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Eliezer Yudkowsky

Eliezer Shlomo Yudkowsky is an American AI researcher and writer best known for popularising the idea of friendly artificial intelligence. He is a co-founder and research fellow at the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, a private research nonprofit based in Berkeley, California, his work on the prospect of a runaway intelligence explosion was an influence on Nick Bostrom's Superintelligence: Paths, Strategies. Yudkowsky has no formal secondary education, never having attended high college, he reported scoring a perfect 1600 on his SATs. Yudkowsky's views on the safety challenges posed by future generations of AI systems are discussed in the undergraduate textbook in AI, Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig's Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Noting the difficulty of formally specifying general-purpose goals by hand and Norvig cite Yudkowsky's proposal that autonomous and adaptive systems be designed to learn correct behavior over time: Yudkowsky goes into more detail about how to design a Friendly AI.

He asserts that friendliness should be designed in from the start, but that the designers should recognize both that their own designs may be flawed, that the robot will learn and evolve over time. Thus the challenge is one of mechanism design – to design a mechanism for evolving AI under a system of checks and balances, to give the systems utility functions that will remain friendly in the face of such changes. In response to the instrumental convergence concern, where autonomous decision-making systems with poorly designed goals would have default incentives to mistreat humans and other MIRI researchers have recommended that work be done to specify software agents that converge on safe default behaviors when their goals are misspecified. In the intelligence explosion scenario hypothesized by I. J. Good, recursively self-improving AI systems transition from subhuman general intelligence to superintelligent. Nick Bostrom's 2014 book Superintelligence: Paths, Strategies sketches out Good's argument in detail, while citing writing by Yudkowsky on the risk that anthropomorphizing advanced AI systems will cause people to misunderstand the nature of an intelligence explosion.

"AI might make an sharp jump in intelligence purely as the result of anthropomorphism, the human tendency to think of'village idiot' and'Einstein' as the extreme ends of the intelligence scale, instead of nearly indistinguishable points on the scale of minds-in-general.". In their textbook on artificial intelligence, Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig raise the objection that there are known limits to intelligent problem-solving from computational complexity theory. Between 2006 and 2009, Yudkowsky and Robin Hanson were the principal contributors to Overcoming Bias, a cognitive and social science blog sponsored by the Future of Humanity Institute of Oxford University. In February 2009, Yudkowsky founded LessWrong, a "community blog devoted to refining the art of human rationality". Overcoming Bias has since functioned as Hanson's personal blog. Over 300 blogposts by Yudkowsky on philosophy and science have been released as an ebook entitled Rationality: From AI to Zombies by the Machine Intelligence Research Institute in 2015.

Yudkowsky has written several works of fiction. His fanfiction story, Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality, uses plot elements from J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series to illustrate topics in science; the New Yorker described Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality as a retelling of Rowling's original "in an attempt to explain Harry's wizardry through the scientific method". Yudkowsky, Eliezer. "Levels of Organization in General Intelligence". Artificial General Intelligence. Berlin: Springer. Yudkowsky, Eliezer. "Cognitive Biases Potentially Affecting Judgement of Global Risks". In Bostrom, Nick. Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199606504. Yudkowsky, Eliezer. "Artificial Intelligence as a Positive and Negative Factor in Global Risk". In Bostrom, Nick. Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199606504. Yudkowsky, Eliezer. "Complex Value Systems in Friendly AI". Artificial General Intelligence: 4th International Conference, AGI 2011, Mountain View, CA, USA, August 3–6, 2011.

Berlin: Springer. Yudkowsky, Eliezer. "Friendly Artificial Intelligence". In Eden, Ammon. Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment; the Frontiers Collection. Berlin: Springer. Pp. 181–195. Doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32560-1_10. ISBN 978-3-642-32559-5. Bostrom, Nick. "The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence". In Frankish, Keith; the Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87142-6. LaVictoire, Patrick. "Program Equilibrium in the Prisoner's Dilemma via Löb's Theorem". Multiagent Interaction without Prior Coordination: Papers from the AAAI-14 Workshop. AAAI Publications. Soares, Nate. "Corrigibility". AAAI Workshops: Workshops at the Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Austin, TX, January 25–26, 2015. AAAI Publications. AI box Friendly artificial intelligence Open Letter on Artificial Intelligence Official website Rationality: From AI to Zombies

