Southern right whale
The southern right whale is a baleen whale, one of three species classified as right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena. 10,000 southern right whales are spread throughout the southern part of the Southern Hemisphere. Right whales were first classified in the genus Balaena in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, who at the time considered all right whales to be a single species. Through the 1800s and 1900s, in fact, the family Balaenidae has been the subject of great taxonometric debate. Authorities have recategorized the three populations of right whale plus the bowhead whale, as one, three or four species, either in a single genus or in two separate genera. In the early whaling days, they were all thought to be a single species, Balaena mysticetus; the southern right whale was described as Balaena australis by Desmoulins in 1822. It was recognized that bowheads and right whales were in fact different, John Edward Gray proposed the genus Eubalaena for the right whale in 1864. Morphological factors such as differences in the skull shape of northern and southern right whales indicated at least two species of right whale—one in the Northern Hemisphere, the other in the Southern Ocean.
As as 1998, Rice, in his comprehensive and otherwise authoritative classification, Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution, listed just two species: Balaena glacialis and Balaena mysticetus. In 2000, Rosenbaum et al. disagreed, based on data from their genetic study of DNA samples from each of the whale populations. Genetic evidence now demonstrates that the northern and southern populations of right whale have not interbred for between 3 million and 12 million years, confirming the southern right whale as a distinct species; the northern Pacific and Atlantic populations are distinct, with the North Pacific right whale being more related to the southern right whale than to the North Atlantic right whale. Genetic differences between E. japonica and E. australis are much smaller than other baleen whales represent among different ocean basins. It is believed that the right whale populations first split because of the joining of North and South America; the rising temperatures at the equator created a second split, into the northern and southern groups, preventing them from interbreeding.
In 2002, the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission accepted Rosenbaum's findings, recommended that the Eubalaena nomenclature be retained for this genus. The cladogram is a tool for comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa; the point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. The following cladogram of the family Balaenidae serves to illustrate the current scientific consensus as to the relationships between the southern right whale and the other members of its family. Other junior synonyms for E. australis have included B. antarctica, B. antipodarum, Hunterus temminckii, E. glacialis australis. Like other right whales, the southern right whale is distinguished from others by the callosities on its head, a broad back without a dorsal fin, a long arching mouth that begins above the eye, its skin is dark grey or black with some white patches on the belly. The right whale's callosities appear white due to large colonies of cyamids.
It is indistinguishable from the related North Atlantic and the North Pacific right whales, displaying only minor skull differences. It may have fewer callosities on its head than North Atlantic and more on its lower lips than the two northern species. Biological functions of callosities are unclear although the primal role has been considered to be for protection against predators, whales' declines may affect on diversities and quantities of barnacles. An adult female is 15 m and can weigh up to 47 tonnes, with the larger records of 17.5–18 m in length and 80 tonnes or up to 90 tonnes in weight, making them smaller than other right whales in the Northern Hemisphere. The testicles of right whales are to be the largest of any animal, each weighing around 500 kg; this suggests. Right whales do not cross the warm equatorial waters to connect with the other species and breed: their thick layers of insulating blubber make it difficult for them to dissipate their internal body heat in tropical waters.
However, based on historical records and unconfirmed sightings in modern periods, E. australis transits may indeed occur through equatorial waters. Moreover, a stranding of a 21.3 m long right whale at Gajana, northwestern India in November 1944 was reported, true identity of this animal is unclear. The proportion and numbers of molten-coloured individuals are notable in this species compared with the other species in the Northern Hemisphere; some whales remain white after growing up. Life span is not clear. Like other right whales, they are rather active on the water surface and curious towards human vessels. Southern rights appear to be more active and tend to interact with humans more than the other two northern species. One behavior unique to the southern right whale, known as tail sailing, is that of using their elevated flukes to catch the wind, remaining in the same position for considerable amount of time
The chinstrap penguin is a species of penguin which inhabits a variety of islands and shores in the Southern Pacific and the Antarctic Ocean. Its name derives from the narrow black band under its head which makes it appear as if it were wearing a black helmet, making it easy to identify. Other common names include ringed penguin, bearded penguin, stonecracker penguin, due to its loud, harsh call; the chinstrap penguin grows to a length of 68–76 centimetres and a weight of 3.2–5.3 kilograms, with the exact weight varying on the time of year. Males have height than females; the adult chinstraps' flippers are black with a white edge. The face is white extending behind the eyes; the strong legs and the webbed feet are pink. Its short, stumpy legs give it a distinct waddle; the chinstrap penguin's black back and white underside provide camouflage in the form of counter-shading when viewed from above or below, helping to avoid detection by its predators. Chinstrap penguins have a circumpolar distribution.
