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Elias Hrawi

Elias Hrawi was president of Lebanon, whose term of office ran from 1989 to 1998. Hrawi was born in Hawch Al Umara, Zahlé, to a wealthy landowning Maronite family in the Bekaa Valley on 4 September 1925, he was the son of Helena Harb. He obtained a diploma in commerce at the Sagesse Institute in 1947, he did not complete his studies there. Hrawi dealt with agriculture until he became a member of Lebanon Parliament in 1972. A successful businessman, Hrawi started a vegetable export business, dealing with major Swiss companies, he headed the Beqaa sugarbeet cooperative. When his export business was destroyed by the civil war that raged from 1975 to 1990, he switched his line of business to oil importing; the scion of a politically prominent family, Hrawi followed his brothers Georges and Joseph when he was elected to the National Assembly in 1972. From 1980 to 1982, he served in the cabinet as minister of public works under President Elias Sarkis and Prime Minister Shafik Wazzan, he concentrated on building highways to link all parts of the country.

Hrawi was a member of the independent Maronite Catholic bloc in the Parliament. The bloc included nine Maronite Catholic legislators who aimed at clearing the Christian militias and maintaining positive relationships with both the Muslims and Syria. Hrawi was elected at the Park Hotel in Chtoura by 47 out of 53 member of parliaments on 24 November 1989 two days after the murder of Lebanon's President René Mouawad. Five of PMs cast blank ballots in the election; as President, Hrawi signed into law amendments to the Constitution that formalized the Taif Agreement reforms, giving a greater measure of power and influence to Lebanon's Muslim community than before. Since Baabda Palace, the president's residence, was destroyed and bombed by Syrian troops in October 1990 to drive out General Michel Aoun, Hrawi lived in future prime minister Rafik Hariri's Beirut apartment. On 13 October 1990, with support from the Syrian army, he forced General Aoun, heading a rival administration, to surrender to begin the reconstruction of Lebanon.

On 22 May 1991, he signed the treaty of fraternity, co-ordination and co-operation with Syria, in which Lebanon promised not to allow its territory to be used against Syria's interests. In 1992, Hrawi appointed Rafik Hariri as prime minister. Hrawi attended the meetings of the cabinet during his term to control the executive branch of the country. Lebanese people had distinct opinions about Hrawi's term; some appreciate his decisiveness in acting against the feuding militias, ending the civil war, tearing the country apart for fifteen years and reuniting the major political parties of Lebanon. His supporters viewed him as a pragmatic political figure, respected him for his long-held conviction that national loyalty should take precedence over sectarian interests, for promoting peaceful coexistence among Lebanon's religious factions. Conversely, Hrawi's attempt to pass a law legitimizing civil marriage failed due to the fierce opposition from religious authorities; some have accused him of inconsistency for disarming all Christian and most Muslim militias – but not Hezbollah, a Shi'a political party.

His critics point out that he was supportive of Syrian interests and charge that the cooperation treaty that he signed turned Lebanon into a Syrian colony. He has been criticized by some for having the Constitution amended to extend his term of office by three years on 13 October 1995, it is argued that it occurred after Hrawi went to Damascus and agreed on a plan by which he would be succeeded by Emile Lahoud. Former President Amine Gemayel said at the time that such actions undermined the delicate constitutional principles of the nation, his presidency ended on 23 November 1998. After his term ended, Hrawi expressed his regrets about the extension of his term through the amendment of the Lebanese Constitution to Chibli Mallat. Hrawi married twice, he married to Evelyn Chidiac in 1947 and became father to three children: Rina and Roy. He married his second wife, Mona Jammal, in 1961, had two children and Roland, his son-in-law, Fares Boueiz, was minister of foreign affairs from 1990 to 1998. His elder sons have a firm dealing with the import of petroleum.

