click links in text for more info


Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light, it is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature, together with the strong interaction, the weak interaction, gravitation. At high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force. Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon; the electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. The electromagnetic attraction between atomic nuclei and their orbital electrons holds atoms together.

Electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules, intermolecular forces. The electromagnetic force governs all chemical processes, which arise from interactions between the electrons of neighboring atoms. There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. In classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current. In Faraday's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents; the theoretical implications of electromagnetism the establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation, led to the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905. Electricity and magnetism were considered to be two separate forces; this view changed with the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's 1873 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in which the interactions of positive and negative charges were shown to be mediated by one force.

There are four main effects resulting from these interactions, all of which have been demonstrated by experiments: Electric charges attract or repel one another with a force inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: unlike charges attract, like ones repel. Magnetic poles attract or repel one another in a manner similar to positive and negative charges and always exist as pairs: every north pole is yoked to a south pole. An electric current inside a wire creates a corresponding circumferential magnetic field outside the wire, its direction depends on the direction of the current in the wire. A current is induced in a loop of wire when it is moved toward or away from a magnetic field, or a magnet is moved towards or away from it. While preparing for an evening lecture on 21 April 1820, Hans Christian Ørsted made a surprising observation; as he was setting up his materials, he noticed a compass needle deflected away from magnetic north when the electric current from the battery he was using was switched on and off.

This deflection convinced him that magnetic fields radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, just as light and heat do, that it confirmed a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism. At the time of discovery, Ørsted did not suggest any satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon, nor did he try to represent the phenomenon in a mathematical framework. However, three months he began more intensive investigations. Soon thereafter he published his findings, proving that an electric current produces a magnetic field as it flows through a wire; the CGS unit of magnetic induction is named in honor of his contributions to the field of electromagnetism. His findings resulted in intensive research throughout the scientific community in electrodynamics, they influenced French physicist André-Marie Ampère's developments of a single mathematical form to represent the magnetic forces between current-carrying conductors. Ørsted's discovery represented a major step toward a unified concept of energy.

This unification, observed by Michael Faraday, extended by James Clerk Maxwell, reformulated by Oliver Heaviside and Heinrich Hertz, is one of the key accomplishments of 19th-century mathematical physics. It has had far-reaching consequences, one of, the understanding of the nature of light. Unlike what was proposed by the electromagnetic theory of that time and other electromagnetic waves are at present seen as taking the form of quantized, self-propagating oscillatory electromagnetic field disturbances called photons. Different frequencies of oscillation give rise to the different forms of electromagnetic radiation, from radio waves at the lowest frequencies, to visible light at intermediate frequencies, to gamma rays at the highest frequencies. Ørsted was not the only person to examine the relationship between magnetism. In 1802, Gian Domenico Romagnosi, an Italian legal scholar, deflected a magnetic needle using a Voltaic pile; the factual setup of the experiment is not clear, so if current flowed across the needle or not.

An account of the discovery was published in 1802 in an Italian newspaper, but it was overlooked by the contemporary scientific community, because Romagnosi did not belong to this community. An earlier, neglected, connection between electricity and magnetism was reported by a Dr. Cookson; the account stated:A tradesman

Hokutoumi Nobuyoshi

Hokutoumi Nobuyoshi is a former sumo wrestler from Hokkaidō, Japan. He won eight top division championships, he wrestled for Kokonoe stable, as did yokozuna Chiyonofuji, the two were the first yokozuna stablemates to take part in a play-off for the championship, in 1989. After a number of injury problems he retired in 1992, is now the head coach of Hakkaku stable. In November 2015 he was appointed the chairman of the Japan Sumo Association, following the death of Kitanoumi to serve until the end of March 2016, he was elected as head for a full term by his fellow board members in a vote held on March 28, 2016, re-elected in 2018. Hoshi was born in Hiroo town, Hiroo District, Hokkaidō, Japan. An uncle was an acquaintance of former yokozuna Kitanofuji, who by had retired from wrestling and was running Kokonoe stable, at his invitation Hoshi moved to Tokyo. Upon leaving school, his first appearance in the ring was March 1979, aged just 15, using his own name as his shikona, or fighting name. Starting at the same time was future yokozuna Futahaguro.

It took him four years to reach the second highest jūryō division in March 1983, aged 19, the same time as fellow Tokachi district rival Ōnokuni entered the top division. By this time his stablemate Chiyonofuji had been promoted to yokozuna. Hokutoumi made his debut in the top makuuchi division in September 1983. In March 1986 at sekiwake rank he won his first yūshō or tournament title with a record of thirteen wins and two losses. Despite this impressive result he was not promoted to the second highest ōzeki rank as he had not done well in the previous two tournaments, only managing 30 wins in the most recent three tournaments when 33 is required, it did not help his cause that there were five ōzeki, leaving the Sumo Association with no incentive to loosen the promotion criteria. However, he carried on producing excellent results with an 11–4 in May, went 12–3 in July, securing his promotion for the September tournament. Futahaguro was promoted to yokozuna at the same time. At this point he was still fighting under his real name, his coach decided a new name was appropriate.

