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Electricity generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its delivery to end users or its storage. A characteristic of electricity is that it is not available in nature in large amounts, so it must be "produced". Production is carried out in power stations. Electricity is most generated at a power plant by electromechanical generators driven by heat engines fueled by combustion or nuclear fission but by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. Other energy sources include geothermal power; the fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered in the 1820s and early 1830s by British scientist Michael Faraday. His method, still used today, is for electricity to be generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or Faraday disc, between the poles of a magnet. Central power stations became economically practical with the development of alternating current power transmission, using power transformers to transmit power at high voltage and with low loss.

Commercial electricity production started in 1870 with the coupling of the dynamo to the hydraulic turbine. The mechanical production of electric power began the Second Industrial Revolution and made possible several inventions using electricity, with the major contributors being Thomas Alva Edison and Nikola Tesla; the only way to produce electricity was by chemical reactions or using battery cells, the only practical use of electricity was for the telegraph. Electricity generation at central power stations started in 1882, when a steam engine driving a dynamo at Pearl Street Station produced a DC current that powered public lighting on Pearl Street, New York; the new technology was adopted by many cities around the world, which adapted their gas-fueled street lights to electric power. Soon after electric lights would be used in public buildings, in businesses, to power public transport, such as trams and trains; the first power plants used water coal. Today a variety of energy sources are used, such as coal, natural gas, hydroelectric and oil, as well as solar energy, tidal power, geothermal sources.

Several fundamental methods exist to convert other forms of energy into electrical energy. Utility-scale generation is achieved by photovoltaic systems. A small proportion of electric power distributed by utilities is provided by batteries. Other forms of electricity generation used in niche applications include the triboelectric effect, the piezoelectric effect, the thermoelectric effect, betavoltaics. Electric generators transform kinetic energy into electricity; this is based on Faraday's law. It can be seen experimentally by rotating a magnet within closed loops of conducting material. All commercial electrical generation is done using electromagnetic induction, in which mechanical energy forces a generator to rotate: Electrochemistry is the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery. Electrochemical electricity generation is important in mobile applications. Most electrochemical power comes from batteries. Primary cells, such as the common zinc–carbon batteries, act as power sources directly, but secondary cells are used for storage systems rather than primary generation systems.

Open electrochemical systems, known as fuel cells, can be used to extract power either from natural fuels or from synthesized fuels. Osmotic power is a possibility at places where fresh water merge; the photovoltaic effect is the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells. Photovoltaic panels convert sunlight directly to DC electricity. Power inverters can convert that to AC electricity if needed. Although sunlight is free and abundant, solar power electricity is still more expensive to produce than large-scale mechanically generated power due to the cost of the panels. Low-efficiency silicon solar cells have been decreasing in cost and multijunction cells with close to 30% conversion efficiency are now commercially available. Over 40% efficiency has been demonstrated in experimental systems; until photovoltaics were most used in remote sites where there is no access to a commercial power grid, or as a supplemental electricity source for individual homes and businesses. Recent advances in manufacturing efficiency and photovoltaic technology, combined with subsidies driven by environmental concerns, have accelerated the deployment of solar panels.

Installed capacity is growing by 40% per year led by increases in Germany, United States and India. The selection of electricity production modes and their economic viability varies in accordance with demand and region; the economics vary around the world, resulting in widespread residential selling prices, e.g. the price in Iceland is 5.54 cents per kWh while in some island nations it is 40 cents per kWh. Hydroelectric plants, nuclear power plants, thermal power plants and renewable sources have their own pros and cons, selection is based upon the local power requirement and the fluctuations in demand. All power grids have varying loads on them but the daily minimum is the base load supplied by plants which run continuously. Nuclear, oil and some hydro plants can supply base load. If well construction costs for natural gas are below $10 per MWh, generating electricity f

List of Pittsburgh Steelers figures in broadcasting

The Steelers franchise has a rich history of producing well-known sportscasters over the years: the most famous of whom was Myron Cope, who served as a Steelers radio color commentator for 35 seasons. Additionally, several former players for the Pittsburgh Steelers picked up the broadcast microphone: Lynn Swann - starting in 1978 was a sideline reporter for ABC Sports. Over the 2005 and 2006 NFL seasons, he had taken a leave of absence to unsuccessfully pursue the governor's office of Pennsylvania. Swann has had several Hollywood roles, making cameos in 1998's The Waterboy, 1993's The Program and 1991's The Last Boy Scout, his TV cameos include The Drew Carey Show. Merril Hoge - has hosted sports shows on ESPN and ESPN2 since 1996 most notably NFL Matchup, Football Friday and NFL 2Night/ NFLLive, he has had hosting duties on ABC/ESPN's Great Outdoor Games. He served as an analyst for the Steelers radio network alongside Bill Hillgrove and the late Myron Cope. Mark Malone - began his career as a sports reporter for Pittsburgh's WPXI-TV from 1991–1994, from 1994 to 2004 he hosted nationally-televised sports shows for ESPN, including NFL 2Night, NFL Matchup and the X-Games.