His eldest son lost seat in Zahle. Hrawi died of cancer at the American University Hospital in Beirut on 7 July 2006

La Sal Mountains

The La Sal Mountains or La Sal Range are a mountain range located in Grand and San Juan counties, Utah along the Utah/Colorado border. The range rises above north of the town of La Sal; this range is part of the southern Rocky Mountains. The maximum elevation is at Mount Peale; the range contains three clusters of peaks separated by passes. The peaks span a distance of about 10 miles; the name of the range dates to Spanish times, when the Sierra La Sal were a prominent landmark on the Old Spanish Trail between Santa Fe and Los Angeles. The range formed as a result of intrusion of igneous rocks and subsequent erosion of the surrounding less-resistant sedimentary rocks; the most abundant igneous rocks are porphyritic, with phenocrysts of hornblende and plagioclase: these rocks are called diorite in some accounts but trachyte in at least one other source. Syenite, some containing the unusual mineral nosean, makes up a few percent of the igneous rocks present; some of the igneous intrusions have the shapes of laccoliths.

Ages of these igneous rocks fall in the interval 25 to 28 million years. The magmas were emplaced into sedimentary rocks with ages from Permian to Cretaceous; the La Sal Mountains rises high over the surrounding Colorado Plateau. Two other ranges on the Plateau, the Abajo Mountains and the Henry Mountains, formed around igneous intrusions of about the same age, yet other nearby ranges, such as the Carrizo Mountains and Ute Mountain, formed about otherwise similar intrusions emplaced about 70 million years ago. Formation of these igneous rocks in two distinct time intervals has attracted the interest of scientists seeking explanations for magma production below stable parts of the Earth's crust; the significant peaks of the La Sal Mountains are: Mount Peale - 12,721 feet Mount Mellenthin - 12,645 feet Mount Tukuhnikivatz - 12,482 feet Mount Waas - 12,331 feet Manns Peak - 12,272 feet Mount Laurel - 12,271 feet Mount Tomasaki - 12,239 feet Pilot Mountain - 12,200 feet Green Mountain - 12,163 feet Little Tuk - 12,048 feet Castle Peak - 12,044 feet La Sal Peak - 12,001 feet Geyser Pass Jules D. Friedman and A. Curtis Huffman, Jr. Coordinators, Laccolith Complexes of Southeastern Utah: Time of Emplacement and Tectonic Setting—Workshop Proceedings, United States Geological Survey Bulletin 2158, 292 pages, 1998.

Http:// Manti La Sal National Forest


Bamseom is a pair of islets in the River Han in Seoul, South Korea. Bamseom means "chestnut island"; the uninhabited islets, with a total area of 241,000 m2 and length of 1,147 m, are located between the larger island of Yeouido, to which they were once connected, the north shore. They remain connected to one another by a narrow strip of sedimentary silt. Seogang Bridge passes directly over the western islet, though there is no access available, as the islets have been left as a natural sanctuary. There is, however, an observation point for bird-watching. Migratory birds use the islets and among the birds which can be seen are mallards, great egrets, common kestrels and spotbills; the islands were inhabited until the Seogang Bridge was built over them, using the west islet as a support for one of the beams. Most of the inhabitants of Bamseom in the Joseon era were shipbuilders. Bamseom is a key location for a wide variety of bird species, such as the Mandarin duck, it serves as a shelter for migratory birds during the winter.

There are about 108 species of plants on the island, such as willow trees and itch reeds. Additionally, Bamseom is an excellent place for children living in the city to experience nature. In 1999, the Seoul metropolitan government registered Bamseon as a "natural preservation district"; the west islet, over which Seogang Bridge passes, has a length of 560 metres. This is the more forested of the two islets at the western point; the east islet has a length of 655 metres. This islet contains a bay; this bay has silted up and is therefore marshy and contains many reeds and reed-dwelling organisms. Bamseon has extensive facilities for visitors. So far, 6 observatory platforms and direction boards for visitors have been erected; the facility allows citizens to visit from December to February. This timetable was set by a 1999 governmental decision, as observing the migration of birds is important to ornithologists and naturalists. Bamseon is the primary location in the 2009 Korean film Castaway on the Moon in which a man decides to commit suicide by jumping into the Han river, only to find himself washed ashore and stranded on the island

