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Electrum

Electrum is a occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals. It has been produced artificially, is known as green gold; the ancient Greeks called it'gold' or'white gold', as opposed to'refined gold'. Its colour ranges depending on the proportions of gold and silver; the gold content of occurring electrum in modern Western Anatolia ranges from 70% to 90%, in contrast to the 45–55% of gold in electrum used in ancient Lydian coinage of the same geographical area. This suggests that one reason for the invention of coinage in that area was to increase the profits from seigniorage by issuing currency with a lower gold content than the circulating metal. Electrum was used as early as the third millennium BCE in Old Kingdom of Egypt, sometimes as an exterior coating to the pyramidions atop ancient Egyptian pyramids and obelisks, it was used in the making of ancient drinking vessels. The first metal coins made were of electrum and date back to the end of the 7th century or the beginning of the 6th century BCE.

For several decades, the medals awarded with the Nobel Prize have been made of gold-plated green gold. The name "electrum" is the Latinized form of the Greek word ἤλεκτρον, mentioned in the Odyssey referring to a metallic substance consisting of gold alloyed with silver; the same word was used for the substance amber because of the pale yellow colour of certain varieties. It is from amber's electrostatic properties that the modern English words "electron" and "electricity" are derived. Electrum was referred to as "white gold" in ancient times, but could be more described as "pale gold", as it is pale yellow or yellowish-white in colour; the modern use of the term white gold concerns gold alloyed with any one or a combination of nickel, silver and palladium to produce a silver-coloured gold. Electrum consists of gold and silver but is sometimes found with traces of platinum and other metals; the name is applied informally to compositions between about 20–80% gold and 20–80% silver atoms, but these are called gold or silver depending on the dominant element.

Analysis of the composition of electrum in ancient Greek coinage dating from about 600 BCE shows that the gold content was about 55.5% in the coinage issued by Phocaea. In the early classical period, the gold content of electrum ranged from 46% in Phokaia to 43% in Mytilene. In coinage from these areas, dating to 326 BCE, the gold content averaged 40% to 41%. In the Hellenistic period, electrum coins with a decreasing proportion of gold were issued by the Carthaginians. In the Eastern Roman Empire controlled from Constantinople, the purity of the gold coinage was reduced, an alloy that can be called electrum began to be used. Electrum is mentioned in an account of an expedition sent by Pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, it is discussed by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia. Electrum is mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures, whose prophet Ezekiel is said to have had a vision of Jehovah on a celestial chariot; the earliest known electrum coins and East Greek coins found under the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, are dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE.

Electrum is believed to have been used in coins c.600 BCE in Lydia during the reign of Alyattes. Electrum was much better for coinage than gold because it was harder and more durable, but because techniques for refining gold were not widespread at the time; the discrepancy between gold content of electrum from modern Western Anatolia and ancient Lydian coinage suggests that the Lydians had solved the refining technology for silver and were adding refined silver to the local native electrum some decades before introducing the pure silver coins cited below. In Lydia, electrum was minted into coins weighing 4.7 grams, each valued at 1/3 stater. Three of these coins—with a weight of about 14.1 grams —totaled one stater, about one month's pay for a soldier. To complement the stater, fractions were made: the trite, the hekte, so forth, including 1/24 of a stater, down to 1/48 and 1/96 of a stater; the 1/96 stater was only about 0.14 grams to 0.15 grams. Larger denominations, such as a one stater coin, were minted as well.

Because of variation in the composition of electrum, it was difficult to determine the exact worth of each coin. Widespread trading was hampered by this problem, as the intrinsic value of each electrum coin could not be determined; these difficulties were eliminated circa 570 BCE when the Croeseids, coins of pure gold and silver were introduced. However, electrum currency remained common until 350 BCE; the simplest reason for this was that, because of the gold content, one 14.1 gram stater was worth as much as ten 14.1 gram silver pieces. Corinthian bronze – a prized alloy in antiquity, which may have contained electrum Hepatizon List of alloys Orichalcum – another distinct metal or alloy mentioned in texts from classical antiquity used to refer to brass Panchaloha Shakudō – a Japanese billon of gold and copper with a dark blue-purple patina Shibuichi – another Japanese alloy known for its patina Thokcha – an alloy of meteoric iron or "thunderbolt iron" used in Tibet Tumbaga – a similar material, originating in Pre-Columbian America Electrum lion coins of the ancient Lydians An image of the obverse of a Lydian coin made of electrum

Sangita Magar

Sangita Magar is a Nepalese woman who became an activist for victims' rights after surviving an acid attack. She and a friend managed to take her SLC exam 25 days later, she subsequently fought to change laws pertaining to victims of such attacks and to the unregulated sale of acid. Sangita Magar was a 16-year-old school girl when she was attacked on February 22, 2015, at Shanti Nikunja School in Basantapur, where she was preparing for her Secondary School Leaving Certificate with her friend Sima Basnet, aged 15. Four masked men splashed the acid on them. After the attack she went through treatments at the Kathmandu Medical College. Magar's father told The Kathmandu Post, "Three other girls and my daughter were studying on their own after their teacher was late to arrive in the class; the attackers entered by breaking the door and threw acid at them". While undergoing treatment, she became suicidal, considering taking her life by jumping out of the hospital window. An investigation revealed that a 20-year-old man who lived in the same building as Magar carried out the attack.

Magar told The Epoch Times that he "barged into the room and when we raised our head to see, he hurled acid at my face, chest and legs". The attacker claimed he was a jilted lover, but Magar denied having been involved with him, that she ever interacted with him, he was sentenced to 10 years in jail for attempted murder. Magar told reporters that she "still fear something might happen, that she "continue to receive threats from his family", she did not leave the house for three years. Sima Basnet wrote the then-Prime Minister of Nepal, Sushil Koirala, to request that they be allowed to take the exam for their Secondary School Leaving Certificate, despite still being in hospital. Koirala ordered the Ministry of Education to grant the request. Nepal averages around 40 acid attacks per year, victims like Magar were not entitled to any immediate payment to help with urgent medical care. In 2017, Magar and Basnet were plaintiffs in a case supported by Forum for Women and Development, a women's rights group, that challenged Nepal's laws on acid and burn violence, a case that resulted in the Nepalese Supreme Court ordering for victims to get immediate financial support for treatment.

In addition, the court ordered that penalties for committing acid attacks be increased from three to ten years' imprisonment. These decisions became law in August 2018, with hospitals now providing free immediate treatment to acid attack victims. Since Magar has been fighting to stop the unregulated sale of the acids used in such attacks, for life punishment for those who commit such attacks, for more support for acid attack survivors, including compensation

City Calm Down

City Calm Down are a four-piece band from Melbourne, Australia. The band's four members are Jack Bourke, Sam Mullaly, Jeremy Sonnenberg, Lee Armstrong, their debut album In a Restless House debuted at number 25 on the ARIA Charts, the single "Rabbit Run" from the album came in 137th place on the Triple J Hottest 100 for 2015. They are signed with the Melbourne-based record label, I Oh You; the band have played multiple sold-out tours and major festivals including Splendour in the Grass, Laneway and The Great Escape. City Calm Down have performed with Alt-J, Bombay Bicycle Club. City Calm Down's song "Your Fix" appears in the 2017 game AFL: Evolution; the band's second full-length album Echoes in Blue was released on 6 April 2018. Featuring the singles "In the Modern Land", "Joan, I'm Disappearing" and "Pride", the album debuted at number 20 on the ARIA Albums Chart and was given a 9/10 score by Beat Magazine. Following the release of their third album Television in 2019, City Calm Down announced that the band was "going on indefinite hiatus".

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