They breed in Antarctica, Bouvet Island, the Falkland Islands, the French Southern Territories, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Vagrant individuals have been found in New Zealand, the islands of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha, South Africa; the global population of the chinstrap penguin is estimated to be at least eight million. Although it is believed to be decreasing overall, its population is not fragmented and in many sites it is increasing or stable; the chinstrap penguin is threatened by climate change. In several parts of its range, climate change decreases the abundance of krill, which makes reproduction less successful. Other potential threats include the fishing of krill by humans. Several conservation actions are taking place for this species. Multiple areas where it lives are being monitored for long periods. Conservation actions proposed for the future include more monitoring and researching of its population and behavior, it is listed as a species of least concern on the IUCN Red List as of 2016, due to its large range and population, following five previous assessments of the same status from 2004 to 2012 and three assessments as "unknown" from 1988 to 2000.
The diet of the chinstrap penguin consists of fish, krill and squid which they swim up to 80 km offshore each day to obtain. The chinstrap penguin's packed feathers provide a waterproof coat, enabling it to swim in freezing waters. Additionally, thick blubber deposits and intricate blood vessels in the flippers and legs assist in the preservation of heat. On land they build circular nests from stones, lay two eggs, which are incubated by both the male and the female for shifts of around 6 days each; the chicks hatch after around 37 days, have fluffy grey backs and white fronts. The chicks stay in the nest for 20 --. At around 50 -- 60 days old, they moult, go to sea; the main predator of the chinstrap penguin at sea is the leopard seal. Every year, the leopard seal causes its population to decrease by about 5% to 20%. On land, the brown skua, south polar skua, southern giant petrel are the primary predators of the penguin; these three species most prey on eggs and young chinstrap penguins. Chinstrap penguins are the most aggressive species of penguin.
In 2004, two male chinstrap penguins named Roy and Silo in Central Park Zoo, New York City, formed a pair bond and took turns trying to "hatch" a rock, for which a keeper substituted a fertile egg, the pair subsequently hatched and raised the chick. Penguins by nature are social creatures; the children's book And Tango Makes Three was written based on this event. 70south.com: Info on Chinstrap penguins Chinstrap penguin images Penguin World: Chinstrap penguins Animals and Earth - photos for conservation, science and you - chinstrap penguin photos
Antarctic Treaty System
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude; the treaty entered into force in 1961 and has 53 parties. The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, bans military activity on the continent; the treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. Since September 2004, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina; the main treaty was opened for signature on December 1, 1959, entered into force on June 23, 1961. The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year of 1957–58; the twelve countries that had significant interests in Antarctica at the time were: Argentina, Belgium, France, New Zealand, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States.
These countries had established over 55 Antarctic stations for the IGY. The treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific co-operation, achieved "on the ice". Article I1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. There shall be prohibited, inter alia, any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, as well as the testing of any type of weapons. 2. The present treaty shall not prevent the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes. Article IIFreedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end, as applied during the International Geophysical Year, shall continue, subject to the provisions of the present treaty. Article III1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable: information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations.
2. In implementing this Article, every encouragement shall be given to the establishment of cooperative working relations with those Specialized Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica. Article IV1. Nothing contained in the present treaty shall be interpreted as: a renunciation by any Contracting Party of asserted rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica. 2. No acts or activities taking place while the present treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present treaty is in force. Article V1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material shall be prohibited. 2. In the event of the conclusion of international agreements concerning the use of nuclear energy, including nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material, to which all of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX are parties, the rules established under such agreements shall apply in Antarctica.
