click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Electronic paper

Electronic paper and e-paper sometimes electronic ink, electrophoretic displays or e-ink, are display devices that mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike conventional backlit flat panel displays that emit light, electronic paper displays reflect light like paper; this may make them more comfortable to read, provide a wider viewing angle than most light-emitting displays. The contrast ratio in electronic displays available as of 2008 approaches newspaper, newly developed displays are better. An ideal e-paper display can be read in direct sunlight without the image appearing to fade. Many electronic paper technologies hold static text and images indefinitely without electricity. Flexible electronic paper uses plastic substrates and plastic electronics for the display backplane. Applications of electronic visual displays include electronic shelf labels and digital signage, time tables at bus stations, electronic billboards, smartphone displays, e-readers able to display digital versions of books and magazines.

Electronic paper was first developed in the 1970s by Nick Sheridon at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center. The first electronic paper, called Gyricon, consisted of polyethylene spheres between 75 and 106 micrometers across; each sphere is a janus particle composed of negatively charged black plastic on one side and positively charged white plastic on the other. The spheres are embedded in a transparent silicone sheet, with each sphere suspended in a bubble of oil so that it can rotate freely; the polarity of the voltage applied to each pair of electrodes determines whether the white or black side is face-up, thus giving the pixel a white or black appearance. At the FPD 2008 exhibition, Japanese company Soken demonstrated a wall with electronic wall-paper using this technology. In 2007, the Estonian company Visitret Displays was developing this kind of display using polyvinylidene fluoride as the material for the spheres improving the video speed and decreasing the control voltage needed. In the simplest implementation of an electrophoretic display, titanium dioxide particles one micrometer in diameter is dispersed in a hydrocarbon oil.

A dark-colored dye is added to the oil, along with surfactants and charging agents that cause the particles to take on an electric charge. This mixture is placed between two parallel, conductive plates separated by a gap of 10 to 100 micrometres; when a voltage is applied across the two plates, the particles migrate electrophoretically to the plate that bears the opposite charge from that on the particles. When the particles are located at the front side of the display, it appears white, because the light is scattered back to the viewer by the high-index titania particles; when the particles are located at the rear side of the display, it appears dark, because the incident light is absorbed by the colored dye. If the rear electrode is divided into a number of small picture elements an image can be formed by applying the appropriate voltage to each region of the display to create a pattern of reflecting and absorbing regions. An electrophoretic display is known as an EPD, they are addressed using MOSFET-based thin-film transistor technology.

TFTs are required to form a high-density image in an EPD. A common application for TFT-based EPDs are e-readers. Electrophoretic displays are considered prime examples of the electronic paper category, because of their paper-like appearance and low power consumption. Examples of commercial electrophoretic displays include the high-resolution active matrix displays used in the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, Sony Reader, Kobo eReader, iRex iLiad e-readers; these displays are constructed from an electrophoretic imaging film manufactured by E Ink Corporation. A mobile phone that used the technology is the Motorola Fone. Electrophoretic Display technology has been developed by SiPix and Bridgestone/Delta. SiPix is now part of E Ink Corporation; the SiPix design uses a flexible 0.15 mm Microcup architecture, instead of E Ink's 0.04 mm diameter microcapsules. Bridgestone Corp.'s Advanced Materials Division cooperated with Delta Optoelectronics Inc. in developing Quick Response Liquid Powder Display technology.

Electrophoretic displays can be manufactured using the Electronics on Plastic by Laser Release process developed by Philips Research to enable existing AM-LCD manufacturing plants to create flexible plastic displays. An electrophoretic display forms images by rearranging charged pigment particles with an applied electric field. In the 1990s another type of electronic ink based on a microencapsulated electrophoretic display was conceived and prototyped by a team of undergraduates at MIT as described in their Nature paper. J. D. Albert, Barrett Comiskey, Joseph Jacobson, Jeremy Rubin and Russ Wilcox co-founded E Ink Corporation in 1997 to commercialize the technology. E ink subsequently formed a partnership with Philips Components two years to develop and market the technology. In 2005, Philips sold the electronic paper business as well as its related patents to Prime View International. "It has for many years been an ambition of researchers in display media to create a flexible low-cost system, the electronic analog of paper.