Mimpi (video game)

Mimpi is a video game developed by Czech company Silicon Jelly. It is a mix of a platform game; the sequel Mimpi Dreams was released in 2015. The game was announced in January 2013; the development started in October 2012. The developers decided to fund the game on Indiegogo; the game was placed there in February but until March 4, it gained just 112 USD of its 10,000 goal. The developers decided to finish the game anyway; the original release date was scheduled for March 2013. Most of the game was developed by designer Matěj Moravec. Programmers started their work; the music was done by company Sype Studios. In the course of development the game went through many changes. For example, it was easier than planned; the game was finished in October and the developers found a publisher in Crescent Moon Games. The iOS version was released on October 8, it was followed by an OS X version on December 12. On December 19, a version for Android was released; the game was Greenlighted for release on Steam. The Windows version was released on 20 January 2015.

Mimpi is played as a side-scrolling platformer. The player controls a dog, with directional arrows; the player can interact with surroundings by tapping and dragging on them. There are plenty of puzzles; the game is set in 8 different worlds that differ not only by visuals but by gameplay. In a sea level, for example, your character has to avoid touching anything. In the course of the game you can find bones, they are used to unlock various illustrations. The story is told by animations without voiced dialogues; the game follows story of a little dog, whose owner disappears when he enjoys his nap during a day. He sets up to find him, he meets strange creatures on his way and some of them are hostile. He overcomes multiple dangers. In the end he finds out that his real task is not to find his master but to help himself; when he went for a walk with his master they met his master didn't pay any attention. Mimpi ate a Chocolate Bunny; because of it Mimpi got a fever and it is revealed everything happening is just a toxic psychosis.

In the end Mimpi defeats the Bunny. Mimpi wakes up on his master's lap. Silicon Jelly, along with publisher Crescent Moon Games, released in November 2013 three spin-off titles. Mimpi Volleyball, Mimpi Signal and Mimpi Hidden Objects. All of them are free. Mimpi Hidden Objects is a hidden objects game; the player there goes through portraits of scenes. There he has to search for objects. There are seven scenes known from the original game. In Mimpi Volleyball the player plays a volleyball against creatures featured in the original game; every match is set in an environment from the original game. The game features 8 creatures to play against, 7 balls and 7 costumes; the last spin-off is Mimpi Signal. The player has to find the right wave by using three different controls to manipulate wavelength, speed or amplitude of the wave. Mimpi received positive reviews from critics upon its release, it was praised for its visuals music. On the other hand, it was criticised for difficulty of some puzzles. Official site Official site of Sype Studios

Ultradian rhythm

In chronobiology, an ultradian rhythm is a recurrent period or cycle repeated throughout a 24-hour day. In contrast, circadian rhythms complete one cycle daily, while infradian rhythms such as the human menstrual cycle have periods longer than a day; the Oxford English Dictionary's definition of Ultradian specifies that it refers to cycles with a period shorter than a day but longer than an hour. The descriptive term ultradian is used in sleep research in reference to the 90–120 minute cycling of the sleep stages during human sleep. There is a circasemidian rhythm in body temperature and cognitive function, technically ultradian. However, this appears to be the first harmonic of the circadian rhythm of each and not an endogenous rhythm with its own rhythm generator. Other ultradian rhythms include blood circulation, pulse, hormonal secretions such as growth hormone, heart rate, micturition, bowel activity, nostril dilation and arousal. Ultradian rhythms of appetite require antiphasic release of Neuropeptide Y and Corticotropin-releasing hormone and inhibiting appetite ultradian rhythms.

