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Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until better systems became widespread. It used coded pulses of electric current through dedicated wires to transmit information over long distances, it was the first electrical telecommunications system, the most used of a number of early messaging systems called telegraphs, devised to send text messages more than written messages could be sent. An electrical telegraph consisted of two or more geographically separated stations connected by wires supported overhead on utility poles. There were many different electrical telegraph systems invented, but the ones that became widespread fit into two broad categories; the first was needle telegraphs in which a needle pointer is made to move electromagnetically with a pulse of electric current from a battery or dynamo down the telegraph line. Early systems used multiple needles requiring multiple wires; the first commercial system, the most used needle telegraph, was the Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, invented in 1837.

Early equipment sets used five needles to point to the letter being transmitted, but the cost of installing wires was more economically significant than the cost of training operators so a single-needle system with a code that had to be learned became the norm. The second category was armature systems in which the pulse activates a telegraph sounder which makes a click; the archetype of this category was the Morse system, invented by Samuel Morse in 1838, using a single wire. At the sending station, an operator would tap on a switch called a telegraph key, spelling out text messages in Morse code; the armature was intended to make marks on paper tape, but operators learned to interpret the clicks and it was more efficient to write down the message directly. In 1865, the Morse system became the standard for international communication with a modified code developed for German railways. However, some countries continued to use established national systems internally for some time afterwards. In the 1840s the electrical telegraph superseded optical telegraph systems, becoming the standard way to send urgent messages.

By the latter half of the century, most developed nations had created commercial telegraph networks with local telegraph offices in most cities and towns, allowing the public to send messages called telegrams addressed to any person in the country, for a fee. Beginning in 1854 submarine telegraph cables allowed the first rapid communication between continents. Electrical telegraph networks permitted people and commerce to transmit messages across both continents and oceans instantly, with widespread social and economic impacts. In the early 20th century the telegraph was replaced by teletype networks. From early studies of electricity, electrical phenomena were known to travel with great speed, many experimenters worked on the application of electricity to communications at a distance. All the known effects of electricity—such as sparks, electrostatic attraction, chemical changes, electric shocks, electromagnetism—were applied to the problems of detecting controlled transmissions of electricity at various distances.

In 1753, an anonymous writer in the Scots Magazine suggested an electrostatic telegraph. Using one wire for each letter of the alphabet, a message could be transmitted by connecting the wire terminals in turn to an electrostatic machine, observing the deflection of pith balls at the far end; the writer has never been positively identified, but the letter was signed C. M. and posted from Renfrew leading to a Charles Marshall of Renfrew being suggested. Telegraphs employing electrostatic attraction were the basis of early experiments in electrical telegraphy in Europe, but were abandoned as being impractical and were never developed into a useful communication system. In 1774, Georges-Louis Le Sage realised an early electric telegraph; the telegraph had a separate wire for each of the 26 letters of the alphabet and its range was only between two rooms of his home. In 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile, allowing for a continuous current of electricity for experimentation; this became a source of a low-voltage current that could be used to produce more distinct effects, and, far less limited than the momentary discharge of an electrostatic machine, which with Leyden jars were the only known man-made sources of electricity.

Another early experiment in electrical telegraphy was an'electrochemical telegraph' created by the German physician and inventor Samuel Thomas von Sömmering in 1809, based on an earlier, less robust design of 1804 by Spanish polymath and scientist Francisco Salva Campillo. Both their designs employed multiple wires to represent all Latin letters and numerals. Thus, messages could be conveyed electrically up to a few kilometers, with each of the telegraph receiver's wires immersed in a separate glass tube of acid. An electric current was sequentially applied by the sender through the various wires representing each letter of a message; the telegraph receiver's operator would watch the bubbles and could record the transmitted message. This is in contrast to telegraphs that used a single wire. Hans Christian Ørsted discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle. In the same year Johann Schweigger invented the galvanometer, with a coil of wire around a compass, which could be used as a sensitive indicator for an electric cur

Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle – known as the TCA cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates and proteins, into adenosine triphosphate and carbon dioxide. In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH, that are used in numerous other reactions, its central importance to many biochemical pathways suggests that it was one of the earliest established components of cellular metabolism and may have originated abiogenically. Though it is branded as a'cycle', it is not necessary for metabolites to follow only one specific route; the name of this metabolic pathway is derived from the citric acid, consumed and regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. The cycle consumes acetate and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct; the NADH generated by the citric acid cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation pathway.

