Charles "Charlie" H. Bott is an English former rugby union, professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1960s and 1970s, he played club level rugby union for Old Thornensians RUFC, representative level rugby league for Great Britain, at club level for Oldham and Salford, as a prop, i.e. number 8 or 10, during the era of contested scrums. Charlie Bott was born in West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Bott started his rugby career as a rugby union footballer with Old Thornensians RUFC before moving to rugby league, joining Oldham in 1962. In May 1967, he transferred to Salford. In 1969, he played in the Challenge Cup Final at Wembley Stadium against Castleford, which Salford lost 6–11, he played his final game for Salford against Halifax on 25 April 1971, in which he scored the only goal of his career with a conversion in front of the posts. Bott won a cap for Great Britain while at Oldham in 1966 against France.! Great Britain Statistics at englandrl.co.uk Statistics at orl-heritagetrust.org.uk
A China watcher, or, less Pekingologist, is a person who reports on the politics of the People's Republic of China for western consumption in a Cold War context. "China watching" was coined by analogy to birdwatching. It represents a semantic break from the earlier term China Hands, which referred to knowledgeable businesspeople who made political commentary from inside mainland China: after the Chinese Revolution of 1949, China watchers more had backgrounds in academia, rather than business, operated out of consulates in Hong Kong."China watcher" can be distinguished from Sinologist, which can loosely refer to anyone who studies China, but in the United States, more refers to those who study classical language, literature, or civilization. In other languages, where the term Pekingologist does not exist, the usage of these terms are less rigidly delineated. In French for instance, the term sinologue would refer to both a researcher in Sinology and a reporter of Pekingology. During the Cold War, China watchers centered in Hong Kong and many of them worked for Western intelligence agencies and news organizations.
Much of their reporting would be previewed by the British colonial government's secretariat, to prepare for diplomatic consequences. Of the various nationalities of China watcher, the Americans were the most prolific, due to the activity of the Consulate General of the United States, Hong Kong and Macau. Mutual distrust between the United States and China and the prohibition of travel between the countries meant that American China watchers did not have access to press briefings or interviews. Therefore, China watchers adopted techniques from Kremlinology, such as the close parsing of official announcements for hidden meanings, movements of officials reported in newspapers, analysis of photographs of public appearances. China watchers would interview refugees from mainland China, or reprint analysis from Taiwan or the Soviet Union. Prominent China watchers in Hong Kong in the first decades after the Communist revolution of 1949 included László Ladány and Pierre Ryckmans. Publications by the Consulate-General, which were cited by China-watchers included Survey of the China Mainland Press, Current Background, Selections from Mainland China Magazines.
These publications emphasized problems and contradictions in national policy and atrocity, ignoring topics like education or culture unless there was an associated controversy. In the years since the reform and opening up, China watchers can live in China and take advantage of normal sources of information. Others remained in Hong Kong, however; the Hong Kong journalist Willy Wo-Lap Lam has been called the "quintessential China watcher, practiced in the art of Pekingology," whose "scope is wide, but the focus of his analysis is the Zhongnanhai and factional manoeuvring among the political elite." Richard Baum, China Watcher: Confessions of a Peking Tom. Harry Harding, "The Changing Roles of the Academic China Watcher" Gittings, John. "China-watching in Hongkong". Journal of Contemporary Asia. 2. Jim Peck, "The Roots of Rhetoric: The Professional Ideology of America's China Watchers," in Ed Friedman and Mark Selden, ed. America's Asia