Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone
Daniel J. Sandin
Daniel J. Sandin is an American video and computer graphics artist and researcher, he is a Professor Emeritus of the School of Art & Design at University of Illinois at Chicago, co-director of the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He is an internationally recognized pioneer in electronic art and visualization. Dan Sandin received his B. A. in Natural Sciences from Shimer College in 1964 and his M. S. in Physics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1967. He became interested in video in 1967, while helping to organize student demonstrations at the University of Illinois. In 1969, he joined as a teacher at the University of Illinois at Chicago, in order to bring technology into the arts program; this was shortly after his presentation of "Glowflow", a computer controlled light and sound system, created with Myron Krueger, Jerry Erdman, Richard Venezky. By 1972, Thomas A. DeFanti joined UIC and together with Sandin they founded the Circle Graphics Habitat, now known as the Electronic Visualization Laboratory.
His major achievements were working on a series of projects including: Glowflow, Sandin Image Processor, Sayre Glove, PHSColograms, CAVE and ImmersaDesk and Infinity Wall. Dan Sandin received several awards including: the Guggenheim Fellowships awarded for video and sound in 1978, the National Endowment for the Arts for video art in 1981, the Rockefeller Foundation's Video Fellowship in 1981, the Inventor of the Year award from the University of Illinois in 2000, the Rockefeller Foundation's Film and Multimedia Fellowship in 2002 for "Looking for Water 2," a virtual-reality, 3-D installation. Dan Sandin has said that his career has three main objectives: the design of electronic instruments and computer programs for visual performance and personal growth. From 1971 to 1973, he designed the Sandin Image Processor, a patch programmable analog computer for real-time manipulation of video inputs through the control of the grey level information, his friend and neighbor Phil Morton helped with the early schematic plans diagram.
This modular design was based on the Moog synthesizer. With Tom DeFanti, he would combine it with real-time computer graphics and synthesized music and perform visual concerts, he has performed worldwide and has received grants in support of his work from the Rockefeller Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Arts and the Guggenheim Foundation. His piece "Spiral PTL" was one of the first pieces included in the Museum of Modern Art's video art collection. In 1977, with Tom DeFanti and Rich Sayre, he designed the Sayre Glove, the first data glove, as part of a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts; this device used light based sensors with flexible tubes with a light source at one end and a photocell at the other. As the fingers were bent, the amount of light that hit the photocells varied, thus providing a measure of finger flexion, it was used to manipulate sliders, but was lightweight and inexpensive. By 1988, Sandin was working on a type of digital photography called PHSColograms.
The effect was similar to holograms and many times viewers would mistake them as such. The initial system supported 13 images but further improvements now could allow 100 such images to be used; this system was designed for use in the medical field where these quasi-3D images could benefit surgeons. The first CAVE was invented by Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin, Thomas A. DeFanti in 1992; this is an immersive system that became the standard for rear projection-based Virtual Reality systems. The normal full system consists of projections screens along the front and floor axes, a tracking system for the "user". Although they used the recursive acronym Cave Automatic Virtual Environment for the CAVE system, the name refers to Plato's "Republic" and "The Allegory of the Cave" where he explored the concepts of reality and human perception. Since there have been a couple offshoots of the CAVE technology, including ImmersaDesk, Infinity Wall and Oblong Industries' G-speak system; the ImmersaDesk is a semi-immersive system, resembling a drafting table, while the Infinity Wall is designed to cater to an entire room of people, such as a conference room.
Extending this concept, G-speak supports gestural input from multiple-users and multiple-devices on and expandable array of monitors. Daniel Sandin @ EVL n web site Daniel Sandin in the Video Data Bank Daniel Sandin at the Media Burn Independent Video Archive
UIC College of Business Administration
The UIC College of Business Administration is the business school at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The college is divided into four academic departments: Accounting Finance Information and Decision Sciences Managerial Studies Undergraduate and graduate degrees are conferred through the College of Business Administration and Liautaud Graduate School of Business respectively. Business courses were first offered at the University of Illinois facility at Navy Pier in 1946; the College of Business Administration was created with the building of the original Circle Campus in 1965. The first degree was conferred the following year. Two years in 1968, a graduate program was established and in 1969, an MBA program was approved; the college received AACSB accreditation in 1971. In 1982, The Circle Campus and the Medical Center were merged to form the University of Illinois at Chicago. Five years after that, a PhD program was approved for the CBA and, in 1993, the first PhD was awarded. With a donation from the Liautaud family, the Liautaud Graduate School of Business was created in 2003 to unify all graduate instruction in the college.