The net result of these two linked pathways is the oxidation of nutrients to produce usable chemical energy in the form of ATP. In eukaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, which lack mitochondria, the citric acid cycle reaction sequence is performed in the cytosol with the proton gradient for ATP production being across the cell's surface rather than the inner membrane of the mitochondrion; the overall yield of energy-containing compounds from the TCA cycle is three NADH, one FADH2, one GTP. Several of the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle were established in the 1930s by the research of Albert Szent-Györgyi, who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 for his discoveries pertaining to fumaric acid, a key component of the cycle, he was able to make this discovery successful with the help of pigeon breast muscle. Because this tissue maintains its oxidative capacity well after breaking down in the "Latapie" mill and releasing in aqueous solutions, breast muscle of the pigeon was well qualified for the study of oxidative reactions.

The citric acid cycle itself was identified in 1937 by Hans Adolf Krebs and William Arthur Johnson while at the University of Sheffield, for which the former received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1953, for whom the cycle is sometimes named. The citric acid cycle is a key metabolic pathway that connects carbohydrate and protein metabolism; the reactions of the cycle are carried out by eight enzymes that oxidize acetate, in the form of acetyl-CoA, into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. Through catabolism of sugars and proteins, the two-carbon organic product acetyl-CoA is produced which enters the citric acid cycle; the reactions of the cycle convert three equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide into three equivalents of reduced NAD+, one equivalent of flavin adenine dinucleotide into one equivalent of FADH2, one equivalent each of guanosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate into one equivalent of guanosine triphosphate. The NADH and FADH2 generated by the citric acid cycle are, in turn, used by the oxidative phosphorylation pathway to generate energy-rich ATP.

One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of sugars by glycolysis which yield pyruvate that in turn is decarboxylated by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex generating acetyl-CoA according to the following reaction scheme: CH3CCO−pyruvate + HSCoA + NAD+ → CH3CSCoAacetyl-CoA + NADH + CO2The product of this reaction, acetyl-CoA, is the starting point for the citric acid cycle. Acetyl-CoA may be obtained from the oxidation of fatty acids. Below is a schematic outline of the cycle: The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound to form a six-carbon compound; the citrate goes through a series of chemical transformations, losing two carboxyl groups as CO2. The carbons lost as CO2 originate from what was oxaloacetate, not directly from acetyl-CoA; the carbons donated by acetyl-CoA become part of the oxaloacetate carbon backbone after the first turn of the citric acid cycle. Loss of the acetyl-CoA-donated carbons as CO2 requires several turns of the citric acid cycle.

However, because of the role of the citric acid cycle in anabolism, they might not be lost, since many citric acid cycle intermediates are used as precursors for the biosynthesis of other molecules. Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD+, forming NADH. For each acetyl group that enters the citric acid cycle, three molecules of NADH are produced; the citric acid cycle includes a series of oxidation reduction reaction in mitochondria. In addition, electrons from the succinate oxidation step are transferred first to the FAD cofactor of succinate dehydrogenase, reducing it to FADH2, to ubiquinone in the mitochondrial membrane, reducing it to ubiquinol, a substrate of the electron transfer chain at the level of Complex III. For every NADH and FADH2 that are produced in the citric acid cycle, 2.5 and 1.5 ATP molecules are generated in oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. At the end of each cycle, the four-carbon oxaloacetat

Gov. Samuel Huntington House

The Gov. Samuel Huntington House is a historic house at 34 East Town Street in Norwich, Connecticut; the house was built in 1783 by Samuel Huntington, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a Governor of Connecticut. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 6, 1970, is a contributing property to the Norwichtown Historic District; the Governor Samuel Huntington House is located in the Norwichtown neighborhood of Norwich, one of its early settlement areas. It is on the south side of East Town Street, just west of its junction with Huntington Lane, it is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, five bays wide, with a side gable roof and clapboard siding. Its most prominent feature is a monumental entry portico, rising a full two stories to a gabled pediment, supported by paired columns; the main entry is flanked by sidelight windows and a carved woodwork surround, there is a latticework porch above. The entry portico and wide entry section are 19th-century alterations, there have been significant interior alterations, accommodating the building's 20th-century use as an office.

