Elias Boudinot

Elias Boudinot was a lawyer and statesman from Elizabeth, New Jersey, a delegate to the Continental Congress and served as President of Congress from 1782 to 1783. He was elected as a U. S. Congressman for New Jersey following the American Revolutionary War, he was appointed by President George Washington as Director of the United States Mint, serving from 1795 until 1805. Elias Boudinot was born in Philadelphia on May 2, 1740, his father, Elias Boudinot III, was a silversmith. His mother, Mary Catherine Williams, was born in the British West Indies. Elias' paternal grandfather, Elie Boudinot, was the son of Jean Boudinot and Marie Suire of Marans, France, they were a Huguenot family who fled to New York about 1687 to avoid the religious persecutions of King Louis XIV. Mary Catherine Williams and Elias Boudinot Sr. were married on August 8, 1729. Over the next twenty years, they had nine children; the first, was born in the British West Indies-Antigua. Of the others, only the younger Elias and his siblings Annis and Elisha reached adulthood.

Annis became one of the first published women poets in the Thirteen Colonies, her work appeared in leading newspapers and magazines. Elisha Boudinot became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. After studying and being tutored at home, Elias Boudinot went to Princeton, New Jersey to read the law as a legal apprentice to Richard Stockton. An attorney, he had married Elias' older sister Annis Boudinot. Richard Stockton was a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. In 1760, Boudinot was admitted to the bar, began his practice in Elizabeth, New Jersey, he owned land adjacent to the road from Elizabethtown to New Jersey. After getting established, on April 21, 1762, Boudinot married Hannah Stockton, Richard's younger sister, they had two children, Maria Boudinot, who died at age two, Susan Vergereau Boudinot. Susan married William Bradford, who became Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and Attorney General under George Washington. After her husband's death in 1795, Susan Boudinot Bradford returned to her parents' home to live.

The young widow edited her father's papers. Now held by Princeton University, these provide significant insight into the events of the Revolutionary era. In 1805, Elias and Susan moved to a new home in Burlington, New Jersey. Hannah died a few years after their move, Elias lived there for the remainder of his years. In his years, Boudinot invested and speculated in land, he owned large tracts in Ohio including most of Green Township in what is now the western suburbs of Cincinnati, where there is a street bearing his surname. At his death, he willed 13,000 acres to the city of Philadelphia for parks and city needs, he was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary's Church, New Jersey. Boudinot became his practice prospered; as the revolution drew near, he aligned with the Whigs, was elected to the New Jersey provincial assembly in 1775. In the early stages of the Revolutionary War, he was active in promoting enlistment. Boudinot helped support the activities of rebel spies. After the British occupation of New York City, spies were sent to Staten Island and Long Island, New York to observe and report on movements of specific British garrisons and regiments.

On May 5, 1777, General George Washington asked Boudinot to be appointed as commissary general for prisoners. Congress through the board of war concurred. Boudinot was commissioned as a colonel in the Continental Army for this work, he served until July 1778. The commissary managed enemy prisoners, was responsible for supplying American prisoners who were held by the British. In November 1777, the New Jersey legislature named Boudinot as one of their delegates to the Second Continental Congress, his duties as Commissary prevented his attendance, so in May 1778 he resigned. By early July he had been replaced and attended his first meeting of the Congress on July 7, 1778; as a delegate, he still continued his concerns for the welfare of prisoners of war. His first term ended that year. In 1781, Boudinot returned to the Congress, for a term lasting through 1783. In November 1782, he was elected as President of the Continental Congress for a one-year term; the President of Congress was a ceremonial position with no real authority, but the office did require him to handle a good deal of correspondence and sign official documents.

On April 15, 1783 he signed the Preliminary Articles of Peace. When the United States government was formed in 1789, Boudinot was elected from New Jersey to the US House of Representatives, he was elected to the second and third congresses as well, where he supported the administration. He refused to join the expansion of affiliated groups. In 1794, he declined to serve another term, left Congress in early 1795. In October 1795, President George Washington appointed him as Director of the United States Mint, a position he held through succeeding administrations until he retired in 1805. In addition to serving in political office, Elias supported many civic and educational causes during his life. Boudinot served as one of the trustees of the College of New Jersey for nearly half a century, from 1772 until 1821; when the Continental Congress was forced to leave Philadelphia in 1783 while he was president, he moved the meetings

