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Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed by Congress on March 4, 1794, ratified by the states on February 7, 1795. The Eleventh Amendment restricts the ability of individuals to bring suit against states in federal court; the Eleventh Amendment was adopted to overrule the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in Georgia. In that case, the Supreme Court had held that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from suits made by citizens of other states in federal court. Thus, the Eleventh Amendment established that federal courts do not have the authority to hear cases brought by private citizens against states. Nonetheless, the Supreme Court has held that Congress can abrogate state sovereign immunity when using its authority under the Bankruptcy Clause or Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment; the Supreme Court has held that federal courts can enjoin state officials from violating federal law. The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

The Eleventh Amendment was the first Constitutional amendment adopted after the Bill of Rights. The amendment was adopted following the Supreme Court's ruling in Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U. S. 419. In Chisholm, the Court ruled that federal courts had the authority to hear cases in law and equity brought by private citizens against states and that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from suits made by citizens of other states in federal court. Thus, the amendment clarified Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution, which gives diversity jurisdiction to the judiciary to hear cases "between a state and citizens of another state"; the Eleventh Amendment was proposed by the 3rd Congress on March 4, 1794, when it was approved by the House of Representatives by vote of 81–9, having been passed by the Senate, 23–2, on January 14, 1794. The amendment was ratified by the state legislatures of the following states: New York – March 27, 1794 Rhode Island – March 31, 1794 Connecticut – May 8, 1794 New Hampshire – June 16, 1794 Massachusetts – June 26, 1794 Vermont – November 9, 1794 Virginia – November 18, 1794 Georgia – November 29, 1794 Kentucky – December 7, 1794 Maryland – December 26, 1794 Delaware – January 23, 1795 North Carolina – February 7, 1795As there were 15 States at the time, the ratification by twelve States added the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution.

It was subsequently ratified by: South Carolina – December 4, 1797On January 8, 1798 three years after the Eleventh Amendment's adoption, President John Adams stated in a message to Congress that the Eleventh Amendment had been ratified by the necessary number of States and that it was now a part of the Constitution of the United States. New Jersey and Pennsylvania did not take action on the amendment during that era. However, on June 25, 2018, the New Jersey Senate adopted Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 75 to symbolically post-ratify the Eleventh Amendment. In Hollingsworth v. Virginia, 3 U. S. 378, the Supreme Court held that every pending action brought under Chisholm had to be dismissed because of the amendment's adoption. The amendment's text does not mention suits brought against a state by its own citizens. However, in Hans v. Louisiana, 134 U. S. 1, the Supreme Court ruled. As Justice Anthony Kennedy stated in Alden v. Maine, 527 U. S. 706: overeign immunity derives not from the Eleventh Amendment but from the structure of the original Constitution itself....

Nor can we conclude that the specific Article I powers delegated to Congress include, by virtue of the Necessary and Proper Clause or otherwise, the incidental authority to subject the States to private suits as a means of achieving objectives otherwise within the scope of the enumerated powers. However, Justice David Souter, writing for a four-Justice dissent in Alden, said the states surrendered their sovereign immunity when they ratified the Constitution, he read the amendment's text as reflecting a narrow form of sovereign immunity that limited only the diversity jurisdiction of the federal courts. He concluded that neither the Eleventh Amendment in particular nor the Constitution in general insulates the states from suits by individuals. Eleventh Amendment immunity protects states from lawsuits by foreign states in federal courts. Although the Eleventh Amendment grants immunity to states from suit for money damages or equitable relief without their consent, in Ex parte Young, 209 U. S. 123, the Supreme Court ruled that federal courts may enjoin state officials from violating federal law.

In Fitzpatrick v. Bitzer, 427 U. S. 445, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress may abrogate state immunity from suit under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Central Virginia Community College v. Katz, 546 U. S. 356, the Court ruled the Congress could do the same regarding bankruptcy cases by way of Article I, Section 8, Clause 4 of the Constitution. In Lapides v. Board of Regents of Univ. System of Ga. 535 U. S. 613, the Supreme Court ruled that when a state invokes a federal court's removal jurisdiction, it waives the Eleventh Amendment in the removed case. The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit has ruled that Puerto Rico enjoys Eleventh Amendment immunity; the territories of American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands and the Virgin Islands do not enjoy Eleventh Amendment immunity. Atascadero State Hospital v. Scanlon Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board v. College Savings Bank


