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Electronic musical instrument

An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal, plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker, creating the sound heard by the performer and listener. An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound by adjusting the pitch, frequency, or duration of each note. A common user interface is the musical keyboard, which functions to the keyboard on an acoustic piano, except that with an electronic keyboard, the keyboard itself does not make any sound. An electronic keyboard sends a signal to a synth module, computer or other electronic or digital sound generator, which creates a sound. However, it is common to separate user interface and sound-generating functions into a music controller and a music synthesizer with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control.

All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects. In the 2010s, electronic musical instruments are now used in most styles of music. In popular music styles such as electronic dance music all of the instrument sounds used in recordings are electronic instruments. Development of new electronic musical instruments and synthesizers continues to be a active and interdisciplinary field of research. Specialized conferences, notably the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, have organized to report cutting-edge work, as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments and synthesizers. In the 18th-century and composers adapted a number of acoustic instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity. Thus, in the broadest sense, the first electrified musical instrument was the Denis d'or keyboard, dating from 1753, followed shortly by the clavecin électrique by the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste de Laborde in 1761.

The Denis d'or consisted of a keyboard instrument of over 700 strings, electrified temporarily to enhance sonic qualities. The clavecin électrique was a keyboard instrument with plectra activated electrically. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source; the first electric synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray. The "Musical Telegraph" was a chance by-product of his telephone technology when Gray accidentally discovered that he could control sound from a self-vibrating electromagnetic circuit and so invented a basic oscillator; the Musical Telegraph used steel reeds oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field. A significant invention, which had a profound effect on electronic music, was the audion in 1906; this was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube and which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcasting, electronic computation, among other things.

Other early synthesizers included the Telharmonium, the Theremin, Jörg Mager's Spharophon and Partiturophone, Taubmann's similar Electronde, Maurice Martenot's ondes Martenot, Trautwein's Trautonium. The Mellertion used a non-standard scale, Bertrand's Dynaphone could produce octaves and perfect fifths, while the Emicon was an American, keyboard-controlled instrument constructed in 1930 and the German Hellertion combined four instruments to produce chords. Three Russian instruments appeared, Oubouhof's Croix Sonore, Ivor Darreg's microtonal'Electronic Keyboard Oboe' and the ANS synthesizer, constructed by the Russian scientist Evgeny Murzin from 1937 to 1958. Only two models of this latter were built and the only surviving example is stored at the Lomonosov University in Moscow, it has been used in many Russian movies -- like Solaris -- to produce "cosmic" sounds. Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, composer Percy Grainger, others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late 1940s and 1950s.

In 1959 Daphne Oram produced a novel method of synthesis, her "Oramics" technique, driven by drawings on a 35 mm film strip. This workshop was responsible for the theme to the TV series Doctor Who, a piece created by Delia Derbyshire, that more than any other ensured the popularity of electronic music in the UK. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill patented. Using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level; this technology was used to design the Hammond organ. Between 1901 and 1910 Cahill had three progressively larger and more complex versions made, the first weighing seven tons, the last in excess of 200 tons. Portability was managed only with the use of thirty boxcars. By 1912, public interest had waned, Cahill's enterprise was bankrupt. Another development, which aroused the interest of many composers, occurred in 1919-1920. In Leningrad, Leon Theremin built and demonstrated his Etherophone, renamed the Theremin.

This led to the first composi

Women in Oman

Women in Oman were excluded from the forums of everyday life. But with the dispersal of Omanis in the early 1900s and their return in the early 1970s, a more contemporary population of Omanis that were influenced by the British colonial values during their time abroad have challenged many traditions of gender segregation. Women now pursue careers and professional training moving from their previous household confinement to the public sphere. In Oman, 17 October is celebrated every year as the Omani Women's Day with various pro-female events. In 1970, the political and social atmosphere of Oman changed with the advent of a new ruler, Sultan Qaboos bin Said, son of the conservative and rigid Said bin Taimur. After decades of stagnant to non-existent growth, Qaboos overthrew his father in a palace coup and began numerous social programs, commissioning hospitals, schools, etc. Many Omanis, living abroad to get a proper education returned to participate in the construction of a new nation; the abroadees brought with them the liberal and open attitude of their host countries, including the idea of equal gender relations.