Yazdegerd I

Yazdegerd I spelled Yazdgerd I and Yazdgird I, was Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 399 to 420. A son of Shapur III, he succeeded his brother Bahram IV after Bahram's assassination. Yazdegerd I's largely-uneventful reign is seen in Sasanian history as a period of renewal. Although he was periodically known as "the Sinner" in native sources, Yazdegerd was more competent than his recent predecessors, he enjoyed cordial relations with the Eastern Roman Empire and was entrusted with the guardianship of the Roman prince, Theodosius, by Theodosius' father Arcadius. Yazdegerd I is known for his friendly relations with the Jews and Christians of the Church of the East, which he acknowledged in 410; because of this, he was praised by Christians as the new Cyrus the Great. The king's religious, peaceful policies were disliked by the nobility and Zoroastrian clergy, whose power and influence he strove to curb; this backfired, Yazdegerd I met his end at the hands of the nobility in the remote northeast.

The nobles sought to stop Yazdegerd's sons from the ascending the throne. Another son, Bahram V, hurried to the Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon with an Arab army and pressured the nobility to acknowledge him as shah; the name Yazdegerd is a combination of the Old Iranian yazad yazata and -karta – "God-made", comparable to the Iranian Bagkart and Greek Theoktistos. It is known in other languages as Yazdekert. Yazdegerd I was the son of Shapur III; when Yazdegerd I's brother Bahram IV was assassinated in 399, he succeeded him. Yazdegerd I inherited an empire, through tumultuous times. Most of the nobility belonged to the powerful Parthian noble families who were centered on the Iranian Plateau; the backbone of the Sasanian feudal army, they were autonomous. The Sasanian shahs had little control of the wuzurgan, attempts to restrict them were costly to the shah; the Parthian nobility worked for the Sasanian shah for personal benefits, out of loyalty, an awareness of the Aryan kinship they shared with their Persian overlords.

Late in Yazdegerd's reign, the powerful Parthian House of Suren became powerful associates of the shah and played a key role in the affairs of the empire. The authority of the Suren family flourished until the end of the reign of Yazdegerd's grandson, Yazdegerd II. During Yazdegerd I's rule, his western neighbours in the Eastern Roman Empire were in turmoil. Instead of exploiting the empire's weakened state, Yazdegerd I had Roman Christian prisoners who were saved after an Iranian victory over the Huns returned to Roman territory; the Roman emperor Arcadius asked Yazdegerd for aid to guarantee the succession of his young son, Theodosius, as a result of the shah's generosity. This account is only mentioned by the 6th-century Roman historian Procopius and was questioned by his fellow Roman historian Agathias, who wrote that the report was "on the lips" of "Roman commoners and aristocrats alike" but was absent from contemporary sources. Yazdegerd I agreed to act as Theodosius' protector and threatened to wage war against whoever sought to put him in danger.

According to Procopius, "Loyally observing the behests of Arcadius and continued without interruption a policy of profound peace with the Romans, thus preserved the empire for Theodosius." The shah sent Antiochus, "a most remarkable and educated advisor and instructor", to educate Theodosius. Yazdegerd I, like all other Sasanian rulers, was an adherent of Zoroastrianism. One of his predecessors, the powerful Sasanian shah Shapur II, was thought to have brutally persecuted the Christians of Iran from 340 to 379 in a "Great Persecution". Although shahs – Yazdegerd I, Bahram V, Yazdegerd II, Peroz I, Khosrow I and Khosrow II – were said to have persecuted the Church of East, the church expanded. According to hagiographical sources, this was due to the "unwavering hostility of Zoroastrian religious authorities toward Christians."Persecution of the Christians, was limited to their religious leaders who had failed to meet the commitment demanded of them by the court. Although Shapur II disciplined leading priestly leaders for insubordination, neither he nor his court persecuted the Christian population as a whole.

