as being a straight shooter; as The New York Times opined at the time of his death: Even-tempered always, well-informed in all sports and in boxing, to which he paid much notice, he was known the world over as an authority who always told the truth as he saw the events he watched. It is a testimony to his integrity that in those days in New York, when the law did not permit the giving of decisions in fights, the wide world was willing to accept the judgment of Bob Edgren in deciding wagers made.

When Bob Edgren, in his Evening World column, said so-and-so was the winner nobody complained. Edgren was injured in an automobile accident in the 1930s, he emerged from several weeks of hospitalization recovered. He was appointed to the California Boxing Commission by Governor James Rolph, resigning in 1932 because of ill health, his health declined and he was bedridden for some time before he died at his apartment at the Monterey Peninsula Country Club in Del Monte, California on September 9, 1939

Macedonian Secret Revolutionary Committee

The Macedonian Secret Revolutionary Committee was founded in 1895 in Plovdiv. It was developed in Geneva in a secret, brotherhood called "Geneva group"; the Bulgarian anarchist movement grew in the 1890s, the territory of Principality of Bulgaria became a staging-point for anarchist activities against the Ottomans. Its activists were the students Michail Gerdjikov, Petar Mandjukov, Petar Sokolov, Slavi Merdjanov, Dimitar Ganchev, Konstantin Antonov and others. In 1893 they started in Plovdiv revolutionary activity as founders of the MSRC, proclaimed there in 1895. At the end of 1897 part of the group moved to Switzerland, where it made close connections with the revolutionary immigration and founded in 1898 the so-called Geneva group, an external extension of MSRC; the organisation was under strong anarchist influence and rejected the nationalisms of the ethnic minorities of the Ottoman Empire, favouring the idea about a Balkan Federation. They proposed a "Macedonian state", which included the Adrianople Vilajet as part of the future Federation.

They presumed that Bulgarian language, Bulgarian Church and Bulgarian education ought to be used there. However, the anarchists promoted the idea of the new state, for all the Macedonian "nationalities", its members were to exert a significant influence on the development of the Macedonian and Thracian liberation movements. Between 1897 and 1898 two anarchist papers were published from Geneva - "Glas" and "Otmashtenie". In 1899 Gerdjikov met there Gotse Delchev; as a result, he and part from his comrades joined the Internal Macedonian Adrianople Revolutionary Organization and the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee. Slavi Merdjanov moved to the Bulgarian school in Salonika, where he worked as teacher and sparked some of the graduates with this ideas, they became the so-called Gemidzii. The weakening of the Committee's center allowed some activists from the periphery of the movement, to took attempt for creating an alternative organization, however marginal. So on January 12, 1899 in Geneva on behalf of the self-proclaimed Macedonian Central Committee, Georgi Kapchev sent a call to convene an International Congress, which to solve the Macedonian issue and to implement a program for the necessary reforms, but his attempt failed.

Списание „Анамнеза”, 1996, брой 2, Анархизмът в македоно–одринското национално-революционно движение: Солунските атентатори, Мариан Гяурски. In English: Magazine "Anamnesis", 1996, Issue 2, The anarchism in Macedonian and Thracian national revolutionary movement: The Thessaloniki bombers, Marian Giaourski. Thessaloniki bombings of 1903 Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee Internal Revolutionary Organization Media related to Macedonian Secret Revolutionary Committee at Wikimedia Commons

Nathan Haas

Nathan Peter Haas is an Australian professional road racing cyclist, who rides for UCI WorldTeam Cofidis. Born in Brisbane, Australia, Haas was a mountain biker, represented Australia in two UCI World Championships. However, in 2009, Haas switched to road racing. In 2011, after dominating Australia's domestic National Road Series with Genesys Wealth Advisers teammate Steele Von Hoff, Haas won the Herald Sun Tour. Haas won the Japan Cup, a race featuring numerous UCI ProTeams. After his victory, Haas turned professional. During Haas' first professional season, he struggled with severe saddle sores. Following Jonathan Tiernan-Locke's doping ban, Haas was retroactively awarded the 2012 Tour of Britain title. During the 2013 season, Haas finished sixth overall at the Tour de Langkawi, competed in his first Grand Tour, the Giro d'Italia. While riding the 2014 Tour Down Under, Haas garnered his first UCI World Tour point, before finishing the race fifth overall, he was named in the start list for the 2015 Tour de France.