The house was built in 1783 for one of Norwich's leading citizens. Born in Scotland, Connecticut, he came to Norwich in 1763, where he soon represented the town in the colonial legislature, he served on Connecticut's committee of safety, in the Continental Congress, where he signed the United States Declaration of Independence and served for one year as its president. He became the state's third governor in a position he held until his death ten years later. National Register of Historic Places listings in New London County, Connecticut

Skatepark of Tampa

The Skatepark of Tampa is a skatepark in Tampa, United States. It is considered one of the top skateboarding venues on the East Coast of the United States; the name is abbreviated as SPoT, it is well known for its annual Tampa Am and Tampa Pro competitions. On December 28, 1992, SPoT was opened only to employees, on January 2, 1993 the park opened to the public; the first pro contest was won by Mike Vallely. On April 1, 2012, SPoT announced on its website that the park had been purchased by rapper Lil Wayne, it was revealed shortly afterwards. The skatepark includes a terrain park-style "pro course", offering a pyramid and transitions. Outside, there is a concrete transition course with a pizza oven; the "beginner's course" features many smaller rails and ramps to expand skateboarding skills and includes the famous bowl. The street skateboarding course is redesigned every year for the Tampa Tampa Am contest. We only sponsor Colonel Sanders. Pro: Elissa Steamer Jeff Lenoce Matt Milligan Mike Frazier Clive Dixon Jimmy Marcus aka "The Greek" Mike Frazier Brian Schaefer Paul Zitzer Tyson Peterson Zion WrightAm: Abdias Rivera Sam Bellipanni Eric McKenney Markus Jalaber James Cobb Wes Box Cash Gaddes Robby Kirkland Treshan O'Shaugnessy Alejandro Burnell Alex Johnson Allen Russell Pat Stiener Marse Farmer Adam Dyet Allen Russell Braydon Szafranski Brian Schaefer Chris Peck David Gravette Don Brown DJ Wade Bart Simpson Marty McFly Joey Brezinski Justin Strubing Lizard King Matt Milligan Oliver Flores Omar Hassan Pat Duffy P-Stone Cory Kennedy Keenan Milton Ali Boulala Shane Cross Brian Howard Brian Sloane Corey Hainline Dorian Tucker Jay Giroux Josh Stewart Kyle Berard Mike Peterson Paul Zitzer Ryan Dodge Scotty Conley Steve Brandi Spencer Foresman Mark Mulville Matt Coplon Luis Pinzon Jeff Harrington Sean Albright Chris Kneer George Lackey Henry Alva Jimmy Hurn Michael J. Buscemi Wesley Cowan Tampa Pro 1995April 1 & 2 Vert: Danny Way Tap Pappas Tony Hawk Colin Mckay Mike Crum Neal Hendrix Tom Boyle Omar Hassan Andy Macdonald Remy StrattonStreet: Mike Vallely Danny Way Steve Berra Wade Speyer Chet Thomas Caine Gayle Moses Itkonen Chris Senn Dave Duren John Montessi The skatepark doubles as a popular music venue.

In 2012, SPoT hosted its 20-year anniversary event with performances from Souls of Mischief and Killer Mike. The venue hosts the Transitions Art Gallery music venue on its premises. TAG has served as a springboard for other musicians. In December 2012, the owner of the Gallery announced he was stepping down and that the venue would be under new management from January 2013; the venue's new owners subsequently announced that the name of the venue would change to Epic Problem. Epic Problem hosts many shows from many post-hardcore bands and one annual show from the nonprofit high school sketch comedy troupe On The Brink. In July 2016, Epic Problem held its last show and passed the torch to King State coffee, owned by Tim McTague, of Underoath and Nate Young, of Anberlin, who use the space for brewing. In March 2017, the SPoT Snack Bar was expanded and reconstructed into a full-fledged music venue and renamed "Transitions", it is complete with stage, sound system and newly rebuilt bar. Transitions held its first show during the 23rd Annual Tampa Pro contest that featured the music of Ray Barbee, Drowning Clowns and Tampa's own Samurai Shotgun.