From 2004-2008 he was director of sports broadcasting at CBS2 Chicago. Now Hosts his own program weeknights from 7 PM - 10 PM on NBC Sports Radio. Jerome Bettis - an analyst for NBC Sunday Night Football's Football Night in America pregame with Bob Costas 2006–2009 is host of the Pittsburgh broadcast The Jerome Bettis Show 1998–2007 on KDKA-TV and 2007-Present on WPXI-TV. Hines Ward - former analyst for NBC Sunday Night Football's Football Night in America. Pregame/halftime analyst for Notre Dame Football on NBC, Now is a Sports Analyst for CNN since 2016 and hosts The Hines Ward Show 2013–Present on WPXI-TV. Bill Cowher - co-host of CBS Sports NFL Today on CBS as a studio analyst, joining Dan Marino, Shannon Sharpe, Boomer Esiason. Cowher had a cameo in 1998's The Waterboy, in 2007 Cowher appeared in the ABC reality television series Fast Cars and Superstars: The Gillette Young Guns Celebrity Race, featuring a dozen celebrities in a stock car racing competition. Cowher matched up against William Shatner.

Cowher has made a cameo in The Dark Knight Rises with several other Steelers players, as the coach of the Gotham Rogues. Terry Bradshaw - started as a guest commentator for CBS NFL playoff broadcasts from 1980–1982, after retirement he joined Verne Lundquist at CBS full-time as a game analyst on what became one of the top rated sports broadcasts. In 1990, he went from the broadcast booth to the pregame studio shows anchoring the NFL Today pregame shows on CBS and on Fox NFL Sunday. In recent years he has started to host regular features in addition to the show, "Ten yards with TB" and the "Terry Awards". In addition to broadcasting Bradshaw has had appearances in several major motion pictures as well as spokesman for Radio Shack and SaniKing among others in commercials, he has made many guest appearances on sitcoms from Married... with Children to Evening Shade and Wee Willie Winkie. Kordell Stewart - an ESPN analyst for all NFL shows and an Analyst for TuneIn's NFL Coverage. Tunch Ilkin - current Steelers radio color commentator.

Craig Wolfley - current Steelers radio sideline reporter. Rod Woodson, - current analyst for NFL Network 2003–Present. Jack Ham - did color commentary for the Steelers on KDKA-TV during the NFL Preseason into the early 2000s before leaving and being replaced by former teammate Edmund Nelson. Ham co-hosted some pregame and postgame shows on the station, but was replaced by Nelson in those roles as well. Since 2000, Ham has been the color analyst on the Penn State football radio network. Edmund Nelson - served as the color analyst for Pittsburgh Steelers pre-season games and participated as a co-host to Bob Pompeani in KDKA-TV's regular season pregame program Steelers Kickoff until retiring in 2015. Charlie Batch - took a Steelers pregame studio analyst job with KDKA-TV for the 2013 season alongside KDKA-TV sports anchor Bob Pompeani and ex-Steeler defensive lineman Edmund Nelson ending his NFL career, he continued in this role for the 2014 season. In 2015, Batch replaced the retiring Nelson as KDKA-TV's color commentator for preseason games, while becoming the main studio analyst for the Steelers pregame coverage prior to the national airing of The NFL Today.

Former teammate Chris Hoke replaced Nelson for the post-game show. Tony Dungy - as an analyst on NBC's Football Night in America. List of Pittsburgh Steelers broadcasters

Chris Lambert (baseball)

Christopher Raymond Lambert is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Detroit Baltimore Orioles. Although born in California, Lambert moved to Manchester, New Hampshire, where he attended Manchester Memorial High School. Lambert planned to attend Holderness School, but while playing American Legion baseball the summer out of high school his 90–95 mph fastball attracted attention from college recruiters. With offers from Florida State University, Clemson, LSU and Boston College, Lambert opted for Boston College, praising its "great academic reputation", "very good baseball program" and its closeness to Manchester. Lambert started at BC in early 2002, made a strong impression, going 9–3 with a 2.76 ERA. The Big East conference named him "Rookie of the Year" and "Pitcher of the Year", while Baseball America granted him "Freshman All-America honors." In the summer of 2002, Lambert pitched for the Concord Quarry Dogs of the New England Collegiate Baseball League, going 3–2 with a 1.55 ERA in nine appearances.