Sultan Qaboos introduced many reforms funded by the oil revenue, targeting development and social services. He appointed the Majlis al-Shura, a body of representatives elected by the people that review legislation; this act gave the people more control in their government, in complete control of the royal family and his appointed cabinet. In the September 2000 elections, 83 candidates were elected for seats in the Majlis al-Shura, including two women. In 1996, the Sultan issued "The Basic Law of the Sultanate of Oman" to serve as a form of written constitution; this document gives the Omani people their basic civil liberties as well as guaranteeing equality and protection under the law. In 2002, universal suffrage was granted to all Omanis over the age of 21. More the Sultan's Royal Decree in 2008 gave women the equal right to own land as held by their male counterparts. Sultan Qaboos recently signed the Decent Work Country Programme, a service dedicated to increase job opportunities for women as well as stand for justice and freedom.

The program is supposed to be implemented from 2010 to 2013. Modern education was foreign to Omanis before 1940. Before the reforms made by Sultan Qaboos, there were only three primary schools serving 900 boys, focusing on reciting the Quran and learning basic math and writing skills. In 1970, Sultan Qaboos introduced the universal education policy for both men and women, increasing female attendance in schools from 0% in 1970 to 49% in 2007. In the years following, 600,000 students, both male and female, enrolled in over 1000 schools, bringing Oman one step closer to the goal of "education for all". After this first stage of universal education was established, the Ministry of Education implemented measures to improve the quality of education. In the 1980s, the Omani government sponsored construction of school buildings, the providing of adequate equipment and textbooks, the provision of teacher training; the reforms saw a tremendous growth in school attendance. The gender equality was the next focus of the education reform after Oman's 1995 "Vision 2020" that focused on the country's economic future.

As a result, in 2003 to 2004, 48.4% of students were female and out of 32,345 teachers of both genders, 56% were female. In the past the College of Engineering at Sultan Qaboos University banned the entrance of female students, claiming that the "outdoor setting" of engineering field work was not gender appropriate. Though students protested, many women had to transfer to other institutions. Since the 1970s, women educated overseas were encouraged to return to Oman and help to "rebuild the nation." With a leader who embraced the ideals of modernization and progress, women were able to hold jobs in nearly every profession: banking, engineering, etc. According to a UNICEF-sponsored census, 40% of economically active women were in professional job categories. In 2000, 17% of the Omani workforce was made up of women. In the 1980s, the government started to retract their previous liberties and restrict the professions deemed "gender acceptable" for women; the number of professional women decreased and women were forced into more traditional roles as "nurturers and caregivers."

The Omani Women's Association, the first women's government-recognized group in Oman, was stripped of the majority of its independence and was passed to the male-led Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor. In 1984, it was replaced with a Directorate General of Women and Child Affairs with a sub-unit for women's associations; the main goal of this unit was to set up classes for women to learn basic household skills and day-care centers for the handicapped and disabled. Despite the slight setbacks, Oman is still considered to be one of the leading Gulf countries in terms of gender equality and continue to make positive strides. In 1997, the Omanisation Policy was implemented, committing to the promise of replacing foreign labor dependence with Omani workers, giving women more of a chance to participate in the work force and making jobs more accessible to all Omanis. Women now make up 30% of the workforce and serve in ministerial positions; the ministers of higher education and social development in the cabinet are all women, as well as the US Ambassador and the head of national authority for industrial craftsmanship.

The most common role for the Omani woman is still the role of housewife. The housewife is essential to the upkeep of the family and will take command of a

Astele monile

Astele monile, common name the Australian necklace, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Calliostomatidae. Some authors place this taxon in the subgenus Astele The size of the shell varies between 15 mm and 25 mm; the shell is rather swollen at the base. It is encircled by a necklace of violet spots; the whorls are spirally ridged. These ridges are smooth with the two basal ridges more prominent; the necklace of violet spots has an exceedingly pretty appearance on the delicate transparent ground of the shell. This marine species occurs off Western Australia. "Calliostoma monile". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 17 January 2019

Georg Major

George Major was a Lutheran theologian of the Protestant Reformation. He was died at Wittenberg. At the age of nine Major was sent to Wittenberg, in 1521 entered the university there; when Cruciger returned to Wittenberg in 1529, Major was appointed rector of the Johannisschule in Magdeburg, but in 1537 he became court preacher at Wittenberg and was ordained by Martin Luther. In 1545 he was made professor in the theological faculty, in which his authority increased to such an extent that in the following year the elector sent him to the Conference of Regensburg, where he was soon captivated by the personality of Butzer. Like Philipp Melanchthon, he fled before the disastrous close of the Schmalkald war, found refuge in Magdeburg. In the summer of 1547, he returned to Wittenberg, in the same year became cathedral superintendent at Merseburg, although he resumed his activity at the university in the following year. In the negotiations of the Augsburg Interim, he took the part of Melanchthon in first opposing it and making concessions.

