SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eleusinian Mysteries

The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. They are the "most famous of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece", their basis was an old agrarian cult, there is some evidence that they were derived from the religious practices of the Mycenean period. The mysteries represented the myth of the abduction of Persephone from her mother Demeter by the king of the underworld Hades, in a cycle with three phases: the descent, the search, the ascent, with the main theme being the ascent of Persephone and the reunion with her mother, it was a major festival during the Hellenic era, spread to Rome. Similar religious rites appear in Minoan Crete; the rites and beliefs were kept secret and preserved from antiquity. For the initiated, the rebirth of Persephone symbolized the eternity of life which flows from generation to generation, they believed that they would have a reward in the afterlife. There are many pieces of pottery that depict various aspects of the Mysteries.

Since the Mysteries involved visions and conjuring of an afterlife, some scholars believe that the power and longevity of the Eleusinian Mysteries, a consistent set of rites and experiences that spanned two millennia, came from psychedelic drugs. The name of the town, Eleusís, seems to be Pre-Greek and it is a counterpart with Elysium and the goddess Eileithyia. Eleusinian Mysteries was the name of the mysteries of the city Eleusis; the name of the city Eleusis is Pre-Greek, may be related with the name of the goddess Eileithyia. Her name Ἐλυσία in Laconia and Messene relates her with the month Eleusinios and Eleusis, but this is debated; the ancient Greek word "mystery" means "mystery or secret rite" and is related with the verb mueō, which means initiation into the mysteries, the noun mustēs, which means one initiated. The word mustikós means "connected with the mysteries", or "private, secret"; the Mysteries are related to a myth concerning Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fertility as recounted in one of the Homeric Hymns.

According to the hymn, Demeter's daughter Persephone was assigned the task of painting all the flowers of the earth. Before completion, she was seized by Hades, the god of the underworld, who took her to his underworld kingdom. Distraught, Demeter searched low for her daughter; because of her distress, in an effort to coerce Zeus to allow the return of her daughter, she caused a terrible drought in which the people suffered and starved, depriving the gods of sacrifice and worship. As a result, Zeus allowed Persephone to return to her mother. According to the myth, during her search Demeter traveled long distances and had many minor adventures along the way. In one she taught the secrets of agriculture to Triptolemus. By consulting Zeus, Demeter reunited with her daughter and the earth returned to its former verdure and prosperity: the first spring. Zeus, pressed by the cries of the hungry people and by the other deities who heard their anguish, forced Hades to return Persephone. However, it was a rule of the Fates that whoever consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there.

Before Persephone was released to Hermes, sent to retrieve her, Hades tricked her into eating pomegranate seeds, which forced her to return to the underworld for some months each year. She was obliged to remain with Hades for six or four months and lived above ground with her mother for the rest of the year; this left a long period of time when Demeter was unhappy due to Persephone's absence, neglecting to cultivate the earth. When Persephone returned to the surface, Demeter cared for the earth again. In the central foundation document of the mystery, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter line 415, Persephone is said to stay in Hades during winter and return in the spring of the year: "This was the day, at the beginning of bountiful springtime." This fits with the Mediterranean change of seasons. As every Mediterranean farmer knows, nature from November to February is dormant. Persephone's rebirth is symbolic of the rebirth of all plant life and the symbol of eternity of life that flows from the generations that spring from each other.

However, a scholar has proposed a different version, according to which the four months during which Persephone is with Hades correspond to the dry Greek summer, a period during which plants are threatened with drought. This version, does not correspond with the Mediterranean abundance of fruit during the summer and the fact that there is no growth during winter; the Eleusinian Mysteries are believed to be of considerable antiquity. Some findings in the temple Eleusinion in Attica suggest; some practices of the mysteries seem to have been influenced by the religious practices of the Mycenaean period and thus predating the Greek Dark Ages. Excavations showed that, a private building existed under the Telesterion in the Mycenean period, it seems that the cult of Demeter was private. In the Homeric Hymn is mentioned the palace of the king Keleos. One line of thought by modern scholars has been that the Mysteries were intended "to elevate man above the human sphere into the divine and to assure his redemption by making him a god and so conferring immortality upon him".