Lambert remained strong for the 2002-2003 academic year, posting an 8–2 record with a 2.71 ERA and continuing to receive accolades. After the 2003 season, he played collegiate summer baseball with the Chatham A's of the Cape Cod Baseball League. Lambert returned to Boston College for a third year, going 6–4 with a 3.02 ERA. Impressed, the St. Louis Cardinals selected Lambert as 19th pick overall; the Cardinals assigned Lambert to the Single-A Peoria Chiefs in the Midwest League and began playing posting a 1–1 record with an ERA of 2.38 in nine starts. Promoted to the Single-A Palm Beach Cardinals for the 2005 season he continued to dominate, going 7–1 with a 2.63 ERA in ten starts and earning a quick promotion to the Double-A Springfield Cardinals in the Texas League. The transition to Double-A baseball proved difficult. In an interview, Lambert admitted that he "hadn't pitched that well, yet." A bright spot came at the end of the year when he was named to the United States national baseball team.

Lambert returned to Double-A for the 2006 season and showed improvement, posting a winning record and a lowered ERA of 5.30. Lambert made a single appearance at the end of the season with the Triple-A Memphis Redbirds, but was tagged for a loss, giving up three runs in four innings. After stints in spring training and minor league camp to open the 2007 season, Lambert was back in Springfield again. After a strong start, the Cardinals promoted him to Memphis, this time for good. However, for the first time, Lambert would be working out of the bullpen: after years in the minors, he was no longer the power pitcher he had been in college. Lambert was philosophical about the change: "I guess that's just the way they thought I'd get to the big leagues. I've had my good innings and bad innings." Lambert would not, reach the majors with the Cardinals. The Tigers assigned Lambert to the Toledo Mud Hens, their Triple-A club. Lambert's time as a relief pitcher for Memphis had not been a success: in 28 appearances he was 1–4 with an ERA of 7.49.

The Tigers, returned Lambert to a starting role. He made one start at the tail end of the 2007 season; the Tigers invited Lambert to 2008 spring training, but he did not make the major league cut and returned to Toledo, where he went 5–3 with an ERA of 3.37 in his first 12 starts. On August 23, the Tigers announced their intention to recall Lambert to start on the 26th in place of the struggling Nate Robertson. Lambert made his first major league debut for the Tigers on August 26, against the Cleveland Indians, he struck out the first batter he faced, Indians outfielder Grady Sizemore, but would end up going 2-1, with an ERA of 5.66 to finish out the year. Lambert was designated for assignment August 18, 2009. Lambert was claimed off waivers by Baltimore August 20, 2009, he would appear in four major-league games with Baltimore at the end of that season, pitching a total of 5 2/3 innings, all in relief. His contract was not renewed for the following season, he did not return to the minor leagues, so that his professional baseball career ended after 2009.

Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

Beloeil, Quebec

Beloeil is an off-island suburb of Montreal, located in southwestern Quebec, Canada on the Richelieu River, 32 kilometres east of Montreal. According to the official Commission de toponymie du Québec, the name is written Belœil with an oe ligature; the population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 20,783. It is part of the Regional County Municipality of La Vallée-du-Richelieu, within the Administrative Region of Montérégie, it occupies the west shore of the Richelieu River in front of the Mont Saint-Hilaire. Along with the municipality of McMasterville to the immediate south of Beloeil, the cities of Mont-Saint-Hilaire and Otterburn Park on the eastern bank of the Richelieu, Beloeil forms an unbroken urban area of over 50,796 inhabitants, part of Greater Montreal. Belœil was created as a village in 1903 and became a ville in 1914, but can trace its history through the parish of Saint-Mathieu-de-Belœil, established in 1772, the seigneurie de Belœil, founded in 1694, its name derives from the old French expression "Quel bel œil!", meaning "What a beautiful view!" attributed to Jean-Baptiste Hertel, brother of the first seigneur of Belœil, Joseph-François Hertel de la Fresnière.