The first research center in the CBA was the Institute for Entrepreneurial Studies, founded in 1982. The Center for Research in Information Management was established in 1988. A local extension program, the Family Business Council, was established in the 1990s; the most recent center, the International Center for Futures and Derivatives, was established in 2006 through a grant from the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. The CBA offers graduate degrees; the school is a member of the Graduate Management Admission Council. At the undergraduate level, a Bachelor of Science is offered in six fields: Accounting, Finance and Decision Sciences and Marketing. Minors are offered in Business Analytics, Business Operations, Management Information Systems, Managerial Skills and International Business; the Liautaud Graduate School of Business offers a Master of Business Administration degree as well as five specialized master's level degrees including: Master of Science in Accounting, Master of Science in Business Analytics, a Master of Science in Finance, a Master of Science in Management Information Systems and a Master of Science in Marketing.
The Liautaud MBA program offers full-time, part-time and weekend MBA programs with specializations in: 1) accounting, finance, international business administration, management information systems, operations management, real estate. In 2014, an Accelerated MBA program was introduced that enabled students to get an MBA in 12 to 15 months of study; the program was designed to meet the needs of students with non-business undergraduate degrees who are looking to gain management skills. The cohort-based program allows students to specialize in either business analytics, finance or marketing; the program begins each fall and students graduate in August, or December if they opt for a summer internship. The college offers joint degree programs in accounting, management information systems, medicine and public health. Project courses and a strong relationship with the Chicago business community are hallmarks of the Liautaud Graduate School of Business; the facilities of UIC let MBA students gain real-world experience: In the past two years, several teams of MBA students have won awards in national and international business plan competitions for their startup ventures.
Some of these ventures are close to bringing new products to market. The Liautaud Graduate School of Business offers two doctoral degrees: a PhD in Business Administration and a PhD in Management Information Systems; the College of Business Administration faculty are divided among four departments: accounting, finance and decision sciences, managerial studies. There are five institutes and academic centers housed in the CBA. iLEAD known as The Center for Human Resource Management, is dedicated to both research and the practical application of professional development skills. Faculty in iLEAD have published on a broad array of human resource and organizational behavior topics, including servant leadership, the mobility of women and workplace-relevant personality traits; the institute helps lead the professional development skills program, a part of the curriculum for all business students. The Center for Research in Information Management publishes information on developments in system analysis, data analysis and production management.
The Illinois SBDC at UIC works with students and the community to assist entrepreneurs with market analysis, business planning, securing business loans, obtaining outside equity investment. The Institute for Entrepreneurial Studies aims to educate students about new venture opportunities as well as how to create and grow a business; the institute seeks to raise awareness of the importance of entrepreneurship. The International Center for Futures and Derivatives studies futures/derivatives markets and contracts as well as preparing students for careers working with futures/derivatives; the center focuses on the development of such markets in China. John Adams, 1986. Co-Founder, Chairman &
A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes; these data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as Wi-Fi. Network computer devices that originate and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes are identified by network addresses, can include hosts such as personal computers and servers, as well as networking hardware such as routers and switches. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered over other more general communications protocols; this formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably. Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers and fax machines, use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others.
Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet; the chronology of significant computer-network developments includes: In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U. S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment. In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres, the OGAS. In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment went online with two connected mainframes. In 1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network", a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections. Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory using a line speed of 768 kbit/s. In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first used telephone switch that implemented true computer control. In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts published a paper on an experimental wide area network for computer time sharing. In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the University of Utah.
Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET. His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today. In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed, used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks. In 1973, the French CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than this being a centralized service of the network itself. In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a networking system, based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s by Norman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks" and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978.
In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard. In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices. In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. Subsequently, higher speeds of up to 400 Gbit/s were added; the ability of Ethernet to scale is a contributing factor to its continued use. Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, electronics engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines. A computer network facilitates interpersonal communications allowing users to communicate efficiently and via various means: email, instant messaging, online chat, video telephone calls, video conferencing. A network allows sharing of computing resources.