Comparative study shows parallels between these Greek r

Minerva-class corvette

The Minerva class is a series of corvettes of the Italian Navy. They were built in two batches of four units during the 1990s; the ships have good speed and armament, including a 76 mm general-purpose gun, due to their emphasis on anti-submarine warfare, they lack anti-ship missile capabilities. These units are designed to operate in coastal areas, their main missions include sea policing, fisheries protection, naval commando training. Four ships of this class, namely Minerva, Urania and Sibilla, were sold to Bangladesh Coast Guard; these ships were reclassified as Leader-class offshore patrol vessels. Before delivery, each ship's weapons and sensor systems were removed and replaced with one Oerlikon KBA 25 mm gun and modern sensors appropriate to coast guard roles. A helipad was added at the stern of each ship to accommodate a rescue helicopter. Saunders, Stephen. Jane's Fighting Ships 2002–2003. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0710624328

The DeAndre Way

The DeAndre Way is the third studio album by American rapper Soulja Boy. It was released on November 30, 2010, by his label Stacks on Deck Entertainment, Collipark Music and Interscope Records. At the time, Soulja Boy stated that he wished to begin working with artists such as Jay-Z and Eminem. Soulja Boy collaborated with American rappers Gucci Mane and Birdman on the track titled "Swag Flu" and collaborated with Canadian teen pop singer Justin Bieber on the track titled "Rich Girl". Nicki Minaj, Snoop Dogg, 50 Cent, Lil Wayne, Trey Songz, Jamie Foxx, Busta Rhymes, Chris Brown, Ray J, Arab were in works to be featured on the album, but Trey Songz, 50 Cent, Arab were the only artists who appear on the album out of those names. SOD's rapper JBar was to be featured on the album, but did not make it the final cut; the track titled "Mean Mug", a collaboration with 50 Cent, was released on September 23. On April 23, 2011, after the album's release, during an interview with Complex, Way stated his internal disagreements with Interscope influenced the album's disappointing record sales.

Way blamed the timing of the album. "Honestly, I shut down for a week," He told Complex. "I wasn't talking to nobody, I wasn't talking to management, I wasn't talking to the label. I wasn't picking up nobody's calls. I went like that for a week. I was in a state of confusion. I needed answers...the label only shipped like 18,000 copies. So I wasn't able to do gold first week or 100k, none of that, they only put like 8,000 units in Best Buy. It was crazy." Way stated he felt helpless because of communication with Interscope was lacking, he believed the label failed to listen to him. He claims his souring relationship with record producer and mentor Mr. Collipark, who for the first time did not do any production work on Way's album, gave him less power to negotiate with record execs. "When I first started it was Collipark. But after my label Stacks on Deck Money Gang Records was established and I started making all these different moves, I started to become a businessman. My label was taking off and I guess I was putting more time and energy into that to Collipark.

He wasn't feeling that and it just went left. He wanted me to be all for Collipark. So during the third album, I didn't have him there to be able to tell the label to ship 500,000 the first week, or put the single on the radio, or we need this song. So I was out there by myself, just hoping the label will do the best they can." Though the two have since made up, Way stated that because of the disappointing album sales he was about to give up on his music career, but he didn't because of his other mentor 50 Cent, a guest on the album, told him not to and to keep going. "50 was like, ` You've got to keep doing. You're Soulja Boy, you're here for a reason. Everybody's not going platinum. Everybody didn't do. Everybody didn't come in on the Internet. You're the one. You're the one. You're the one that got us on blogs, on YouTube, on Twitter.' I was like,'Man, you know what? You're right.' He wasn't doing nothing but speaking true knowledge to my head and it got me right back in the studio. So I ain't going to never quit.

I'm going to stay in this music industry. I'm going to stay making hits, I'm going to do what I've got to do, I thank 50. I needed that at that time." "Pretty Boy Swag" was released as the album's lead single on June 8, 2010. The single has reached number 34 on the US Billboard Hot 100, number 6 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart and number 5 on the Billboard Rap Songs chart; the single has gone on to sell over 1,000,000 copies."Blowing Me Kisses" was released as the album's second single on August 31, 2010."Speakers Going Hammer" was released as the album's third single on October 19, 2010. There are music videos for the tracks "Mean Mug" featuring 50 Cent and "30 Thousand 100 Million" feat. Lil B & Arab, both of them released in November 2010. A video teaser for the deluxe album song "Do It Big" was released in April 2010 to promote the album. Upon release, The DeAndre Way received mixed reviews from music critics; however it has garnered better critical reception than Soulja Boy's previous albums.

IGN stated "For a party-ready southern hip-hop album it gets the job done, but anyone looking for something more substantial needs to look elsewhere." Slant Magazine contributed, "The DeAndre Way doesn't qualify as substantial growth, but it's another solid effort from an innovative MC who's been unfairly chastised by so many." However Rolling Stone labelled the album "bland and jaundiced", while HipHopDX states that it "lacks any evidence of creativity". The DeAndre Way sold 13,400 copies in its first week, a significant drop from his previous two albums; the album debuted at number 90 on the US Billboard 200 chart, number 8 on the Top Rap Albums, number 18 on the R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts. The album has sold 56,000 copies in the United States, making it Way's lowest selling album