Ultradian rhythms of arousal lasting 4 hours were attributed to the dopaminergic system in mammals. When the dopaminergic system is perturbed either by use of drugs or by genetic disruption, these 4 hours rhythms can lengthen into the infradian range, sometimes lasting for days when methamphetamines are provided. Ultradian mood states in bipolar disorder cycle much faster than rapid cycling. Ultradian mood cycling is characterized by cycles shorter than 24 hours. Basic rest-activity cycle

Armenian Cathedral of Lviv

The Armenian Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary in Lviv, Ukraine is located in the city's Old Town, north of the market square. Until 1945 it was the cathedral of the Armenian Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, since 2000 it serves as a cathedral of the Eparchy of Ukraine of the Armenian Apostolic Church. A small Armenian church was built in the years 1363–1370, founded by an Armenian merchant from Caffa, established as the mother church of an eparchy, it is said to have been modeled after the Cathedral of Ani in the ancient Armenian capital of Ani. In 1437 the cathedral was surrounded with an arcade gallery: today only the southern one is preserved and the northern has been rebuilt into a sacristy. After the church was damaged in a city fire in 1527, a new stone belfry was erected in 1571. In 1630 the main nave was extended, was further rebuilt in 1723. From the 17th century until 1945, the cathedral belonged to the Armenian Catholic archdiocese of Lviv, as union with the Roman Catholic Church was introduced by bishop Mikołaj Torosowicz and his successor, archbishop Vartan Hunanyan.

The Cathedral owes most of its present-day look to a remodeling carried out in the years 1908-1927 by archbishop Józef Teodorowicz. Lviv was in the eastern part of the territory reconstituted as Poland in 1919-20. In 1945 the new Soviet authorities decided to annihilate the Armenian Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, arrested its last administrator, the Rev. Dionizy Kajetanowicz and three other priests. All the Polish Armenians were expelled to the west, to modern-day Poland; the Cathedral was closed, its building was used for storing plundered sacral art. The Armenian Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv still exists, but it has remained vacant since 1938. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, a handful of Armenian Catholic families attempted to reestablish the parish; the Armenians who came to Lviv during the Soviet times, belonging to the Armenian Apostolic Church, sought to acquire the cathedral. Shortly before the visit of Pope John Paul II, the local Ukrainian authorities passed the Cathedral to the Armenian Apostolic Church under the condition both the Armenian Catholic and Armenian Apostolic communities could use it.

An Armenian Apostolic eparchy was established in Lviv in 1997. On 18 May 2003 the Cathedral was re-consecrated by the Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II and three other Armenian Apostolic bishops. Among the guests were: speaker of the Armenian parliament Armen Khachatryan, former president of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk, president of the Union of Armenians in Ukraine, French singer of Armenian origin Charles Aznavour with his son, Armenian actor Armen Dzhigarkhanyan and Armenian Ambassador to Ukraine Hrachya Silvanyan. Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate was represented by bishop Augustin. Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church was represented by rev. Mikhail Dymyd. In the name of the Ukrainian government the head of the Religions State Agency Victor Bondarenko was present. However, neither Polish Armenians - the former owners of the Cathedral, nor Armenian Catholic Church clergymen were invited. Since 2009 the Cathedral has been in course of a renovation process financed by the Polish Ministry of Culture in cooperation with the Foundation of Culture and Heritage of Polish Armenians seated in Warsaw.

The works are being conducted jointly by Polish and Ukrainian specialists. Just north of the Cathedral lies a small convent of Armenian Benedictines, to the south, adjoining the bell tower, the palace of the Armenian Archbishops, both built in the late 17th century; the present-day interior is the work of Jan Henryk Rosen and Józef Mehoffer. The cathedral holds two wonder-working icons of St. Gregory the Illuminator and the Mother of God, brought in the 17th century from Yazlovets. Armenians in Ukraine Armenians in Poland Photo gallery of Armenian Cathedral of Lviv

Corey Beaulieu

Corey King Beaulieu is the lead / rhythm guitarist, of American heavy metal band Trivium. He performs lead and backing screaming vocals for the band at live shows. Born in Dover-Foxcroft, Beaulieu is the second of two siblings in the Beaulieu family, his older sister, lives in Maine and works with horses. He is of French-Canadian descent. Corey played ice hockey. Beaulieu began to play guitar at the age of 14, studying under Bill Pierce at Mark's Music in Brewer, Maine, he said that Guns N' Roses first piqued his interest in rock music, but his main influence to become a musician was after hearing Metallica. He was asked to join Trivium when he tried out for the band, after the release of their first album Ember to Inferno in 2003, he performed backing vocals for Taking Dawn in 2010. In 2011, Beaulieu performed guest vocals on Maine metal band Rebirth To End's song "The Weakness Randomization." In the past Beaulieu used Jackson guitars such as the Jackson KV-2 Black Ghost Flames finish and DX10D series using a B.