Article VIThe provisions of the present treaty shall apply to the area south of 60 degree South Latitude, including all ice shelves, but nothing in the present treaty shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any State under international law with regard to the high seas within that area. Article VII1. In order to promote the objectives and ensure the observance of the provisions of the present treaty, each Contracting Party whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings referred to in Article IX of the treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any inspection provided for by the present Article. Observers shall be nationals of the Contracting Parties; the names of observers shall be communicated to every other Contracting Party having the right to designate observers, like notice shall be given of the termination of their appointment. 2. Each observer designated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall have complete freedom of access at any time to any or all areas of Antarctica.
3. All areas of Antarctica, including all stations and equipment within those areas, all ships and aircraft at points of discharging or embarking cargoes or personnel in Antarctica, shall be open at all times to inspection by any observers designated in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article. 4. Aerial observation may be carried ou
Admiral Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev was a Russian fleet commander and an explorer. Lazarev was born in a scion of the old Russian nobility from the Vladimir province. In 1800, he enrolled in Russia's Naval College. Three years he was sent to the British Royal Navy, where he would stay for a continuous five-year navigation. From 1808 to 1813, Lazarev served in the Baltic Fleet, he took part in the Russo-Swedish War of 1808–1809 and Patriotic War of 1812. Lazarev first circumnavigated the globe in 1813–1816, aboard the vessel Suvorov. During this voyage, Lazarev discovered the Suvorov Atoll; as a commander of the ship Mirny and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen's deputy on his world cruise in 1819–1821, Lazarev took part in the discovery of Antarctica and numerous islands. On 28 January 1820 the expedition discovered the Antarctic mainland, approaching the Antarctic coast at the coordinates 69°21′28″S 2°14′50″W and seeing ice-fields there. In 1822–1825, Lazarev circumnavigated the globe for the third time on his frigate Kreyser, conducting broad research in the fields of meteorology and ethnography.
In 1826, Lazarev became commander of the ship Azov, which would sail to the Mediterranean Sea as the flagship of the First Mediterranean Squadron under command of Admiral Login Petrovich Geiden and participated in the Battle of Navarino in 1827. Lazarev received the rank of rear admiral for his excellence during the battle. In 1828–1829, he was in charge of the Dardanelles blockade. In 1830, Lazarev became a commander of naval units of the Baltic Fleet. Two years he was made Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Fleet. In February–June 1833, Lazarev led a Russian squadron to the Bosporus and signed the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi with the Ottoman Empire. In 1833, Lazarev was appointed Commander of the Black Sea Fleet, the Black Sea ports, military governor of Sevastopol and Nikolayev. Admiral Lazarev was influential both as a mentor to younger officers, he advocated the creation of a steam-powered fleet, but Russia's technical and economical backwardness was a major hindrance to this. He tutored a number of the Russian fleet commanders, including Pavel Nakhimov, Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov, Vladimir Istomin, Grigory Butakov.
An atoll in the Pacific Ocean, capes in the Amur Liman and on the Unimak Island, a former island in the Aral Sea, a bay and a port in the Sea of Japan and sea in the South Ocean, a settlement near Sochi and other locations bear Lazarev's name. Several ships were named after the admiral: A light cruiser ordered for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1914, completed and renamed Krasnyi Kavkaz after the Russian Revolution. Admiral Lazarev was a Sverdlov-class cruiser built in the early 1950s; the Kirov-class battlecruiser Frunze was renamed Admiral Lazarev after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Lazarev is buried with his disciples Nakhimov and Istomin in the Admirals' Burial Vault in Sevastopol. A minor planet 3660 Lazarev, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1978, is named after him. Order of St. George, IV class Order of St. Vladimir, 1st class Order of St. Alexander Nevsky Order of White Eagle Knight of the Order of the Bath Military Order of St. Louis Media related to Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev at Wikimedia Commons A map of his Antarctic expedition, attention – all dates there are Julian
British Antarctic Survey
The British Antarctic Survey is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation. It is part of the Natural Environment Research Council. With over 400 staff, BAS takes an active role in Antarctic affairs, operating five research stations, two ships and five aircraft in both polar regions, as well as addressing key global and regional issues; this involves joint research projects with over 40 UK universities and more than 120 national and international collaborations. Having taken shape from activities during World War II, it was known as the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey until 1962. Operation Tabarin was a small British expedition in 1943 to establish permanently occupied bases in the Antarctic, it was a joint undertaking by the Colonial Office. At the end of the war it was renamed the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey and full control passed to the Colonial Office. At this time there were three occupied and one unoccupied. By the time FIDS was renamed the British Antarctic Survey in 1962, 19 stations and three refuges had been established.