This attitude incurred the enmity of the opponents of the Interim after he cancelled a number of passages in the second edition of his Psalterium in which he had violently attacked the position of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, whom he now requested to prohibit all polemical treatises proceeding from Magdeburg, while he condemned the preachers of Torgau who were imprisoned in Wittenberg on account of their opposition to the Interim. He was accused of accepting bribes from Maurice. In 1552, Count Hans Georg, who favored the Interim, appointed him superintendent of Eisleben, on the recommendation of Melchior Kling; the orthodox clergy of the County of Mansfeld, however suspected him of being an interimist and adiaphorist, he tried to defend his position in public, but his apology resulted in a dispute called the Majoristic Controversy. At Christmas, 1552, Count Albrecht expelled him without trial and he fled to Wittenberg, where he resumed his activity as professor and member of the Wittenberg Consistory.

Thence forth he was an active member in the circle of the Wittenberg Philippists. From 1558 to 1574 he was dean of the theological faculty and held the rectorate of the university, he lived long enough to experience the first overthrow of Crypto-Calvinism in the Electorate of Saxony, Paul Crell, his son-in-law, signed for him at Torgau in May 1574 the articles which repudiated Calvinism and acknowledged the unity of Luther and Melanchthon. Among his writings, special mention may be made of the following: A text edition of Justini ex Trogo Pompejo historia.

Stephen Freind

Stephen F. Freind is an American politician from Pennsylvania who served as a Republican member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the 166th district from 1976 until 1993, he unsuccessfully challenged Arlen Specter in the 1992 Republican primary election. He was most notable for authoring a law, presented as a tort reform measure but was designed to restrict abortion rights, that included "requirements that a married woman notify her husband, that there be a 24-hour wait before any abortion, that doctors show patients a pamphlet with pictures of developing fetuses", it was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States except for the spousal notification provision in the case of Planned Parenthood v. Casey. In 1988, Freind provoked controversy by claiming that it is'almost impossible' for a woman to become pregnant through rape, as it causes her to'secrete a certain secretion, which has a tendency to kill sperm'. In 1984, a bill drafted by Freind was enacted into law that changed the way adults who were adopted as children access their original birth certificates.

This became Act 195 of 1984 or Adoption Act of 1984. This act is a lesser-known component of Freind's abortion agenda. Freind was convinced that denying adult adoptees access to their original birth certificates would lower abortion rates; as of 2012, 44 states allow adult adoptees equal access to their original birth certificates. Freind was born in Philadelphia and graduated from the Malvern Preparatory School in 1962, he received a B. A. from Villanova University in 1966 and a J. D. from Temple University Law School in 1969. In 1992 Freind gave up his state house seat to challenge Arlen Specter in the Republican U. S. Senate Primary. Freind ran well to the moderate Specter's right, accusing Specter of having more in common with Democrats than Republicans. Although Specter went on to win, he had to spend a considerable amount of money to do so; this left him in a weakened position for the general election, in which he just defeated Democratic challenger Lynn Yeakel. Republican primary for the United States Senate from Pennsylvania, 1992: Arlen Specter - 683,118 Stephen F. Freind - 366,608 Abortion in the United States God's Children by Stephen F. Freind ISBN 0-688-06691-7

R-16 Korea National Championships

This page provides the summary of the R-16 Korean National Championships held in Seoul, Korea. Winner advances to R-16 Korea World B-Boy Masters Championship. Prior preliminary battles are held to determine crew seeding and which crews advance to the quarter-finals. Location: Uijeongbu, Korea In 2015, a new format for R16 was created. Crew battles now only consisted of 4 b-boys; the winning crew joined the solo b-boy champion and two wild card b-boys for the world championships. Crews in bold won their respective battles. Location: Seoul, Korea Crews in bold won their respective battles. Much anticipated Morning of Owl had some key injuries to their bboys and decided not to compete in 2014; as a result, Jinjo crew decided not to compete because they were anticipating to battle with and beat Morning of Owl. Location: Seoul, Korea Crews in bold won their respective battles. Funky Soul Brothers, Universal Crew and Fusion MC did not qualify to the quarter-finals. Location: Seoul, Korea Crews in bold won their respective battles.

Official site 2011 Teaser