In this context, microparticle-based displays have long intrigued researchers. Switchable contrast in such displays is achieved by the electromigration of scattering or absorbing microparticles, quite distinct from the molecular-scale properties that govern the behavior of the more familiar liquid-crystal displays. Micro-particle-based displays possess intrinsic bistability, exhibit low power d.c. field addressing and have demonstrated high contr

Paula Woof

Paula Woof is a British artist, best known as a painter, muralist and art teacher. She has a number of works of public art, some in her on name and some made collaboratively with other artists, on display in the English Midlands. From 1974–1977, Woof was part of the Birmingham-based live art group BAG, with Mark Renn and Ian Everard. In 1978, she painted a series of three murals on the gable ends of terraced houses at the eastern end of Heathfield Road, Birmingham, in conjunction with Renn and Steve Field; these murals lasted around 27 years before being overpainted by new murals. In 1982, she painted an internal mural at Frankley Community School, together with Renn; the trio worked as "The Mural Company" and were profiled in a 1982 Central Television documentary, "Round About". Woof, Field, David Patten and Derek Jones worked jointly as the West Midlands Public Art Collective, active circa 1987. Together with Eric Klein Velderman she sculpted James Watt's Mad Machine to a design by Tim Tolkien.

Her works include the ornamental height restrictor at Kings Norton railway station and several other commissions for public transport interchanges, for CENTRO. In 2008, one or more of her paintings were included in the exhibition "Art of Birmingham 1940-2008" at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery; the following year, her depiction of the city's Bull Ring Market was included in "The Birmingham Seen" exhibition at the same venue. Woof works as an art teacher. Official website

5145 Pholus

5145 Pholus provisional designation 1992 AD, is an eccentric centaur in the outer Solar System 180 kilometers in diameter, that crosses the orbit of both Saturn and Neptune. It was discovered on 9 January 1992, by American astronomer David Rabinowitz of UA's Spacewatch survey at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, United States; the reddish object has an elongated shape and a rotation period of 9.98 hours. It was named after the creature Pholus from Greek mythology. Pholus was the second centaur to be discovered. Centaurs are objects in between the asteroid and trans-Neptunian populations of the Solar System – that is, beyond Jupiter's and within Neptune's orbit – which behave with characteristics of both asteroids and comets, it orbits the Sun at a distance of 8.8 -- 32.0 AU once 1 month. Its orbit has an inclination of 25 ° with respect to the ecliptic, it is a Saturn-, Uranus- and Neptune-crosser, crossing the orbits of these giant planets at a mean-distance of 9.6, 11.9 and 30.1 AU from the Sun, respectively.

Pholus has not come within one astronomical unit of a planet since 764 BC, will not until 5290. It is believed. Pholus was discovered by David Rabinowitz, working with the Spacewatch program, at Kitt Peak National Observatory on 9 January 1992. Rabinowitz'es discovery was confirmed by Eugene and Carolyn Shoemaker who identified the object on images they took on 1 January 1992; the discovery was announced by James Scotti on 23 January 1992 in an IAU Circular of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. A first precovery was taken at the Australian Siding Spring Observatory in 1977, extending the centaur's observation arc by 15 years prior to its discovery, it was the second discovery of a centaur after 2060 Chiron discovered by Charles Kowal in 1977. In 1993, while with the Spacewatch program, David Rabinowitz went on to discover another centaur, 7066 Nessus; this minor planet was named by the Minor Planet Names Committee for Pholus, a centaur from Greek mythology. As with 2060 Chiron, named after his brother Chiron, the tradition is to name this class of outer planet-crossing objects after the half-human, half-horse mythological creatures.

In the mythological account, Pholus died by a self-inflicted wound from a poisoned arrow used by Heracles, who buried Pholus on the mountain Pholoe. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 14 July 1992. After its discovery, Pholus was found to be red in color, for which it has been nicknamed "Big Red"; the color has been speculated to be due to organic compounds on its surface. It is classified; the object has been classified by astronomers as RR-U type, respectively. Polarimetric observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2007 and 2008, revealed noticeable negative polarization at certain phase angles, distinctly different from that of trans-Neptunian objects. Pholus appears to have a rather homogeneous surface with small amount of water frost on its darker parts; the surface composition of Pholus has been estimated from its reflectance spectrum using two spatially segregated components: dark amorphous carbon and an intimate mixture of water ice, methanol ice, olivine grains, complex organic compounds.

