David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician. He was the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; as Chancellor of the Exchequer during H. H. Asquith's tenure as Prime Minister, Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of many reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state, his most important role came as the energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government and after the First World War. He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the Central Powers. Although he remained Prime Minister after the 1918 general election, the Conservatives were the largest party in the coalition, with the Liberals split between those loyal to Lloyd George, those still supporting Asquith, he became the leader of the Liberal Party in the late 1920s, but it grew smaller and more divided. By the 1930s he was a marginalised and mistrusted figure.
He gave weak support to the war effort during the Second World War amidst fears that he was favourable toward Germany. He was voted the third-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by the market-research company MORI, was named among the 100 Greatest Britons in a UK-wide vote in 2002. Lloyd George was born on 17 January 1863 in Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester, to Welsh parents, was brought up as a Welsh-speaker, he is so far the only British Prime Minister to have been Welsh and to have spoken English as a second language. His father, William George, had been a teacher in both Liverpool, he taught in the Hope Street Sunday Schools, which were administered by the Unitarians, where he met Unitarian minister Dr James Martineau. In March of the same year, on account of his failing health, William George returned with his family to his native Pembrokeshire, he took up farming but died in June 1864 of pneumonia, aged 44. His widow, Elizabeth George, sold the farm and moved with her children to her native Llanystumdwy in Caernarfonshire, where she lived in a cottage known as Highgate with her brother Richard Lloyd, a shoemaker, a minister, a strong Liberal.
Lloyd George was educated at the local Anglican school Llanystumdwy National School and under tutors. Lloyd George's uncle was a towering influence on him, encouraging him to take up a career in law and enter politics, he added his uncle's surname to become "Lloyd George". His surname is given as "Lloyd George" and sometimes as "George"; the influence of his childhood showed through in his entire career, as he attempted to aid the common man at the expense of what he liked to call "the Dukes". However, his biographer John Grigg argued that Lloyd George's childhood was nowhere near as poverty-stricken as he liked to suggest, that a great deal of his self-confidence came from having been brought up by an uncle who enjoyed a position of influence and prestige in his small community. Brought up a devout evangelical, as a young man he lost his religious faith. Biographer Don Cregier says he became "a Deist and an agnostic, though he remained a chapel-goer and connoisseur of good preaching all his life."
He kept quiet about that and was, according to Frank Owen, for 25 years "one of the foremost fighting leaders of a fanatical Welsh Nonconformity". It was during this period of his life that Lloyd George first became interested in the issue of land ownership; as a young man he read books by Thomas Spence, John Stuart Mill and Henry George, as well as pamphlets written by George Bernard Shaw and Sidney Webb of the Fabian Society on the issue of land ownership. By the age of twenty-one, he had read and taken notes on Henry George's Progress and Poverty; this influenced Lloyd George's politics in life. Articled to a firm of solicitors in Porthmadog, Lloyd George was admitted in 1884 after taking Honours in his final law examination and set up his own practice in the back parlour of his uncle's house in 1885; the practice flourished, he established branch offices in surrounding towns, taking his brother William into partnership in 1887. Although many Prime Ministers have been barristers, Lloyd George is to date the only solicitor to have held that office.
By he was politically active, having campaigned for the Liberal Party in the 1885 election, attracted by Joseph Chamberlain's "unauthorised programme" of reforms. The election resulted firstly in a stalemate with neither the Liberals nor the Conservatives having a majority, the balance of power being held by the Irish Parliamentary Party. William Gladstone's proposal to bring about Irish Home Rule split the party, with Chamberlain leading the breakaway Liberal Unionists. Uncertain of which wing to follow, Lloyd George carried a pro-Chamberlain resolution at the local Liberal Club and travelled to Birmingham to attend the first meeting of Chamberlain's National Radical Union, but he had his dates wrong and arrived a week too early. In 1907, he was to say that he thought Chamberlain's plan for a federal solution correct in 1886 and still thought so, that he preferred the unauthorised programme to the Whig-like platform of the official Liberal Party, that, had Chamberlain proposed solutions to Welsh grievances such as land reform and disestablishment, he, together with most Welsh Liberals, would have followed Chamberlain.
