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Electrostatic discharge

Electrostatic discharge is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown. A buildup of static electricity can be caused by electrostatic induction; the ESD occurs when differently-charged objects are brought close together or when the dielectric between them breaks down creating a visible spark. ESD can create spectacular electric sparks, but less dramatic forms which may be neither seen nor heard, yet still be large enough to cause damage to sensitive electronic devices. Electric sparks require a field strength above 40 kV/cm in air, as notably occurs in lightning strikes. Other forms of ESD include corona discharge from sharp electrodes and brush discharge from blunt electrodes. ESD can cause harmful effects of importance in industry, including explosions in gas, fuel vapor and coal dust, as well as failure of solid state electronics components such as integrated circuits; these can suffer permanent damage.

Electronics manufacturers therefore establish electrostatic protective areas free of static, using measures to prevent charging, such as avoiding charging materials and measures to remove static such as grounding human workers, providing antistatic devices, controlling humidity. ESD simulators may be used to test electronic devices, for example with a human body model or a charged device model. One of the causes of ESD events is static electricity. Static electricity is generated through tribocharging, the separation of electric charges that occurs when two materials are brought into contact and separated. Examples of tribocharging include walking on a rug, rubbing a plastic comb against dry hair, rubbing a balloon against a sweater, ascending from a fabric car seat, or removing some types of plastic packaging. In all these cases, the breaking of contact between two materials results in tribocharging, thus creating a difference of electrical potential that can lead to an ESD event. Another cause of ESD damage is through electrostatic induction.

This occurs when an electrically charged object is placed near a conductive object isolated from the ground. The presence of the charged object creates an electrostatic field that causes electrical charges on the surface of the other object to redistribute. Though the net electrostatic charge of the object has not changed, it now has regions of excess positive and negative charges. An ESD event may occur. For example, charged regions on the surfaces of styrofoam cups or bags can induce potential on nearby ESD sensitive components via electrostatic induction and an ESD event may occur if the component is touched with a metallic tool. ESD can be caused by energetic charged particles impinging on an object; this causes deep charging. This is a known hazard for most spacecraft; the most spectacular form of ESD is the spark, which occurs when a heavy electric field creates an ionized conductive channel in air. This can cause minor discomfort to people, severe damage to electronic equipment, fires and explosions if the air contains combustible gases or particles.

However, many ESD events occur without a audible spark. A person carrying a small electric charge may not feel a discharge, sufficient to damage sensitive electronic components; some devices may be damaged by discharges as small as 30 V. These invisible forms of ESD can cause outright device failures, or less obvious forms of degradation that may affect the long term reliability and performance of electronic devices; the degradation in some devices may not become evident until well into their service life. A spark is triggered when the electric field strength exceeds 4–30 kV/cm — the dielectric field strength of air; this may cause a rapid increase in the number of free electrons and ions in the air, temporarily causing the air to abruptly become an electrical conductor in a process called dielectric breakdown. The best known example of a natural spark is lightning. In this case the electric potential between a cloud and ground, or between two clouds, is hundreds of millions of volts; the resulting current.

On a much smaller scale, sparks can form in air during electrostatic discharges from charged objects that are charged to as little as 380 V. Earth's atmosphere consists of 78 % nitrogen. During an electrostatic discharge, such as a lightning flash, the affected atmospheric molecules become electrically overstressed; the diatomic oxygen molecules are split, recombine to form ozone, unstable, or reacts with metals and organic matter. If the electrical stress is high enough, nitrogen oxides can form. Both products are toxic to animals, nitrogen oxides are essential for nitrogen fixation. Ozone is used in water purification. Sparks are an ignition source in combustible environments that may lead to catastrophic explosions in concentrated fuel environments. Most explosions can be traced back to a tiny electrostatic discharge, whether it was an unexpected combustible fuel leak invading a known open air sparking device, or an unexpected spark in a known fuel rich environment; the end result is the same if oxygen is present and the three criteria of the fire triangle have been combined.