In 2012 the parent body, NERC, proposed merging the BAS with another NERC institute, National Oceanography Centre in Southampton. This proved controversial, after the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee opposed the move the plan was dropped. 1945 – 1948: Edward W. Bingham 1958 – 1973: Vivian Fuchs 1973 – May 1987: Richard Laws 1987 – 1994: David Drewry 1994 – 1997: Barry Heywood 1998 – 2007: Chris Rapley 2007 – May 2012: Nick Owens November 2012 – September 2013: Alan Rodger October 2013: Jane Francis The BAS operates five permanent research stations in the British Antarctic Territory: Rothera Research Station on Adelaide Island Halley Research Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf Signy Research Station on Signy Island Fossil Bluff logistics facility on Alexander Island Sky Blu logistics facility in Ellsworth LandOf these Research Stations, only Rothera and Halley are manned throughout the year. Halley VI was closed for the March 2017 winter after relocation due to safety concerns when a inactive crack, "Chasm 1", in the Brunt Ice shelf began to expand in the direction of the base.
The base was closed again in March 2018 with similar concerns. The remaining bases are manned only during the Antarctic summer; the BAS operates two permanent bases on South Georgia: King Edward Point Research Station at King Edward Point Bird Island Research Station on Bird IslandBoth South Georgia bases are manned throughout the year. The headquarters of the BAS are on Madingley Road; this facility provides offices and workshops to support the scientific and logistic activities in the Antarctic. The BAS operates the Ny-Ålesund Research Station on behalf of the NERC; this is an Arctic research base located at Ny-Ålesund on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen. BAS operates two ships in support of its Antarctic research programme. Whilst both vessels have research and supply capabilities, the RRS James Clark Ross is an oceanographic research ship, whilst RRS Ernest Shackleton is a logistics ship used for the resupply of scientific stations. James Clark Ross replaced RRS John Biscoe in 1991 and Ernest Shackleton was the successor to RRS Bransfield in 1999.
Both vessels depart from the United Kingdom in September or October of each year, return to the United Kingdom in the following May or June. Both vessels undergo refit and drydock during the Antarctic winter, but are used elsewhere during this period. James Clark Ross undertakes scientific research on behalf of other organisations in the Arctic, whilst Ernest Shackleton is chartered into commercial survey work; the two civilian ships operated by the BAS are complemented by the capabilities of the Royal Navy's ice patrol vessel that operates in the same waters. Until 2008 this was a Class 1A1 icebreaker. Endurance's two Lynx helicopters enabled BAS staff to get to remote field sites that BAS aircraft could not access. However, a catastrophic flooding accident left Endurance badly damaged, with a replacement only being procured in 2011; this ship, HMS Protector, first deployed to the Antarctic in November 2011. In April 2014 the government authorised the procurement by BAS of a new large Antarctic research vessel at an estimated cost of £200 million, expected to be in service in 2019.
BAS operates five aircraft in support of its research programme in Antarctica. The aircraft used are all made by de Havilland Canada and comprise four Twin Otters and one Dash 7; the planes are maintained by Rocky Mountain Aircraft in Springbank, Canada. During the Antarctic summer the aircraft are based at the Rothera base, which has a 900-metre gravel runway. During the Antarctic winter, conditions preclude the aircraft return to Canada; the larger Dash 7 undertakes regular shuttle flights between either Port Stanley Airport on the Falkland Islands, or Punta Arenas in Chile, Rothera. It operates to and from the ice runway at the Sky Blu base; the smaller Twin Otters are equipped with skis for landing on snow and ice in remote areas, operate out of the bases at Rothera, Fossil Bluff and Sky Blu. In January 2008, a team of British Antarctic Survey scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica's ice sheet; the biggest eruption in the last 10,000 years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains, close to Pine Island Glacier.