Although there has been evidence found of a prior indigenous peoples' presence along the Richelieu River, none of it has been found on the territory of Beloeil. Development of the region in the first several decades after the arrival of Europeans in the region was slow, owing to the geographic situation of the Richelieu, which made it a primary avenue of attack from New York toward New France; the recorded history of Belœil began on 18 January 1694 when Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac granted Joseph Hertel a seigneurie along the shores of the Richelieu River, which Hertel called the Seigneurie de Belœil. Hertel, unwilling to abandon his military activities, such as the 1704 Raid on Deerfield, never developed the seigneurie, sold it in 1711 to Charles le Moyne de Longueuil, Baron de Longueuil, whose seigneurie of Longueuil neighboured that of Belœil. After failed attempts in 1711 and 1723, permanent settlement began in 1725, with dwellers coming from the island of Montreal or from seigneuries along the Saint Lawrence River near Montreal.

The low level of development forced local inhabitants to rely on the mission at Fort Chambly, several hours to the south, for their religious needs, the first mill did not open until the early 1760s. By 1768, the local population had grown to the point where a request to the Bishop of Quebec for the establishment of a mission was successful. In 1772, a presbytery-chapel was completed, the registry of the parish of Saint-Mathieu-de-Belœil, was opened; the parish received its first resident priest the next year in 1775, François Noiseux became local priest and, under his guidance and with his financing, the parish would build its first church from 1784 to 1787. The parish was canonically erected in 1832 and, after the first half of the nineteenth century saw the growth of a small hamlet around the church, became a parish municipality in 1855; the Saint-Mathieu Church was rebuilt twice. Meanwhile, on 28 December 1848, the portion of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad linking Montreal to Saint-Hyacinthe opened, passing about two kilometres south of the church.

A station was built, a second hamlet, Belœil-Station, soon grew around it. This second hamlet attracted upper-class vacationers from Montreal, who built summer homes along the Richelieu river with views of the mountain; the railway bridge between Belœil-Station and Mont-Saint-Hilaire was, in 1864, the site of the worst train disaster in the history of Canada when a passenger train plunged off the open bridge into the Richelieu river, killing 99. In 1878, industrialization began in Belœil when the Hamilton Powder Company established an explosives factory a little to the south of Belœil-Station, in what would become McMasterville. In 1903, the two hamlets, dissatisfied with the aqueduct service in the parish municipality of Saint-Mathieu-de-Belœil, requested and were granted permission to become the village of Belœil, whose population reached nearly 700 inhabitants in 1911. By 1914, the village had grown sufficiently so to become the ville of Belœil. Over these early years, the city developed its electricity networks.

The city remained isolated from Montreal, except by train, owing to poorly organized road connections. The opening, in 1940, of the then-Route 9, today Quebec route 116, provided a first direct link to Montreal and, by the 1950s, the population had grown to nearly 6,000 inhabitants, the two hamlets had grown into a single town; the construction, in 1964, of the Quebec Autoroute 20 freeway linking Montreal to Quebec and passing just north of Beloeil, the population of Beloeil tripled over the next three decades as it became part of the Montreal suburbs. The origins of the name Belœil have been a matter of debate between two competing theories. One theory argues. According to this theory, in 1693, shortly before receiving the seigneurie from Frontenac, Joseph Hertel and his brother Jean-Baptiste climbed atop the Mont Saint-Hilaire, upon seeing the view, Jean-Baptiste Hertel exclaimed "Quel bel œil!", which, in seventeenth-century French, meant "What a beautiful view!". According to this theory, when he was granted his seigneurie, Joseph Hertel, remembering the exclamation, chose to name it Belœil

Wrapped Up

"Wrapped Up" is a song by English singer-songwriter Olly Murs, released as the lead single from his fourth studio album, Never Been Better. It features American rapper Travie McCoy; the song was released on 7 October 2014 in France and 16 November 2014 in the United Kingdom by Epic Records and Syco Music. It was written by Murs, McCoy, Steve Robson and Claude Kelly, it was produced by Robson; the song premiered on 7 October 2014, in the United Kingdom on Capital FM. On 23 October 2014, the song temporarily became available as an instant download upon pre-ordering Never Been Better, but was removed by iTunes in a matter of hours; the official music video was filmed in Los Angeles and was uploaded onto Murs's Vevo account on 28 October 2014. It shows several dancers on travelators. McCoy is not seen. Olly performed the song on The X Factor Australia on 20 October, Sunrise on 21 October and The X Factor UK on 16 November. Olly performed the song at BBC Radio 1's Big Weekend 2015 in Norwich, with Radio One DJ Nick Grimshaw performing the rap.