C Rich Warlock and a Blue Ibanez guitar, until Rita Haney, partner of 20 years to Dimebag Darrell gave him and Matt Heafy each one of Dimebag's signature Dean guitars in the same year spawning a three-year-long endorsement with Dean Guitars, with Beaulieu sporting a black 7 string Razorback V with silver bevels. He had a signature model V; this V is metallic red with the Trivium circle logo placed between the bridge and neck pickups and is fitted with a Floyd Rose Locking Tremolo and a Seymour Duncan Dimebucker. He left Dean guitars in the summer of 2009, for the Throes of Perdition video he was back to playing a Jackson King V. After talking to several guitar companies, including DBZ Guitars, using a variety of guitars live, including a Jackson King V, an ESP DV8 Dave Mustaine Signature, Corey has signed with Jackson Guitars, he has been seen playing various custom Jackson V guitars and is in talks with Jackson regarding the development of a signature guitar. His new Jackson Prototype Signature Guitar can be seen in recent live performances and in the Video for Trivium's new single for the God of War III soundtrack, "Shattering the Skies Above".

In a recent statement on Facebook however, he stated that his new signature Jackson would be a traditional flying V shape, with no Cut-outs. It will have Seymour Duncan Blackout active pickups. Corey has released a video on YouTube entitled, "Corey Beaulieu: Guess What's Coming?," where he shows off a prototype of his new signature Jackson V. He states that he will have 6-string and 7-string variations of his signature V. At the 2013 Winter NAMM Show, Jackson released Corey's Signature Guitar. Available in 6 and 7 string variants made in the USA only. Summary Dean Razorback V Dean ML Far Beyond Driven Jackson Corey Beaulieu USA KV7 Jackson Corey Beaulieu USA KV6 Jackson RR1T Rhoads Jackson Custom Shop 6-string 2010 prototype signature guitar Jackson Custom Shop 7-string 2010 prototype signature guitar Jackson Custom Shop 7-string KV2 Jackson King V 2 USA Jackson King V 2 USA Jackson King V 2 USA Jackson King V 2 USA Jackson RR24 pro Jackson RX10D Live: Kemper Profiler Multi Effects unit with distortion patches based on the EVH 5150 III direct to the PA system Current equipment: Kemper Profiler Multi Effects Seymour Duncan: Blackouts AHB-1 Dunlop D38-19BK Grommet Black Strap Dunlop Black Strap Locks Dunlop 0.88 Tortex Regular InTune Guitar Picks 0.71 Medium Celluloid Dunlop 0.88 Tortex Regular and 0.88 Tortex Sharp Dunlop 10-52 for 6 string guitars.

Dunlop 10-52 custom set with a 63 for the low B string on 7 string guitars. Ascendancy The Crusade Shogun In Waves Vengeance Falls Silence in the Snow The Sin and the Sentence What the Dead Men Say Roadrunner United Metal Recorded Melody Guitars and Guitar Solos on Lizzy Borden's 2007 studio album, Appointment with Death on the track "Abnormal". Dirge Within - Complacency Rebirth To Ends - The Weakness Randomization

Hoberg, Missouri

Hoberg is a village in Lawrence County, United States. The population was 56 at the 2010 census. A post office called Hoberg was established in 1905, remained in operation until 1968; the community has the name of a pioneer settler. Hoberg is located at 37°4′6″N 93°50′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.05 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 56 people, 21 households, 14 families living in the village; the population density was 1,120.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 29 housing units at an average density of 580.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 91.1% White, 5.4% from other races, 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.7% of the population. There were 21 households of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.3% were non-families. 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age in the village was 29 years. 28.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 60 people, 24 households, 19 families living in the village; the population density was 1,032.2 people per square mile. There were 29 housing units at an average density of 498.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. There were 24 households out of which 37.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.5% were married couples living together, 4.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.8% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.74. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $21,250, the median income for a family was $24,167. Males had a median income of $16,875 versus $32,500 for females; the per capita income for the village was $10,121. There were 27.8% of families and 32.1% of the population living below the poverty line, including 18.2% of under eighteens and 14.3% of those over 64