The British Antarctic Survey were responsible for the discovery of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. The discovery was made
Whaling is the hunting of whales for their usable products such as meat and blubber, which can be turned into a type of oil which became important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as an organized industry as early as 875 AD. By the 16th century, it had risen to be the principle industry in the coastal regions of Spain and France; the industry spread throughout the world, became profitable in terms of trade and resources. Some regions of the world's oceans, along the animals' migration routes, had a dense whale population, became the targets for large concentrations of whaling ships, the industry continued to grow well into the 20th century; the depletion of some whale species to near extinction led to the banning of whaling in many countries by 1969, to a worldwide cessation of whaling as an industry in the late 1980s. The earliest forms of whaling date to at least circa 3000 BC. Coastal communities around the world have long histories of subsistence use of cetaceans, by dolphin drive hunting and by harvesting drift whales.
Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets of whaleships in the 17th century. By the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission banned commercial whaling because of the extreme depletion of most of the whale stocks. Contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Countries that support commercial whaling, notably Iceland and Norway, wish to lift the ban on certain whale stocks for hunting. Anti-whaling countries and environmental groups oppose lifting the ban. Under the terms of the IWC moratorium, aboriginal whaling is allowed to continue on a subsistence basis. Over the past few decades, whale watching has become a significant industry in many parts of the world; the live capture of cetaceans for display in aquaria continues. Whaling began in prehistoric times in coastal waters; the earliest depictions of whaling are the Neolithic Bangudae Petroglyphs in Korea, which may date back to 6000 BC. These images are the earliest evidence for whaling.
Although prehistoric hunting and gathering is considered to have had little ecological impact, early whaling in the Arctic may have altered freshwater ecology. Early whaling affected the development of disparate cultures – such as Norway and Japan, both of which continue to hunt in the 21st century; the Basques were the first to catch whales commercially, dominated the trade for five centuries, spreading to the far corners of the North Atlantic and reaching the South Atlantic. The development of modern whaling techniques was spurred in the 19th century by the increase in demand for whale oil, sometimes known as "train oil", in the 20th century by a demand for margarine and whale meat. Many countries which once had significant industries, such as the Netherlands and Argentina, ceased whaling long ago, so are not covered in this article; the primary species hunted are minke whales,belugas and pilot whales. Which are some of the smallest species of whales. There are smaller numbers killed of gray whales, sei whales, fin whales, bowhead whales, Bryde's whales, sperm whales and humpback whales.
Recent scientific surveys estimate a population of 103,000 minkes in the northeast Atlantic. With respect to the populations of Antarctic minke whales, as of January 2010, the IWC states that it is "unable to provide reliable estimates at the present time" and that a "major review is underway by the Scientific Committee."Whale oil is used little today and modern whaling is done for food: for pets, fur farms, sled dogs and humans, for making carvings of tusks and vertebrae. Both meat and blubber are eaten from narwhals and bowheads. From commercially hunted minkes, meat is eaten by humans or animals, blubber is rendered down to cheap industrial products such as animal feed or, in Iceland, as a fuel supplement for whaling ships. International cooperation on whaling regulation began in 1931 and culminated in the signing of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, its aim is to: provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry.
The International Whaling Commission was set up under the ICRW to decide hunting quotas and other relevant matters based on the findings of its Scientific Committee. Non-member countries conduct their own management programs, it regulates hunting of 13 species of great whales, has not reached consensus on whether it may regulate smaller species. The IWC voted on July 23, 1982, to establish a moratorium on commercial whaling of great whales beginning in the 1985–86 season. Since 1992, the IWC's Scientific Committee has requested that it be allowed to give quota proposals for some whale stocks, but this has so far been refused by the Plenary Committee. At the 2010 meeting of the International Whaling Commission in Morocco, representatives of the 88 member states discussed whether or not to lift the 24-year ban on commercial whaling. Japan and Iceland have urged the organisation to lift the ban. A coalition of anti-whaling nations has offered a compromise plan that would allow these countries to continue whaling, but with smaller catches and under close supervision.
Their plan would completely ban whaling in the Southern Ocean. More than 200 scientists and experts have