The carbon black component was used to match the low albedo of the object. Unlike Chiron, Pholus has shown no signs of cometary activity. Diameter calculations range from 99 to 190 kilometers with a corresponding albedo between 0.155 and 0.04. According to the Herschel Space Observatory with its PACS instrument, Nessus measures 99 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.155, while a study from 1996 derived a diameter of 185 km. During 2003–2004, observations with the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mount Graham Observatory, determined an elongated shape, 310 km × 160 km × 150 km, with a mean-diameter of 190 kilometers, based on a low albedo of 0.04. Johnston's archive lists a diameter of 107 km with an albedo of 0.126, Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo of a carbonaceous body of 0.057 and derives a diameter of 165 km based on an absolute magnitude of 7.64. In March 2005, a rotational lightcurve of Pholus was obtained from photometric observations by Tegler using the VATT at Mount Graham.

Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 9.980 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.60 magnitude. Alternative period determinations were conducted by Hoffmann and Buie with concurring results of 9.977, 9.982 and 9.983 hours, respectively. Kuiper Belt Object Magnitudes and Surface Colors Stephen Tegler SOLEX Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 5145 Pholus at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 5145 Pholus at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Schuylerville, Bronx

Schuylerville is a middle-class neighborhood located in the East Bronx area of New York City. Housing is single-family and two-family houses, it is located next to other middle-to-upper class residential neighborhoods of Country Club and Pelham Bay. Schuylerville is a small enclave situated between Bruckner Expressway and Hutchinson River Parkway, with suburban style and it is a predominantly Italian neighborhood with small Hispanic and black population. Saint Raymond's Cemetery, Bronx is in the southwestern part. Since the rise of the housing market, the neighborhood has seen various luxury developments, including luxury condos and new construction two-family houses, it is considered part of the Throggs Neck section of the East Bronx. However, it is closer to and associated with the Pelham Country Club sections of the Bronx. One of the largest public parks in New York City, Pelham Bay Park, is located nearby, as well as Orchard Beach. Schuylerville has a population of around 10,121 people and according to 2012 figures it had a median household income of $68,943 compared to $32,893 for the whole Bronx borough.

The population is around 45% White, 45% Hispanic, with the rest being a mix of Blacks & Asians. The following MTA Regional Bus Operations bus routes serve Schuylerville: Bx5: to Pelham Bay Park or Simpson Street Bx8: to 225th Street or Locust Point Bx40/42: to Morris Heights or Throggs Neck Q50: to Flushing, Queens or Co-op CityThe IRT Pelham Line of the New York City Subway serves Schuylerville via the Pelham Bay Park, Buhre Avenue, Middletown Road stations

André Evard

Jean André Evard was a Swiss painter and drafter. His special significance lies in the field of constructive art, he is counted among one of the first artists. In the course of his life he produced hundreds of oil paintings, a large number of drawings as well as 2000 to 3000 watercolor and gouache paintings. André Evard was born on 1st June 1876 in Renan as the son of Marie Sagne. After the early death of his father, he and his mother moved to La Chaux-de-Fonds, where Marie Evard ran a pastry shop. Working as a pastry chef, André received an inheritance which enabled him to study art, he studied at the École d'Art in La Chaux-de-Fonds from 1905 to 1909 and attended courses in decorative art with Charles L'Eplattenier, a former student of Ferdinand Hodler. Through L'Eplattenier, La Chaux-de-Fonds became a centre of Art nouveau in Switzerland, he was interested in the nature of the Jura and encouraged his pupils to " study the nature of the Jura - from the fir trees to the tectonics of the limestone cliffs - analyse their regularities and translate them into abstract ornaments" (in German: die Natur des Juras – von den Tannen bis zur Tektonik der Kalkfelsen – zu studieren, deren Regelmässigkeiten zu analysieren und in abstrakte Ornamente zu übertragen.}Here André Evard distinguished himself above all in the goldsmith and enamel art with the finest works, why the art critic Jean-Marie Nussbaum labeled him a jeweller of painting.

At that time Evard was artistically still influenced by Art nouveau. Among his friends at university were Le Corbusier, Conrad Meili and Léon Perrin, with whom he decorated and painted private villas. With Le Corbusier, for example, he furnished the interiors of the Villa Fallet in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Around 1900 Evard got in touch with Paul Pettavel, a priest in La Chaux-de-Fonds who published a free Sunday newspaper, "La Feuille du dimanche", in which he propagated social reformist and pacifist ideas; the weekly focused on the fight against alcoholism. La Chaux-de-Fonds was a centre of international pacifism. Evard became a member of the Christian Youth Association of the pastor and administered the publication of the weekly newspaper for 30 years. Through his activities at Pettavel he got to know the painter Louis Reguin, whose daughter he married in 1928. Around the year 1907 Evard shifted his artistic interest completely to painting and drawing and in the same year undertook a longer study trip to Italy, where he studied the old Masters.