In the autumn of 2015 Team Dimension Data announced that Haas had signed with them for the 2016 season, joining former team-mate Tyler Farrar at the South African outfit. In February 2018, Haas won stage 2 of the Tour of Oman in an uphill sprint finish and moved into the overall leader's jersey, it was his first for Team Katusha -- Alpecin. He finished fifth overall in the race, he recorded a podium placing at the Tour of Turkey. Haas resides in Girona, Spain. Sources: Nathan Haas at Cycling Archives Nathan Haas at ProCyclingStats Cycling Base: Nathan Haas Cycling Quotient: Nathan Haas Nathan Haas: Garmin-Sharp

Kadambur

Kadambur is a panchayat town in Kovilpatti taluk of the Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The temples in and around Kadambur portray architecture. There is another village with the same name Kadambur in the district of Salem under Gangavalli taluk. Kadambur is located at 8.98°N 77.87°E / 8.98. It has an average elevation of 84 metres; as of 2001 India census, Kadambur had a population of 4379. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Kadambur has an average literacy rate of 68%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76%, female literacy is 61%. In Kadambur, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Nearby villages include Kalugasalapuram, Onamaakulam, Malaipatti and Kollankinar. Sandrore Middle School K. A. R. M. George Middle School Hindu Nadar's Higher Secondary School Ambigai Parasakthi Sri Mariamman Temple Ambigai Sri Kaliamman Temple Lord Siva Temple - Sri Udayanambesvar Arulmigu Sri Periya Karuppasamy Temple Sri Arulmigu Periya Andavar Temple Sudalaimaadan Temple Sri Narayana Swamy Temple Arulmigu Sri Karuppa swami, Sri Ullakamman Kovil.

Manjakkulakkarai Sri Murugaswamy Temple. Theradi MADA SWAMY TEMPLE KADAMBUR Kadambur railway station lies in between Kovilpatti and Vanchi Maniyachchi Junction of the Southern Railway Zone of Indian Railways. Tuticorin Airport is the nearest domestic airport. Regular buses run from Kadambur bus station to Tuticorin, Kovilpatti and several other places. Private bus companies running from/to Kadambur include Selva Vinayagar Transport, SSP Transport, Periyaraja Transport and Veni Transport, Chepparai which links Tirunelveli, Kovilpatti, Vilathikulam and other nearby villages. Govt Hospital. TN Somasundaram Nadar & Saraswathi Ammamal Memorial Hospital. Central Bank of India Tuticorin Cooperative Bank Official Website of Thoothukudi district

Daniel Coppin

Daniel Coppin was an accomplished amateur English painter of landscapes and a collector of art. He was one of the founding members of the Norwich School of painters, one of three generations of artists from the same family, which included his daughter Emily Stannard. Little of Daniel Coppin's life has been documented and nothing is known of his childhood, he was born in 1771 and was the husband of Elizabeth Coppin, whom he married at St. Giles' Church, Norwich on 2 November 1796. Coppin erected a memorial to his wife in St. Stephen's Church, that contains biographical details of her life. Elizabeth Coppin was an accomplished artist who received accolades from the Norwich Society of Artists for her work, he was the father of the painter Emily Coppin, trained as a still life artist by both her parents. He was the grandfather of Emily Stannard, a minor Norwich artist. In 1786 Coppin moved to Rampant Horse Street in Norwich to be near to the family's ornamental painting business. Coppin was one of several artists who were responsible for the creation of the transparencies for the Norwich celebrations of the British victory in Battle of the Nile in 1798 and declaration of peace in 1801.

In 1803 his friend John Crome and Robert Ladbrooke formed the Norwich Society of Artists, a group that included Coppin as well as Robert Dixon, Charles Hodgson, James Stark and George Vincent. Their first exhibition, in 1805, marked the start of the Norwich School of painters, the first art movement created outside London; the following year he accompanied Crome and the dealer William Barnes Freeman on a visit to Paris to view the treasures of the Louvre, possible now that the Napoleonic Wars in Europe were at an end. During the visit Crome made sketches and bought works produced by French artists, which the group managed to smuggle back to England; the first exhibition of the Norwich Society, in 1805, marked the start of the Norwich School of Painters. In the exhibition, 223 works were shown by eighteen different exhibitors, including Coppin, its success inspired the society to stage an exhibition every year, an event which continued until 1833. Coppin contributed to the exhibitions and became President of the Society in 1816.

He was a keen collector of works of art: a catalogue of his collection of works was published in 1818 by John Stacey amounted to 266 individual pieces by the artist William Hogarth alone. In 1820 he travelled to the Netherlands with his seventeen-year-old daughter Emily to view the depictions of still life produced by Dutch painters: the visit profoundly influenced her own artistic style. Coppin died in 1822, aged 51 and residing at St. Catherine's Plain and was buried on 23 October 1822 in the churchyard of St. Stephen's, Norwich, his death was announced in Charles Mackie's Norfolk Annals, where he was described as being "principally known for his creditable studies from Opie". The running of Coppin's business in Norwich passed to the father of the Norwich School artist John Middleton, to Middleton himself. Fawcett, Trevor. "Eighteenth Century Art in Norwich". The Volume of the Walpole Society. 46: 85. JSTOR 41829357. CS1 maint: date format Gray, Sara; the Dictionary of British Women Artists. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press.

P. 249. ISBN 978 0 7188 30847. Hemingway, Andrew; the Norwich School of Painters 1803-1833. Oxford: Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-2001-6. Walpole, Josephine. Art and Artists of the Norwich School. Woodbridge: Antique Collectors' Club. ISBN 1-85149-261-5