Digital download"Wrapped Up" – 3:05CD Single"Wrapped Up" – 3:05 "Wrapped Up" — 3:36Digital EP"Wrapped Up" – 3:05 "Wrapped Up" — 2:53 "Wrapped Up" — 3:36 "Wrapped Up" — 3:12

Franz Reichelt

Franz Reichelt known as Frantz Reichelt or François Reichelt, was an Austrian-born French tailor and parachuting pioneer, now sometimes referred to as the Flying Tailor, remembered for jumping to his death from the Eiffel Tower while testing a wearable parachute of his own design. Reichelt had become fixated on developing a suit for aviators that would convert into a parachute and allow them to survive a fall should they be forced to leave their aircraft. Initial experiments conducted with dummies dropped from the fifth floor of his apartment building had been successful, but he was unable to replicate those early successes with any of his subsequent designs. Believing that a suitably high test platform would prove his invention's efficacy, Reichelt petitioned the Parisian Prefecture of Police for permission to conduct a test from the Eiffel Tower, he received permission in 1912, but when he arrived at the tower on 4 February he made it clear that he intended to jump rather than conduct an experiment with dummies.

Despite attempts to dissuade him, he jumped from the first platform of the tower wearing his invention. The parachute failed to deploy and he plummeted 57 metres to his death; the next day, newspapers were full of illustrated stories about the death of the "reckless inventor", the jump was shown in newsreels. Reichelt was born in Wegstädtl, in the Kingdom of Bohemia, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1878 and moved to Paris in 1898, he obtained French nationality in 1909. One of his sisters may have come to France and been married to a jeweller there, but newspaper reports differed on the details of his family life, with most reporting that his sisters stayed in Vienna. Reichelt himself was unmarried, he took an apartment on the third floor at 8 rue Gaillon near the Avenue de l'Opera from 1907 and opened what was to become a successful dressmaking business, catering to Austrians on trips to Paris. From July 1910, Reichelt began to develop a "parachute-suit": a suit, not much more bulky than one worn by an aviator, but with the addition of a few rods, a silk canopy and a small amount of rubber that allowed it to fold out to become what Reichelt hoped would be a practical and efficient parachute.

The dawn of the aviation age brought inevitable accidents coupled with a growing interest in safety measures, most notably in the development of an effective parachute. Early parachuting successes, such as those of Louis-Sébastien Lenormand, balloonist Jean-Pierre Blanchard had used fixed-canopy parachutes, André-Jacques Garnerin had invented a frameless parachute suitable for use from high altitudes, but by 1910 there was still no parachute suitable for use in jumping from a plane or at low altitude. Reichelt seems to have become interested in parachute design after hearing some of the stories of fatal accidents among the early aeronauts and aviators, his early test were successful: dummies equipped with foldable silk "wings" touched down when dropped from the fifth floor, but converting the prototypes into a wearable "suit" proved difficult. His original design weighed around 70 kilograms, he presented his design to the leading aeronautic organization, La Ligue Aérienne at the Aéro-Club de France, hoping that they would test it, but they rejected his designs on the grounds that the construction of the canopy was too weak, they attempted to dissuade him from spending further time on development.

Reichelt persevered and conducted experimental drops with dummies from the courtyard of his building at rue Gaillon. None of his tests proved successful. In 1911, a Colonel Lalance wrote to the Aéro-Club de France, offering a prize of 10,000 francs for a safety parachute for aviators – double the prize he had offered the year before; the competition was open for three years and stipulated that the parachute must weigh no more than 25 kilograms. Reichelt refined his design, reducing the weight while increasing the surface area of the material until it reached 12 square metres, but his tests were still unsuccessful and his dummies invariably fell to earth. L'Ouest-Éclair reported that in 1911 he had jumped from a height of 8 to 10 metres at Joinville. Le Matin reported an attempt at Nogent from a height of 8 metres. Le Petit Journal suggested that he made at least two inconclusive tests with dummies from the first deck of the Eiffel Tower during 1911, but an interview with one of Reichelt's friends in La Presse made it clear that he had been unsuccessfully applying for permission to conduct a test from the Eiffel Tower for over a year before he received the authorization for the final jump.

There had been other tests from the tower during 1911 though. Reichelt attributed the failures of his designs at least in part to the short drop distances over which he had conducted his tests, so he was keen to receive permission to experiment from the Eiffel Tower. Reichelt announced to the press in early February 1912 that he had received permission and would shortly conduct an experiment from the Eiffel Tower to prove the value of his invention. On Sunday, 4 February, at 7:00