He wished to acknowledge his home district of Tokachi, but the kanji for Tokachi mean'ten wins' and it was felt that this might be bad luck, limiting his wins in any tournament to ten. As a compromise, he took the name Hokutoumi, taking the kanji 勝 from the second kanji of Tokachi but pronouncing it as the first kanji. After his second tournament title in March 1987 and a runner-up performance in May, he was promoted to yokozuna for the July tournament. In 1988 he suffered a severe back injury, it appeared he would miss the start of the January 1989 tournament, but it was delayed due to the death of the emperor, he came back to win the tournament. He won the May tournament. In July, he took part in an historic play-off with Chiyonofuji – the first time that two yokozuna from the same stable had met in the ring. On the last day of the March 1990 tournament, he fought in a rare three-way play-off with ōzeki Konishiki and sekiwake Kirishima. In a play-off, wrestlers fight each other in turn, the first to win two consecutive bouts winning the tournament.

First, Hokutoumi lost. Konishiki was drawn up against Kirishima. Konishiki only needed to win this bout for the tournament. Next was Kirishima against Hokutoumi, Kirishima needing just this bout for his first yūshō. Hokutoumi won. Hokutoumi beat Konishiki in the next bout, thus winning the tournament. On the fourteenth day of the March 1991 tournament, he injured his left knee during a bout with Ōnokuni, but managed to go on to win the tournament with 13 wins. After this, Hokutoumi had many absences due to his knee. At this time there were four yokozuna, but Chiyonofuji retired in May 1991, Ōnokuni in July and Asahifuji in January of the next year, leaving Hokutoumi the sole yokozuna. Left with this responsibility he struggled on, but he withdrew from the March 1992 tournament after losing his first two matches to Mitoizumi and Kushimaumi, announced his retirement shortly before the May 1992 tournament at the age of 28 years and 10 months. Citing shoulder and knee injuries, he said he had "lost my fighting spirit to continue training."

In the space of just one year, all four yokozuna had retired. Hokutoumi had fought 29 basho as yokozuna. Following his retirement, there were no yokozuna on the banzuke for the first time in 60 years, sumo went without a reigning yokozuna for the next eight months, until the promotion of Akebono in January 1993. Following his retirement Hokutoumi became a member of the Japan Sumo Association with the toshiyori name Hakkaku-oyakata, he opened up his own training stable, Hakkaku stable, which has had four top division wrestlers, Hokutōriki, Kaihō, Hokutofuji. He appears on NHK sumo broadcasts as a commentator and analyst, he proposed to a graduate of Konan Women's University in October 1989, was married in March 1990. On December 18, 2015, he was appointed as chairman of the Japan Sumo Association, after former chairman Kitanoumi died in office on November 20, 2015, he had been serving as an executive director of the board under Kitanoumi since 2012. His appointment was until the end of March 2016.

He won a contested ballot on March 28, 2016, defeating Takanohana, was confirmed for a further two-year term. He was re-elected in 2018. Hokutoumi was primarily

Anthimos Mathews

Mathews Mor Antheemos is a Syriac Orthodox bishop Metropolitan of Muvattupuzha Region and Patriarchal Vicar of U. K. & Ireland Dioceses. Mathews Mor Antheemos completed his Matriculation from Vidyadhiraja Vidya Bhavan Higher Secondary School, Kerala. Did his degree in B. A and M. A in Economics from Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala and joined the United Theological College, Karnataka, for a B. D.. He received a Certificate in German Language from Ostkirchliches Institut, Germany, he has a Doctorate in Theology from the Paris Lodron University, Austria in Patristic Theology – “Integrity of Creation in the Theology of Ephrem the Syrian. A Patristic Eco-theology” – guided by the Head of the Department of Biblical Studies and Ecclesiastical History Univ. Prof. Dr. Dietmar W. Winkler. Sathya Viswasasamrakshakan CD/Cassettes 2003, The Lord Reigns CD 2004, Voice of Christmas CD 2011, Vishudha Mariyam CD 2017

Seiyu Group

Seiyu GK or Seiyu Group, is a Japanese group of supermarkets, shopping centers and department stores owned by Walmart. Its head office is in Akabane, Tokyo; the group was established in December 1946, was formed in 1956 by Seibu Department Stores, a group company of Seibu Railway. In 1980, Seiyu launched its private brand Mujirushi-Ryōhin. MUJI was transferred to the Ryohin Keikaku Company in 1990, is no longer part of Seiyu. On December 31, 2003, Seiyu and Walmart signed a partnership agreement in which Walmart would teach global supply chain practices. Numazu, Shizuoka was the site of the first Seiyu store using Walmart methods. Walmart bought a 37 percent stake in Seiyu in 2002, according to a company press release, in late 2005, Walmart acquired a majority stake in the company, which it has since increased to 100% ownership in 2008; the company had a registered office in Higashi-Ikebukuro, Tokyo. In addition to its Japanese operations, Seiyu had department stores operating under its name in Singapore and Hong Kong.