Librotraficante was an American protest movement. It began in response to a 2012 decision by the Arizona Superintendent for Public Instruction calling for the removal of books from classes that "promote the overthrow of the United States government, foster racial and class-based resentment, favor one ethnic group over another, or advocate ethnic solidarity". Protesters organized a caravan; the caravan was relaunched in 2017 to coincide with a hearing about ethnic-studies courses in the Arizona Supreme Court. The protest received the Robert B. Downs Intellectual Freedom Award at the American Library Association's Midwinter meeting in 2013. In January 2012, Arizona Superintendent for Public Instruction John Huppenthal ruled that Mexican-American studies classes being held in the Tucson Unified School District violated Arizona law ARS 15-112, which forbade classes that "promote the overthrow of the United States government, foster racial and class-based resentment, favor one ethnic group over another, or advocate ethnic solidarity".

As a result of this ruling, the classes were "converted... to standard grade-level courses with a general curriculum", books used in these courses were removed from classrooms and "moved to the district storage facility". These actions were met including school walk-outs; the Librotraficante movement was one of the protests arising from the decision. Led by author and activist Tony Diaz, the movement comprised a caravan from Houston, Texas to Tucson in March 2012; the caravan included authors of books removed from classrooms as well as intellectual-freedom activists, was intended to "smuggle back into the state" while raising awareness of the decision and promoting Latino literature. It gathered over one thousand copies of the books to create "underground libraries"; the caravan made stops in El Paso and Albuquerque, New Mexico along its route, established a library with some of the books at a Tucson youth center. Diaz launched the movement with a one-minute, forty-one-second video that introduced three new words to the political discussion: "Librotraficante", "wet-book", "dime book".

The caravan was relaunched in 2017 to coincide with a hearing about ethnic-studies courses in the Arizona Supreme Court. According to a July 2015 article in The Atlantic, the Librotraficante movement led to the introduction of ethnic-studies courses in other high schools in Arizona and Texas. In 2013 Librotraficante received the Robert B. Downs Intellectual Freedom Award at the American Library Association's Midwinter meeting. Official website List of books Texas Observer chronicle of the 2012 caravan

Andrew Gow

Andrew Colin Gow is a Canadian historian of medieval and early modern Europe and a noted scholar of early modern witchcraft. He completed his Ph. D with the Reformation scholar Heiko Oberman. Gow is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Alberta, he serves as Editor-in-Chief of Brill Publishers' series Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions. Gow's early work focused on the Red Jews and the German tales of the apocalyptic threat they presented, his first book The Red Jews: Antisemitism in an Apocalyptic Age, 1200-1600 was published in 1995 by Brill. His published work focused on early modern witchcraft. Gow co-wrote Male witches in early modern Europe with Lara Apps; this book critiques. Gow and his research team have been studying and translating an early modern treatise on witch hunting by Johannes Tinctor, Invectives Against the Sect of Waldensians; this book discusses the origin of many of our contemporary ideas about witchcraft, including flying on brooms and casting spells.

This project was featured in an episode of CBC Radio's Ideas. Newspaper articles were written on this project including in the Toronto Star and the Edmonton Journal. Gow and his co-researchers have translated and edited a volume titled The Arras Witch Treatises: Johann Tinctor's Invectives contre la secte de vauderie and the Recollectio casus, status et condicionis Valdensium ydolatrarum by the Anonymous of Arras, co-introduced, co-edited and co-translated with Robert Desjardins and François Pageau, published in 2016 by Penn State University Press in the series'Magic in History'. Gow has published in many historical fields, he has written on the history of German vernacular bibles and the Apocalypse. He co-edited a collection of writing about the Rocky Mountains: Mountain Masculinity: The Life and Writing of Nello "Tex" Vernon-Wood in the Canadian Rockies, 1906-1938. 2002- Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Research Fellow2003 Martha Cook Piper Research Prize.2008 Mercator Visiting Professorship in Medieval History, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, University of Augsburg2016 Lansdowne Lecturer, University of Victoria “The” Red Jews: Antisemitism in the Apocalyptic Age 1200 - 1600.