Above all, small-format portraits and atmospheric landscapes were the main characteristics of the works of the following years. His first collages were made in 1908; the participation in various exhibitions, such as 1909 in Munich or 1914 in Neuchâtel, did not lead to any success either. The result was a complete reorientation, thus from 1913 he undertook the first non-objective and constructive attempts, which were to place him in the front rank not only of the Swiss avant-garde. More and more he devoted himself to the principle of the series, because he was fascinated by the variations of a basic motif and its color variations. From 1912 until the end of World War I, André Evard used the name "Louvrier" as a pseudonym. After the death of his mother longer stays in Paris followed from 1923 to 1927, during which he again dealt intensively with the old and modern masters and got to know artists like Georges Braque, Robert Delaunay and Theo van Doesburg, who tried in vain to win him for cooperation in the'De Stijl' groupIn addition, he came into contact with African sculpture for the first time, which increased his interest in non-European art.

Since he has attached particular importance to black – for him the aristocrat of colors. Some of his abstract and constructive works created during these Parisian years were exhibited at the Salon des Indépendents and the Salon d'Automne. Although André Evard was now at the center of the avant-garde, he responded to requests from the art trade by rejecting them and never gave his works to galleries or collectors, he sought recognition exclusively in the context of official institutions. Back in La Chaux de Fonds, he married Milca Reguin, the daughter of the painter Louis Reguin in 1928; the following year was a huge one: Due to the Wall Street Crash of 1929 he lost his entire fortune. Until the end of his life he now lived in modest circumstances, it was no longer possible to travel to Paris. His sphere of influence was thus limited to his homeland. Moreover, his avant-garde works were not in demand among conservative audiences. At first he resignedly stopped his production, but from 1932 he changed his style in order to increase the chances of a sale.

In addition to other Concrete works, a multitude of traditionally figurative deserted landscapes and still lifes were created, characterized by strong colors: "La Chaux-de-Fonds lies at around 1,000 metres above sea level and is therefore one of the highest cities in Europe. From this altitude, Evard was fascinated by the spectacle of light during sunrises and sunsets; the steep valley flanks are densely wooded and crossed by rocky outcrops" (in German: La Chaux-de-Fonds liegt auf rund 1.000 Meter über dem Meeresspiegel und ist damit eine der höchstgelegenen Städte Europas. Von eben dieser Höhe aus war Evard besonders von dem Lichtschauspiel fasziniert, das sich ihm während der Sonnenauf- bzw. untergänge bot. Die steilen Talflanken sind dicht bewaldet und teilweise mit Felsbändern du

1988 United States presidential election in West Virginia

The 1988 United States presidential election in West Virginia took place on November 8, 1988. All 50 states and the District of Columbia were part of the 1988 United States presidential election. West Virginia voters chose 6 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. West Virginia was won by Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis, running against incumbent United States Vice President George H. W. Bush of Texas. Dukakis ran with Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen as Vice President, Bush ran with Indiana Senator Dan Quayle. West Virginia weighed in for this election as 13% more Democratic than the national average. To date this is the last time the state voted for a losing Democratic presidential candidate; the 1988 election cycle is the last time that West Virginia did not vote for the same presidential candidate as neighboring Kentucky. The presidential election of 1988 was a partisan election for West Virginia, with over 99% of the electorate voting for either the Republican or Democratic parties, only three candidates appearing on the ballot.

Dukakis won the election in West Virginia with a 5-point margin. The narrow election results in West Virginia are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party, which took place through the 1980s. Through the passage of some controversial economic programs, spearheaded by President Ronald Reagan, the mid-to-late 1980s saw a period of economic growth and stability; the hallmark for Reaganomics was, in part, the wide-scale deregulation of corporate interests, tax cuts for the wealthy. Dukakis ran his campaign on a liberal platform, advocated for higher economic regulation and environmental protection. Bush, ran on a campaign of continuing the social and economic policies of former President Reagan - which gained him much support with social conservatives and people living in rural areas. Additionally, while the economic programs passed under Reagan, furthered under Bush, may have boosted the economy for a brief period, they are criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United States after 2007, such as the Great Recession.

A rare event in any United States presidential election, West Virginia was home to a faithless elector in the election of 1988. During the assembly of the electoral college, one elector from West Virginia, Margarette Leach, cast her vote for Democratic vice presidential nominee Lloyd Bentsen as president, Dukakis as the vice president, she did this in order to draw attention to the lack of accountability for electors under the Electoral College system. Gulf War Presidency of George H. W. Bush