The group used to directly operate these stores, but in October 2005, its three Singapore stores were sold to CapitaLand Limited, which transferred them to Beijing Hualian Group the same year. The group's Hong Kong store in New Town Plaza, Sha Tin was sold to Sun Hung Kai Properties Limited in June 2005, but like the stores in Singapore, continued to operate under the Seiyu name until April 2008; the Singapore stores were renamed BHG, which stands for "Beijing Hualian Group". Seiyu Group refers to an association of companies, of which The Ltd. is the parent. The companies in Seiyu Group are: Ltd.. Hokkaido Seiyu Co. Ltd. Tohoku Seiyu Co. Ltd. S. S. V. Inc. Kyushu Seiyu Co. Ltd. Sunny Co. Ltd. Wakana Co. Ltd. Smile Corp; the SCC, Ltd. Nicoh Inc. Nijicom Ltd. Smis Co. Ltd. Seiyu Service Co. Ltd. Why Walmart Is Failing In Japan. CNBC. October 23, 2018. - About Walmart's ownership of Seiyu Group Official website

Tennis at the 1896 Summer Olympics – Men's doubles

The men's doubles was one of two tennis events on the tennis at the 1896 Summer Olympics programme. The six pairs that entered were seeded into a single elimination tournament. Only five competed, hailing from four nations but entering as a pair of Greek teams and three mixed teams, it was the only event in the 1896 Summer Olympics, not contested individually. The doubles team of Kasdaglis and Petrokokkinos appears in the IOC results database as a mixed team. Kasdaglis is listed as Greek in the database for the singles event. Petrokokkinos, not having won a singles medal, is not identified with any nation in the IOC database. Kasdaglis, a Greek national residing in Alexandria after years in Great Britain, is listed as Egyptian or as British in some sources; the International Society of Olympic Historians gives only five teams. Lampros, S. P.. G.. J. & Anninos, C.. The Olympic Games: BC 776 – AD 1896. Athens: Charles Beck. Mallon, Bill & Widlund, Ture; the 1896 Olympic Games. Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary.

Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0379-9. Smith, Michael Llewellyn. Olympics in Athens 1896; the Invention of the Modern Olympic Games. London: Profile Books. ISBN 1-86197-342-X. ITF, 2008 Olympic Tennis Event Media Guide

Nanda people

The Nanda are people of Indigenous Australian descent who live in the mid-west region of Western Australia around the mouth of the Murchison River. Norman Tindale estimated the Nanda's tribal territories to cover some 6,300 square miles, stretching from Willigabi northwards along the coast to the vicinity of Northampton and Shark Bay, Hamelin Pool and Yaringa, their northern neighbours were the Malgana and the Nokaan, while on their southern border were the Amangu. On 28 November 2018, after a twenty-four year battle, Nanda people were recognised as the traditional owners of more than 17,000 square kilometres of land and water in the Yamatji region, in Western Australia. Nanda people have been awarded exclusive native title rights over several key areas including Paradise Flats, Wilgie Mia and Syphon pools; the story of the Beemarra serpent is the central dreaming story of Nanda people. The Beemarra is, according to Nanda culture, an ancestral being responsible for the creation of the land and waters in the region.

Augustus Oldfield described the increase performances, which took place in mid spring in the following terms: At the time of the first new moon after the yams are ripe, the Watch-an-dies begin to lay in a stock of all kinds of food, sufficient to subsist them during the continuance of the festival. On the eve of the feast the women and children retire from the company of the men, shouting as they go, Ow-ee, Ow-ee, henceforth, until the conclusion of the ceremony, the men are not permitted to look on a female, but sometimes, when their store of food prove insufficient, this law is a little infringed; the men thus left to themselves rub their bodies with a mixture of charcoal and wallaby-fat. Early next morning they re-assemble and proceed to decorate themselves with a mixture of ochre and emu-fat, dressing their hair with fine shavings and wearing garlands of My-a-lie and A-rum-ba; this beautifying of their persons, with frequent feastings, lasts the whole day, but towards evening the real ceremony begins.

They dance round the pit they have dug, shouting and some few whistling, thus they continue all night long, each in turn snatching a few moments for rest and gormandising. Every figure of their dances, every gesture, the burden of all their songs, is calculated to inflame their passions; the pit is so dug and decorated with bushes as to represent the private parts of a female: as dance they carry the spear before them to simulate priapus: every gesture is obscene, the character of the songs in vogue on such occasions may be understood from the following, which may be translated by means of the vocabulary: Bool-lie neera, Bool-lie neera, Bool-lie neera. Wad-a-ga. At the conclusion of the ceremonies, when, as my informant told me, Aumanno-maddijubat-wabayadia, they place sticks in the ground to mark the scene of their orgies, henceforth, a tabood place, any looking on it, inadvertently or not, will infallibly sicken and die. For sometime after the feast the men who have held it wear shavings in their hair to distinguish them as Caa-ro men.'

The Nanda were divided into at least three hordes: Buluguda Daguda Tamala They did not practice circumcision. Yau. Jau Eaw Watjandi.. Watchandi, Watchandie Buluguda. Bulgulu Tamala Daguda otthoo ngobano. Amo ago. Erato euna. angalo. Watchu