The skatepark is a major feature in the Tony Hawk's Underground video game, SPoT employees appear as competitors in the street and vertical contests. The skatepark served as an exclusive competition level in Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2x. SPoT appeared on the MTV series Rob & Big that featured professional skateboarder and entrepreneur Rob Dyrdek. In August 2011, Lil Wayne stopped by SPoT for a private after hours session, he has attended every Tampa Pro contest since spectating from the judges' booth. In May 2004, comedian Dave Chappelle set up an after hours session with some of his friends while on tour in Tampa. Official website

Yomari punhi

Yomari Punhi is a Newari festival marking the end of the rice harvest. It takes place in November/December during the full moon day of Thinlā, the second month in the lunar Nepal Era calendar. Yomari Punhi, meaning the full moon of yomari, is one of the most popular Newar festivals and is observed every year during the full moon of December. A yomari is a confection of rice flour dough shaped like fish and filled with brown cane sugar and sesame seeds, steamed; this delicacy is the chief item on the menu during the post-harvest celebration of Yomari Punhi. On this full moon day, people of the Kathmandu Valley offer worship to Annapurna, the goddess of grains, for the rice harvest. Groups of kids go around neighborhood to beg yomari cakes from housewives in the evening. Sacred masked dances are performed in the villages of Hari Siddhi and Thecho at the southern end of the Valley to mark the festival. In a yomari people keep chaku a chocolate-like khuwa a ricotta-cheese-like dairy product, it is tasty.

This is one of the main festival celebrated only in newar community. On the day after Yomari Punhi, a day alike Valentines. According to Basu Pasa's historical book ‘Kantipur’, among different shapes yomari,'Bayo' symbolizes the male sexual organ whereas the triangle shaped with two points at the end known as'Mayo' yomari suggests the female sexual organ and represents father and mother respectively; the Bayo yomari is filled with molasses and sesame seeds while the Mayo yomari is filled with pulses. So, Yomari is considered to be symbolic combination of sex; the culture of ` Yomari Fonegu' relates with romance. People went homes to home, toles to toles to ask Yomari, at that time they got a chance to sneak peak and talk with their loved ones. In traditional days, society was restrictive with love. Yomari Punhi’s ‘Yomari Fonegu’ culture was utilized as a cruising day in those times, lovers would secretly meet the other day. There were no phones. People would write in particular expressions: ‘द्यः निभाः ह्याउँ ह्याउँ धाइ बलय् बुइँचा हिति फल्चा क्वसं पंबुझाः ल्यूने’ Some people relate Matinaa Paaru with story of Majipaa Lakhey.

Majipa Lakhey’s love story is another mythical love story, where a Lakhey turns into a caretaker after falling in love with a girl from Kathmandu. Originated form panauti

Nós Vamos Invadir sua Praia

Nós Vamos Invadir sua Praia is the debut album by the Brazilian rock band Ultraje a Rigor, released in 1985. The sound is a mixture of new wave, punk rock and ska, with humorous subjects. In 2010 the album was released by the Record label Polysom. All songs written by Roger Rocha Moreira except where noted: "Nós Vamos Invadir Sua Praia" - 4:18 "Rebelde Sem Causa" - 3:23 "Mim Quer Tocar" - 3:48 "Zoraide" - 3:25 "Ciúme" - 4:09 "Inútil" - 3:37 "Marylou" - 2:16 "Jesse Go" - 3:51 "Eu Me Amo" – 3:34 "Se Você Sabia" – 3:37 "Independente Futebol Clube" - 2:35 "Inútil" - 2:51 "Mim Quer Tocar" - 3:03 "Hino dos Cafajestes" - 2:58 "Marylou" - 2:24 "Ricota" - 3:08 The album was well received. On Allmusic.com, the album received 4.5 stars. Eduardo Rivadavia stated: "São Paulo's Ultraje a Rigor became known for their honest, straightforward rock & roll and easygoing sense of humor. Given the local rock scene's relative immaturity, the formula worked to perfection, making their 1985 debut album Nós vamos Invadir sua Praia the first platinum-certified release by that generation of up-and-coming rock bands".

"Simple but effective, to modern listeners, Brazilian or not, Nós vamos Invadir sua Praia is bound to sound archaic and even hopelessly basic, but in the context of history, it helped birth Brazilian rock & roll into its golden era."It was listed by Rolling Stone Brazil as one of the 100 best Brazilian albums in history. The magazine voted the song "Inútil" as the 23rd greatest Brazilian song