Many electronic components microchips, can be damaged by ESD. Sensitive components need to be protected during and after manufacture, during shipping and device assembly

Letters to Angel

Letters to Angel is a 2010 Estonian comedy film directed by Sulev Keedus. The film was selected as the Estonian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, but it did not make the final shortlist, it was nominated to the Estonian Journalists Prize. Roman Baskin Ketter Habakukk as Fee Alina Karmazina Elle Kull Katariina Lauk as Hildegard Mari-Liis Lill Helena Merzin Kaie Mihkelson Tõnu Oja as Jeremia Juunas Kirotaja Ragne Pekarev as Senta Mirtel Pohla as Merily Rain Simmul as Elvis Tiina Tauraite as Edda List of submissions to the 84th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Estonian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Letters to Angel on IMDb

Urspringen

Urspringen is a community in the Main-Spessart district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany and a member of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of Marktheidenfeld. Urspringen lies in the Würzburg Region; the community has only the Gemarkung of Urspringen. The former Amt of the County of Castell passed after mediatization in 1806 and border adjustments in 1810 to the Grand Duchy of Würzburg, with which it passed in 1814 to Bavaria. In the course of administrative reform in Bavaria, the current community came into being with the Gemeindeedikt of 1818. Within town limits, 1,168 inhabitants were counted in 1970, 1,160 in 1987 and in 2015 1,344. Mayor: since 2014 Volker Hemrich. Municipal taxes in 1999 amounted to €615,000, of which net business taxes amounted to €150,000; the community's arms might be described thus: Gules a pallet wavy argent, dexter a ram's attire of the same, sinister quarterly of the first and second. The wavy pallet is canting for the community's name as it represents a brook's source, or “origin”.

About 1730, the Counts of Castell held the Vogtei over Urspringen with which the Voit von Rieneck family was enfeoffed. Recalling this are the quartering on the sinister side, the arms borne by the Counts of Castell, the ram's horn on the dexter side from those borne by the Voit von Rieneck family; the arms have been borne since 1970. According to official statistics, there were 50 workers on the social welfare contribution rolls working in producing businesses in 1998. In trade and transport this was 15. In other areas, 37 workers on the social welfare contribution rolls were employed, 511 such workers worked from home. There were 5 processing businesses. Two businesses were in construction, furthermore, in 1999, there were 32 agricultural operations with a working area of 1 090 ha, of which 1 060 ha was cropland and 28 ha was meadowland. In 1999 the following institutions existed in Urspringen: Kindergartens: 1 with 75 places and 53 children Primary schools: 1 with 10 teachers and 185 pupils Memorial and Documentation Site for the History of the Jews of the Main-Spessart District at the community's former synagogue, whose former function is recalled in a memorial plaque Community’s official webpage

Sony CLIÉ NR Series

The Clie NR, were a series of handheld PDA's made by Sony, announced in March 2002. These devices were distinctive, due a folding "Flip-and-Rotate" clamshell design, with a vertical rotatable screen; the Clié PEG-NR70 was a Personal Digital Assistant made by Sony. The device ran Palm OS and featured a color display, thumb-sized keyboard and MP3/Atrac3 playback with a built-in speaker. Palm OS: 4.1 CPU: Motorola 66 MHz MC68SZ328 Memory: 16 MB DRAM Display: 320 x 480, 16bit Color Sound: Internal audio amplifier and speaker, Headphone out. External Connectors: USB Expansion: Memory Stick Wireless: Infrared Battery: Rechargeable Li-Ion Size & Weight: 7 oz Colour: Silver Otherwise identical to the NR70, the NR70V added a 0.1MP stills camera to the device. Sony CLIÉ NX Series: The NX series succeeds the NR series. Detailed Specifications of the PEG-NR70 SMUP Review of the PEG-NR70

Eureka Inn

The Eureka Inn in Eureka, California is a four-story, 104-room Elizabethan Tudor Revival architectural style hotel, which opened in 1922. In February 1982, the structure was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. For both architectural and cultural reasons, the hotel is one of the most important buildings on the North Coast of California. In late September 2008, the Eureka Times-Standard reported that Libo Zhu purchased the Inn for $2.75 million. His business plan, reviewed by the Greater Eureka Chamber of Commerce, suggested that he has "ambitious" plans to honor the inn's "integrity as a historic hotel."After being closed for nearly six years, the Inn reopened in May 2010. Architectural details include the use of differing roof forms and "visually stunning textured elevations", which are highlighted by stucco and half-timbering; the 93,000-square-foot hotel, which occupies a city block, has had up to 104 guest rooms, including 99 rooms and five full suites. The hotel has contained up to three restaurants, two bars, two saunas, an indoor spa, nine meeting venues, all of, supported by up to 140 employees.