Kitchener line

Kitchener is one of the seven train lines of the GO Transit system in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. It extends from Union Station in Toronto to Kitchener, though most trains originate and terminate in Brampton in off-peak hours; the GO Transit Georgetown line opened on April 29, 1974, becoming the second line in the GO Transit rail network. Peak-direction train service operated between Georgetown and Union Station, replacing a commuter service operated by Canadian National Railway. Service was extended beyond Georgetown to Guelph on October 29, 1990, but was again cut back to Georgetown on July 2, 1993. Limited weekday midday service was introduced in April 2002, with four trains in each direction between Union and Bramalea; these trains were discontinued in 2011 to facilitate construction of the Georgetown South Expansion project. On December 19, 2011, the Georgetown Line was renamed the Kitchener Line as service was extended to Kitchener, making one intermediate stop at Guelph. Another intermediate stop, opened on January 7, 2013.

Weekday midday service was re-introduced in September 2015, with hourly service between Mount Pleasant and Union. In September 2019, GO Transit introduced limited off-peak train service along the entire length of the line, with 2 new weekday round trips operating between Toronto and Kitchener outside of peak periods; as a part of the GO Transit Rail Improvement Program, the West Toronto Diamond was grade separated. The Metrolinx Weston railway, which carries the Kitchener Line as well as UP Express and Via trains, was lowered into a trench to pass under CP's North Toronto main line. Trains began using the new grade separation in May 2014; the Georgetown South railway expansion project was initiated in 2009 with Metrolinx now as its proponent. The project represented a significant increase in railway capacity, with the former one- to two-track railway being widened to 4 tracks within Toronto, with a total of 8 tracks where the Milton line and Barrie line share the corridor. All level crossings along the corridor were eliminated with using roadway underpasses.

The plan would allow for an increased frequency of trains on the route, increasing service from 50 per day to about 300. It drew criticism from Weston community groups, which opposed the increased use of diesel locomotive on the basis of air pollution, they preferred instead. The group has requested more stations along the route; the Georgetown South project was reduced in scope due to cost overruns: the corridor was expanded to three tracks, with the fourth track as well as the dedicated Barrie line tracks deferred to future projects. Construction on the Weston subdivision itself finished in 2015, allowing UP Express to begin operating, while additional track work in the Union Station Rail Corridor continued into 2016. In 2009 Metrolinx purchased 26 kilometres of track along the corridor from Toronto to Bramalea for $160 million. In September 2014, it purchased the 53 kilometres of track from Georgetown to Kitchener from CN for $76 million. In 2019, Metrolinx conducted a series of public forums on electrification of the Kitchener line from Georgetown to Kitchener, in a change from its earlier Regional Express Rail plan, which had called for continuation of diesel train service on the western portion of the line.

Electrification plans reaffirmed overall Metrolinx goals of track bed and bridge improvements, quad-tracking sections of the line, the addition of a station at Breslau. GO Transit train. During the times that trains do not operate, corresponding GO bus service is provided. On weekdays during peak periods in the peak direction 2 trains per hour operate the full route between Toronto and Kitchener, while additional trips operate shorter segments to and from Toronto. Express trains serve all stations between Kitchener and Bramalea, operate non-stop between Bramalea and Union. Outside of peak periods, service operates hourly between Mount Pleasant and Union, of which 2 off-peak in each direction cover the entire route from Kitchener to Toronto; the 2008 proposal to extend the line past Georgetown to Kitchener included some components which have not yet been realized. In addition to the now-realized stations in Kitchener and Acton, the report proposed a station in Breslau which would serve as a Park-and-ride facility for Waterloo Region, a layover yard in Baden, Ontario.

The Breslau station received further approval in an official expansion plan in June, 2016. The provincial initiative known as GO Regional Express Rail proposes a substantial increase in Kitchener Line service over the next decade. During peak hours, trains would run in peak direction every 30 minutes from Kitchener to Union Station and every 15 minutes from Mount Pleasant to Union Station. Electrification will be in place from Bramalea to Union Station, with trains running every 15 minutes along the electrified line throughout the day. CN Rail owns a 19-kilometre segment of the line between Georgetown and Bramalea that will be bypassed by a 30-kilometre track to which freight traffic will be shunted. Once completed, Metrolinx will acquire the track segment between Georgetown. A new station is proposed where the line crosses Eglinton Avenue in the Mount Dennis neighbourhood, it would interface with the western end of the Line 5 Eglinton LRT at Mount Dennis station, open when that line opens in 2021.