According to the modern historian Eberhard Sauer, Sasanian shahs persecuted other religions only when it was in their urgent political interest to do so. Shapur II's killing of Christians was due to the priestly leaders' refusal to participate more in the management of the empire; this was achieved during Yazdegerd's reign, when the priestly leaders agreement to cooperate with the court. Yazdegerd I's reign was a landmark for the Christians in Iran. With the counsel of Roman bishop Marutha, he acknowledged the Church of the East in 410.

Phạm Như Thảo

Phạm Như Thảo is a badminton player from Vietnam. She won her first senior title at the 2015 Eurasia Bulgaria International tournament, by clinched two titles in the women's and mixed doubles event. Phạm won the BWF Grand Prix tournament, at the 2016 Canada Open with her current partner in mixed doubles Đỗ Tuấn Đức; the BWF Grand Prix has the Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold. It is a series of badminton tournaments, sanctioned by the Badminton World Federation since 2007. Mixed doubles BWF Grand Prix Gold tournament BWF Grand Prix tournament Women's doubles Mixed doubles BWF International Challenge tournament BWF International Series tournament BWF Future Series tournament Phạm Như Thảo at

Frans Claerhout

Frans Claerhout was a Belgian painter who spent most of his adult life in South Africa. Claerhout was born in Pittem, West Flanders in 1919, moved to South Africa as a missionary for the Catholic Church in 1946, at the age of 27, he moved after completing his training for the priesthood. His first post was in the Transvaal but in 1948 he was transferred to the Orange Free State, he stayed on a farm near Bloemfontein in the Free State province of South Africa. He worked as a priest and in his spare time he concentrated on his art. Claerhout was a self-taught painter who created figures in oil paint, he started painting more after relocating to Thaba Nchu in 1960, became famous for his unique style, which used vivid colors and incorporated items such as donkeys and figures of people he met through his everyday life. His work was inspired by Christian spirituality and Claerhout he painted biblical scenes, he worked in pastel, ink and charcoal. In May 2000, Claerhout painted a golden bird on the flyleaf of a book that he gifted to novelist Zakes Mda.

Mda subsequently dedicated his fifth novel, The Madonna of Excelsior, to the golden bird painted by Father Frans Claerhout. Claerhout died of pneumonia at age 87 in 2006, he died in his sleep after being admitted to a hospital in Bloemfontein. He led a solitary life and before his death, he lived at the St. Francis Catholic Mission in Tweespruit, Free State, a home for pensioned Catholic priests. Claerhout had no formal art training but came from an artistic family, had belonged to a local art society during his student years. Claerhout has been defined as an expressionist painter and his work referenced Flemish Expressionism the works of Constant Permeke, whose paintings, like Claerhout's, were concerned with agricultural labourers and the land they tend. Examples of his work, characterised by their warm colours, thick impasto paint, exaggerated forms and compassion were exhibited in South Africa, as well as in Belgium, Germany, the United States and the United Kingdom. In 1958 he joined a group of painters and art patrons who formed an art movement in the Free State, which became known as the Bloemfontein Group.

He suffered a heart attack in 1979 while visiting Belgium and that year he had bypass surgery in South Africa. After the operation Claerhout's art underwent a colour evolution from the initial Flemish inspired earthy palette to one of brightness, his artistic legacy includes other media such as sculpture, wall-paintings and linocut, stained glass drawings and crayon. Claerhout donated much of the earnings from his versatile artwork to fund the building of housing and schools and support the people of his mission in and around Bloemfontein and Thaba Nchu. In 2002, Claerhout caused an uproar; the forgeries were sold by a Bloemfontein art dealer over several online auction sites. Father Claerhout was an author who wrote several books, including four works of poetry