Users may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or use of a shared storage device. A network allows sharing of files, and
Scientific visualization is an interdisciplinary branch of science concerned with the visualization of scientific phenomena. It is considered a subset of computer graphics, a branch of computer science; the purpose of scientific visualization is to graphically illustrate scientific data to enable scientists to understand and glean insight from their data. One of the earliest examples of three-dimensional scientific visualisation was Maxwell's thermodynamic surface, sculpted in clay in 1874 by James Clerk Maxwell; this prefigured modern scientific visualization techniques. Notable early two-dimensional examples include the flow map of Napoleon’s March on Moscow produced by Charles Joseph Minard in 1869. Scientific visualization using computer graphics gained in popularity as graphics matured. Primary applications were scalar fields and vector fields from computer simulations and measured data; the primary methods for visualizing two-dimensional scalar fields are color mapping and drawing contour lines.
2D vector fields line integral convolution methods. 2D tensor fields are resolved to a vector field by using one of the two eigenvectors to represent the tensor each point in the field and visualized using vector field visualization methods. For 3D scalar fields the primary methods are isosurfaces. Methods for visualizing vector fields include glyphs such as arrows and streaklines, particle tracing, line integral convolution and topological methods. Visualization techniques such as hyperstreamlines were developed to visualize 2D and 3D tensor fields. Computer animation is the art and science of creating moving images via the use of computers, it is becoming more common to be created by means of 3D computer graphics, though 2D computer graphics are still used for stylistic, low bandwidth, faster real-time rendering needs. Sometimes the target of the animation is the computer itself, but sometimes the target is another medium, such as film, it is referred to as CGI when used in films. Applications include medical animation, most utilized as an instructional tool for medical professionals or their patients.
Computer simulation is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modelling of many natural systems in physics, computational physics and biology; the simultaneous visualization and simulation of a system is called visulation. Computer simulations vary from computer programs that run a few minutes, to network-based groups of computers running for hours, to ongoing simulations that run for months; the scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible using the traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling: over 10 years ago, a desert-battle simulation, of one force invading another, involved the modeling of 66,239 tanks and other vehicles on simulated terrain around Kuwait, using multiple supercomputers in the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program. Information visualization is the study of "the visual representation of large-scale collections of non-numerical information, such as files and lines of code in software systems and bibliographic databases, networks of relations on the internet, so forth".
Information visualization focused on the creation of approaches for conveying abstract information in intuitive ways. Visual representations and interaction techniques take advantage of the human eye’s broad bandwidth pathway into the mind to allow users to see and understand large amounts of information at once; the key difference between scientific visualization and information visualization is that information visualization is applied to data, not generated by scientific inquiry. Some examples are graphical representations of data for business, government and social media. Interface technology and perception shows how new interfaces and a better understanding of underlying perceptual issues create new opportunities for the scientific visualization community. Rendering is the process of generating an image by means of computer programs; the model is a description of three-dimensional objects in a defined language or data structure. It would contain geometry, texture and shading information.
The image is a digital image or raster graphics image. The term may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene.'Rendering' is used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing file to produce final video output. Important rendering techniques are: Scanline rendering and rasterisation A high-level representation of an image contains elements in a different domain from pixels; these elements are referred to as primitives. In a schematic drawing, for instance, line segments and curves might be primitives. In a graphical user interface and buttons might be the primitives. In 3D rendering and polygons in space might be primitives. Ray casting Ray casting is used for realtime
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp
University Hall (University of Illinois at Chicago)
University Hall is the seat of the University of Illinois at Chicago administration. Located at 601 S. Morgan Street, it is 338 feet tall, making it the tallest building on Chicago's West Side. An unusual feature of its design is that instead of setbacks, it widens in two stages, so that it is twenty feet wider at the top floor than at its base. University Hall was designed in the Brutalist style, along with much of the rest of the east campus, by Walter Netsch of Skidmore and Merrill; the offices of the university chancellor are located on the top floor. The first two floors are occupied by a popular studying spot for students; the remainder of the floors are used as offices for the university chancellor, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, certain LAS departments and professors, the College of Business Administration. University Hall, or UH as it is popularly referred to, can be seen from miles away and is helpful for new students finding their way around campus. UIC can be seen in the background of many scenes in the popular tv-series Chicago Med.
Since 1998, a pair of peregrine falcons have nested on a 28th floor ledge of University Hall. The female, named Rosie, has lived and nested there hatching eggs annually; until 2005, she lived with her mate Joshua. Since she has lived with an unbanded male; the falcons have been popular enough to have been featured in the Chicago Tribune and to have their own webcam