The Region of Waterloo is planning to build Kitchener Central Station, a transit hub, at the north-east corner of King and Victoria streets in Kitchener. The hub would serve GO Transit trains and buses as well as other local and intercity public transit services; as part of Toronto mayor John Tory's Sm


Birbal, or Raja Birbal, was a Hindu Kayastha and main commander of army in the court of the Mughal emperor, Akbar. He is known in the Indian subcontinent for the Folk Tales which focus on his wit. Birbal was appointed by Akbar as a Minister and used to be a Poet and Singer in around 1556–1562, he had a close association with Emperor Akbar and was one of his most important courtiers, part of a group called the navaratnas. In 1586, Birbal led an army to crush an unrest in the north-west Indian subcontinent where he was killed along with many troops in an ambush by the rebel tribe, he was the only Hindu to adopt the religion founded by Akbar. By the end of Akbar's reign, local folk tales emerged involving his interactions with Akbar, portraying him as being clever and witty; as the tales gained popularity in India, he became more of a legendary figure across the Indian subcontinent. These tales involve him outsmarting rival courtiers and sometimes Akbar, using only his intelligence and cunning with giving witty and humorous responses and impressing Akbar.

Birbal was born as Mahesh Das Brahmbhatt in 1528, to a Hindu Brahmbhatt family in district Yamunanagar, India. His father was mother, Anabha Davito, he was the third son of a Hindu Brahmbhatt- family which had a previous association with poetry and literature. Educated in Hindi and Persian, Birbal wrote prose, specialised in music and poetry in the Braj language, thus gaining fame, he served at the Rajput court of Raja Ram Chandra of Rewa, under the name "Brahma Kavi". Birbal's economic and social status improved when he married the daughter of a respected and rich family, contrary to the notion that he was on poor economic terms before his appointment at Mughal Emperor Akbar's imperial court; the details and year of his first meeting with Akbar and his employment at the court are disputed but estimated to be between 1556 and 1562. He became the "Kavi Priya" of the Emperor within a few years of his appointment. Akbar bestowed upon him the name'Birbal' with the title "Raja", by which he was known from on.

Birbal comes from Bir Bar or Vir Var which means courageous and great, quite contrary for him since he was not known for his bravery or for his military skill. Akbar gave titles to his Hindu subjects according to their traditions and S. H. Hodivala writes that it could have been taken from a character in the folk tale Vetal Panchvinshati; this featured. Akbar was fond of literature, having works of Sanskrit and other local languages translated into Persian, his growing reputation led him to be part of Akbar's nine advisers, known as the navaratna - the nine jewels. Birbal played the role of a religious advisor, military figure and close friend of the Emperor, serving him for 30 years. In 1572, he was among a large army sent to aid Husain Quli Khan against an attack from the Akbar's brother, Hakim Mirza, his first military role, he accompanied the Emperor during his Gujarat campaigns. Despite having no military background, he participated in Akbar's campaigns and was given leadership positions, like Todar Mal, an advisor in economic matters.

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and Abdul Qadir Badayuni were historians of the court. While Fazl respected him, listed him as having twenty five honorific titles and rank of a commander of two thousand. Akbar's other orthodox Muslim advisers were known to dislike Birbal. Akbar had started a religion called Din-i-Ilahi, which acknowledged him as God's representative on earth and had a combination of Hindu and Muslim beliefs. In the Ain-i-Akbari, it is mentioned that Birbal was one of the few people other than Akbar who were its followers, besides being the only Hindu, he had a close association despite being fourteen years elder than him. Badaoni referred to this in sarcasm, as "a case of'thy flesh is my flesh and thy blood my blood'". Akbar is reported to have saved Birbal's life in two instances; the painting Akbari Nao Ratna in Victoria hall, Kolkata depicts Birbal having a prominent position right next to Akbar. The Emperor found him entertaining at the start but in years, sent him on important missions.

Birbal was said to have received a two-storey house in Fatehpur Sikri within the palace complex,Template:Date=17 June 2019 built close to Akbar's own chambers. He was said to enjoy having Birbal by his side and he was the only courtier to reside within the palace complex. One of the seven gates is known as "Birbal's gate"; the Afghani Yousafzai tribes had started a rebellion along the east bank of river Indus against the Mughal rule. After troops sent to crush the unrest suffered losses, Akbar sent Birbal with reinforcements from his new fort at Attock, to help the commander Zain-e- Khan in 1586. Birbal and the army advanced into a narrow pass in Swat valley where the Afghanis were waiting in prepared positions in the hills. In the ensuing ambush and heavy defeat and over 8000 soldiers were killed; this was one of the largest military losses for Akbar. He was said to have expressed his grief over the loss his favourite courtier and not taken food or drink for two days, he was anguished. He procla