BRILL. 1995. ISBN 90-04-10255-8. Apps, Lara. Male Witches in Early Modern Europe. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-5709-0. Wood, Tex. Mountain Masculinity: The Life and Writing of Nello "Tex" Vernon-Wood in the Canadian Rockies, 1906-1938. Athabasca University Press. ISBN 978-1-897425-02-2. Gow, Andrew Colin. Desjardins, François V. Pageau. Eds; the Arras Witch Treatises: Johannes Tinctor's Invectives contre la secte de vauderie and the Recollectio casus, status et condicionis Valdensium ydolatrarum by the Anonymous of Arras. Penn State University Press ISBN 978-0-271-07128-2

Environmental emergency

An environmental emergency is defined as a "sudden-onset disaster or accident resulting from natural, technological or human-induced factors, or a combination of these, that causes or threatens to cause severe environmental damage as well as loss of human lives and property." Following a disaster or conflict, an environmental emergency can occur when people's health and livelihoods are at risk due to the release of hazardous and noxious substances, or because of significant damage to the ecosystem. Examples include fires, oil spills, chemical accidents, toxic waste dumping and groundwater pollution; the environmental risks can be life-threatening. According to the International Disaster Database, between 2003 and 2013, there were 380 industrial accidents reported, affecting 207 668 people and resulting in over US$22 million in losses. Climate change is having an unprecedented effect on the occurrence of natural disasters and the associated risk of environmental emergencies. With climate change stretching the disaster relief system, future climate-related emergency events will generate increased and more costly demands for assistance.

All disasters have some environmental impacts. Some of these may be immediate and life-threatening – for example, when an earthquake damages an industrial facility, which in turn releases hazardous materials. In such cases these so-called'secondary impacts' may cause as much damage as the initial causal factor. For example, Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda that struck the Philippines in November 2013, caused massive destruction and had a huge human toll but generated a spill of around 800,000 litres of heavy oil, when a power barge ran aground in Estancia, Iloilo province, at the height of the typhoon. Disasters may have longer-term impacts. For example, natural disasters may cause long-term waste management difficulties or ecosystem damage; the Environmental Emergencies Forum is a unique biennial international forum that brings together disaster managers and environmental experts from governments, UN agencies, academies, NGOs and civil society to improve prevention, preparedness and overall resilience to environmental emergencies.

It provides guidance for the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit, which provides a Secretariat to the meeting. The most recent meeting was held in Norway in June 2015; the next meeting will be held in Nairobi in June 2017. The Joint United Nations Environment Programme /Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Environment Unit: By pairing the UNEP's technical expertise with OCHA's humanitarian response network, the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit mobilizes and coordinates a comprehensive response to environmental emergencies to protect lives, livelihoods and future generations; the JEU can be reached 24 hours/day, seven days/week, all year round and operates at the request of affected countries. The JEU can be called by member states when acute environmental risks to life and health as a result of conflicts, natural disasters and industrial accidents are suspected; the JEU hosts the Environmental Emergencies Centre, an online tool designed to provide national responders with a one-stop-shop of all information relevant to the preparedness and response stages of an environmental emergency.

Website: www.unocha/org/unep. A joint initiative between Green Cross International, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the UN Environment Programme, the Green Star Awards seeks to increase awareness of environmental emergencies by drawing attention to efforts made to prevent, prepare for and respond to such emergencies. Disaster management Environmental disaster Natural disasters Risk management UNISDR Vulnerability World Conference on Disaster Reduction UN OCHA Environmental Emergencies Section Environmental Emergencies Centre Green Star Awards Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction Global Disaster Information Network APELL UNEP/GC.22/INF/5

European Go Championship

The European Go Championship or Congress is the annual and main event of many organised by the European Go Federation for players of the board game Go. It consists of a 2-week open competition, one round per day, making a total of 10 rounds with a champion emerging - the player with the most wins; the congress has taken place in a different European city each year, since the first contest in 1983. During these two weeks, the best Go players in Europe fight for the title of European Champion. Entry in recent years has been from a low of 290 to a high of 718 players; the 2017 Omikron European Go Congress took place in Germany. The first European Go Championship was held in 1938; the current annual series begun with the first championship held in Cuxhaven, Germany. Germany has been quite dominant at the championships. In 1961 the 5th European Go Championship was held in August in Baden, where Japanese professional players Kensaku Segoe and Utaro Hashimoto gave exhibitions. In 1976 European Go Congress was held in Cambridge with 150 European players vying for titles among five separate tournaments which varied the games played, including a tournament at the game of'Lightning Go,' where the game must be played far more than in a traditional match.