Resplendent with its courtyard, grand entry, great lounge and giant fireplace, constructed of Redwood, it is the largest conference facility and third largest lodging property in the region. The building, a National Register of Historic Places property, remained closed for several years, awaiting an owner who could return it to its rightful place as the cultural hub of the Greater Eureka Area. Though the exterior was refurbished in 2005, including a return to its 1920's color scheme of white with green highlighting and trim, the interior rooms and public areas needed updating and remodeling to be made again ready for the public; the hotel opening and dedication in 1922 coincided with the opening of the Redwood Highway between Eureka and San Francisco. A large property for those times, the Eureka Inn was the premier full service lodging between San Francisco and Portland, Oregon. Though it housed many thousands of visitors from all over the world during its first several decades, the hotel began to show the effects of time.

In 1960 Helen Barnum, the matriarch of a successful timber family in the county, purchased controlling interest in the hotel and a process of modernization began. The Inn appears extensively in the 2018 film An Evening with Beverly Luff Linn, under the name of The Moorhouse Hotel. Both the exterior and interior were used in the film. Hotel Arcata: Another nearby historic hotel National Register of Historic Places listings in Humboldt County, California Eureka Inn Official Website

Encyclopedia of Life

The Encyclopedia of Life is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world, it aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, images, graphics, as well as text. In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries; the project was backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively. The additional US$25 million came from five cornerstone institutions—the Field Museum, Harvard University, the Marine Biological Laboratory, the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Smithsonian Institution; the project was led by Jim Edwards and the development team by David Patterson.

Today, participating institutions and individual donors continue to support EOL through financial contributions. EOL went live on 26 February 2008 with 30,000 entries; the site proved to be popular, temporarily had to revert to demonstration pages for two days when over 11 million views of it were requested. The site relaunched on 5 September 2011 with a redesigned interface and tools; the new version – referred to as EOLv2 – was developed in response to requests from the general public, citizen scientists and professional biologists for a site, more engaging and personal. EOLv2 is redesigned to encourage contributions and interactions among users, it is internationalized with interfaces provided for English, Spanish, Galician, Macedonian, Chinese and Ukrainian language speakers. On 16 January 2014, EOL launched TraitBank, a searchable, open digital repository for organism traits, measurements and other facts for all taxa; the initiative's Executive Committee includes senior officers from the Atlas of Living Australia, the Biodiversity Heritage Library consortium, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CONABIO, Field Museum, Harvard University, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, MacArthur Foundation, Marine Biological Laboratory, Missouri Botanical Garden, Sloan Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution.

Information about many species is available from a variety of sources, in particular about the megafauna. Gathering available data on all 1.9 million species will take about 10 years. As of September 2011, EOL had information on more than 700,000 species available, along with more than 600,000 photos and millions of pages of scanned literature; the initiative relies on indexing information compiled by other efforts, including the Sp2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life and the Assembling Tree of Life project of NSF, AmphibiaWeb, Mushroom explorer, etc. The initial focus has been on living species but will include extinct species; as the discovery of new species is expected to continue, the encyclopedia will continue to grow. As taxonomy finds new ways to include species discovered by molecular techniques, the rate of new additions will increase in respect to the microbial work of bacteria and viruses. EOL's goal is to serve as a resource for the general public, enthusiastic amateurs, educators and professional scientists from around the world.

The Encyclopedia of Life has content partners around the world who share information through the EOL platform, including Wikipedia and Flickr. Its interface is translated at translatewiki.net. All Species Foundation Biodiversity Heritage Library List of online encyclopedias Wikispecies Official website "A Leap for All Life: World's Leading Scientists Announce Creation of Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. 2007-05-09. The Encyclopedia of Life – Introductory video on YouTube from May 2007