The festivities were described by United Press International, reporting on the event, as a "two week orgy of go."In 1977 the 21st championship was held in Rijswijk in the Netherlands. Although not allowed to play in the competition, two Japanese professional players attended and provided instruction and engaged in simultaneous exhibitions. Seminars were given in go theory, computer go and lightning go. In Prague, Alexandre Dinerchtein won against Cătălin Țăranu in the 5th round. In Frascati, Alexandre Dinerchtein lost against the 2001 Champion Andrei Kulkov in the 6th round. Svetlana Shikshina won the title. In Villach, Ilya Shikshin won the title, despite losing to Alexandre Dinerchtein in the 8th round. In Leksand, Ondrej Silt from the Czech Republic beat Cătălin Țăranu in Round 4. In Round 5, Alexandre Dinerchtein won against the 2006 Champion Svetlana Shikshina. Cătălin Țăranu beat the 2007 Champion Ilya Shikshin in Round 8; the 5-dan Go professional Cătălin Țăranu became the second Romanian player to become European Go Champion.

In Groningen, the young 5-dan Thomas Debarre from France defeated Cătălin Țăranu in Round 4. In round 5, the 3-times European Champion from the Netherlands, Rob van Zeijst, lost against Alexandre Dinerchtein. Round 9 saw victory by the 2008 Champion Cătălin Țăranu against Alexandre Dinerchtein. Alexandre Dinerchtein remained ahead on tiebreak to win the title, his seventh time as European go Champion. In Tampere, as a first act of the championship, Cornel Burzo from Romania beat the reigning champion, the Russian professional Alexandre Dinerchtein. Cătălin Țăranu won against Rob Van Zeijst in the 3rd round; the fourth round featured a long game between Taranu and Ilya Shikshin. These two players were undefeated since the beginning of this year's competition. Shikshin won the game, to continue his consecutive victories; the young Artem Kachanovskyy from Ukraine stopped the winning ascension of Shikshin at the seventh round. The next rounds were a fight for the title for these two players. Kachanovskyy led first by beating Csaba Mérő at the 8th round, the 2009 European Youth Champion, Ali Jabarin, in the 9th round, but he lost his final game against Kim JungHyeop, a Korean player.

Shikshin won the title by beating Dinerchtein in the final round. During this tournament, the two leaders won games against Korean players; this is the second European title for Ilya Shikshin. The Championship was held at the "University of Bordeaux I" campus in Talence, from July 23 to August 6; the number of registered players exceeded the 800 expected players, meaning that European Go is healthy. These amateur players were from all European countries, ranked from 30 kyu to 7 dan, professional players from Asia will participate; the French hosting organisation was the Fédération française. The pre-registration board showed the participation of previous champions and possible future title-holders such as Cătălin Țăranu Ilya Shikshin Svetlana Shikshina Alexandre Dinerchtein Artem Kachanovskyy Cristian PopThis edition accommodated the first Pandanet Go European Team Championship, a new competition where Romania, Hungary and Ukraine will try to obtain the first title; as a side-event, a professional competition was held - some games of the China Weiqi League were played.

Yumi Hotta, Hikaru no Go-writer, attended for a conference during the event. The EGC is reliant on generous international sponsorship. For the third consecutive year, Zhuyeqing Tea - the official sponsor of the Chinese national Go team - are the main sponsor of the Congress; the 2012 EGC was held by the river Rhine, in the municipal hall of Bonn-Bad Godesberg, from 21 July to 4 August 2012. Olsztyn in Poland was the host for the 2013 Congress; the 2014 EGC was held in a former European Capital of Culture. Details about this can be found here: The 2015 EGC was held in Liberec, Czech Republic. The 2016 EGC was held in Russia; the 2017 EGC was held in Germany with the highest number of participants in history. The 2018 EGC was held in Italy; the 2019 EGC was held in Belgium. European Go Congresses, at which the European Go Champion is always decided, are planned few years in advance, to cater for up to 800 players; each year, the hosting country's Go association plays a large part in the organisation.

Below are the confirmed locations. As rec

Franz Wittmann Sr.

Franz Wittmann is an Austrian rally driver, who won the 1987 Rally New Zealand, a round of the World Rally Championship. Wittmann began rallying in 1970, he competed on a national level during his career, winning the Austrian championship 12 times between 1976 and 2001. He won 32 rounds of the European Rally Championship, finishing second in the standings in 1978; as a test driver for Audi, he debuted the revolutionary Audi Quattro in 1981. He competed as a factory Volkswagen driver in 1985 and 1986. In 1987 he won Rally New Zealand in a entered Lancia Delta HF 4WD, he competed on his final WRC event at the 1989 Rally Australia. Wittmann's son Franz Jr. competes in rallying. Official website