He married Margaret Owen
Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state from military attacks and natural disasters. It uses the principles of emergency operations: prevention, preparation, response, or emergency evacuation and recovery. Programs of this sort were discussed at least as early as the 1920s and were implemented in some countries during the 1930s as the threat of war and aerial bombardment grew, it became widespread. Since the end of the Cold War, the focus of civil defence has shifted from military attack to emergencies and disasters in general; the new concept is described by a number of terms, each of which has its own specific shade of meaning, such as crisis management, emergency management, emergency preparedness, contingency planning, civil contingency, civil aid and civil protection. In some countries, civil defense is seen as a key part of "total defense". For example, in Sweden, the Swedish word totalförsvar refers to the commitment of a wide range of resources of the nation to its defense—including to civil protection.
Some countries may have or have had military-organized civil defense units as part of their armed forces or as a paramilitary service. The advent of civil defense was stimulated by the experience of the bombing of civilian areas during the First World War; the bombing of the United Kingdom began on 19 January 1915 when German zeppelins dropped bombs on the Great Yarmouth area, killing six people. German bombing operations of the First World War were effective after the Gotha bombers surpassed the zeppelins; the most devastating raids inflicted. After the war, attention was turned toward civil defense in the event of war, the Air Raid Precautions Committee was established in 1924 to investigate ways for ensuring the protection of civilians from the danger of air-raids; the Committee produced figures estimating that in London there would be 9,000 casualties in the first two days and a continuing rate of 17,500 casualties a week. These rates were thought conservative, it was believed that there would be "total chaos and panic" and hysterical neurosis as the people of London would try to flee the city.
To control the population harsh measures were proposed: bringing London under military control, physically cordoning off the city with 120,000 troops to force people back to work. A different government department proposed setting up camps for refugees for a few days before sending them back to London. A special government department, the Civil Defence Service, was established by the Home Office in 1935, its remit included the pre-existing ARP as well as wardens, fire watchers, first aid post, stretcher party and industry. Over 1.9 million people served within the CD. The organization of civil defense was the responsibility of the local authority. Volunteers were ascribed to different units depending on training; each local civil defense service was divided into several sections. Wardens were responsible for local reconnaissance and reporting, leadership, organization and control of the general public. Wardens would advise survivors of the locations of rest and food centers, other welfare facilities.
Rescue Parties were required to assess and access bombed-out buildings and retrieve injured or dead people. In addition they would turn off gas and water supplies, repair or pull down unsteady buildings. Medical services, including First Aid Parties, provided on the spot medical assistance; the expected stream of information that would be generated during an attack was handled by'Report and Control' teams. A local headquarters would have an ARP controller who would direct rescue, first aid and decontamination teams to the scenes of reported bombing. If local services were deemed insufficient to deal with the incident the controller could request assistance from surrounding boroughs. Fire Guards were responsible for a designated area/building and required to monitor the fall of incendiary bombs and pass on news of any fires that had broken out to the NFS, they could deal with an individual magnesium electron incendiary bomb by dousing it with buckets of sand or water or by smothering. Additionally,'Gas Decontamination Teams' kitted out with gas-tight and waterproof protective clothing were to deal with any gas attacks.
They were trained to decontaminate buildings, roads and other material, contaminated by liquid or jelly gases. Little progress was made over the issue of air-raid shelters, because of the irreconcilable conflict between the need to send the public underground for shelter and the need to keep them above ground for protection against gas attacks. In February 1936 the Home Secretary appointed a technical Committee on Structural Precautions against Air Attack. During the Munich crisis, local authorities dug trenches to provide shelter. After the crisis, the British Government decided to make these a permanent feature, with a standard design of precast concrete trench lining, they decided to issue the Anderson shelter free to poorer households and to provide steel props to create shelters in suitable basements. During the Second World War, the ARP was responsible for the issuing of gas masks, pre-fabricated air-raid shelters, the upkeep of local public shelters, the mainte
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston; the county has an area of 1,189 square miles. People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians; the history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire; the land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire. When its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a major industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the cotton mills respectively; these cities dominated the birth of modern industrial capitalism. The county contained the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Accrington, Bolton, Bury, Colne, Manchester, Oldham, Preston and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time.
Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns during wakes week. The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester; the detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, North and West Yorkshire to the east; the county palatine boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with Lancaster serving as the county town, the Duke of Lancaster exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside..
The county was established in 1182 than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain; the towns of Manchester, Ribchester, Burrow and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century. In the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam" and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, it is by no means certain, it is claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire; the county was divided into hundreds, Blackburn, Lonsdale and West Derby.
Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale South. Lancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government. In 1889, the administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for the county boroughs such as Blackburn, Barrow-in-Furness, Wigan and Manchester; the area served by the Lord-Lieutenant covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and in Cheshire, southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became urbanised the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Bolton, Burnley, Liverpool, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, St. Helens and Wigan were added Warrington and Southport.
The county boroughs had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire. By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK; the administrative county was the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county was abolished, as were the county boroughs; the urbanised southern part became part of two metropolitan counties and Greater Manchester. The new county of Cumbria incorporates the Furness exclave; the boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St. Helens and Sefton were included in Merseyside. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. is an American publishing executive, twice a candidate for the nomination of the Republican Party for President of the United States. Forbes is the Editor-in-Chief of a business magazine. Forbes was a Republican candidate in the 2000 Presidential primaries. Forbes is the son of longtime Forbes publisher Malcolm Forbes, the grandson of that publication's founder, B. C. Forbes. Forbes was born in New Jersey, to Roberta Remsen and Malcolm Forbes. Forbes grew up wealthy in New Jersey. Forbes attended the Far Hills Country Day School with Christine Todd Whitman, he graduated "cum laude" from Brooks School in North Andover, Massachusetts in 1966, from Princeton University, New Jersey, in 1970. While at Princeton, Forbes founded Business Today, with two other students. Business Today is the largest student-run magazine in the world. Forbes is a member of Tau Kappa Epsilon, he holds honorary degrees from several universities, including New York Institute of Technology and Lehigh University.
In 1985, President Ronald Reagan appointed Forbes as head of the Board of International Broadcasting, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Forbes helped craft Christine Todd Whitman's plan for a 30% cut in New Jersey's income tax over three years, this plan proved to be a major factor in her victory over incumbent Governor James Florio. Forbes entered the Republican primaries for President of the United States in 1996 and 2000 running on a campaign to establish a flat income tax. Forbes supported the ideas of re-introducing 4½% mortgages and term limits in 1996; when Forbes ran for President in 1996 and 2000, he sold some of his Forbes, Inc. voting shares to other family members to help finance his run. Forbes did not come close to securing the Republican nomination, despite winning the Arizona and Delaware primaries in 1996, getting some significant shares of the vote in other primaries. Forbes' awkward campaigning style was considered to be a major factor in his defeat. Time Magazine called his stumping a "comedy-club impression of what would happen if some mad scientist decided to construct a dork robot."
For his 2000 presidential campaign, he raised $86,000,000 in campaign contributions, of which $37,000,000 were self-donated. After dropping out early in the 2000 primary season, Forbes returned to heading the magazine and company. During the 1996 campaign, insiders at Fortune alleged that stories about Forbes' advertisers became favorably biased toward them. Major issues Forbes has supported include free trade, health savings accounts, allowing people to opt out 75% of Social Security payroll taxes into personal retirement accounts. Forbes supports traditional Republican Party policies such as downsizing government agencies to balance the budget, tough crime laws and support for the death penalty, school vouchers. Forbes opposes gun control and most government regulation of the environment, as well as drug legalization and same-sex marriage, in spite of his father being gay. In terms of foreign policy, he called for a "US not UN foreign policy" Forbes flat tax plan has changed slightly. In 1996, Forbes supported a flat tax of 17% on all personal and corporate earned income However, Forbes supported keeping the first $33,000 of income exempt.
In 2000, Forbes maintained the same plan. Forbes is wealthy, with a net worth in 1996 of $430 million. In response to this criticism, Forbes promised in his 2000 campaign to exempt himself from the benefits of the flat tax, although he did support the repeal of the 16th Amendment in a debate with Alan Keyes the previous year. In his 2000 campaign, Forbes professed his support for social conservatism along with his supply-side economics. Despite holding opposite positions in 1996, for the 2000 campaign, Forbes announced he was adamantly opposed to abortion and supported prayer in public schools; the previous year Forbes had issued a statement saying he would no longer donate money to Princeton University due to its hiring of philosopher Peter Singer, who views personhood as being limited to'sentient' beings and therefore considers some disabled people and all infants to lack this status. Steve Forbes was one of the signers of the Statement of Principles of Project for the New American Century on June 3, 1997.
In 1996, Forbes campaigned on behalf of Ron Paul in the congressional election for Texas's 14th congressional district. In December 2006, Forbes joined the Board of Directors of the advocacy organization FreedomWorks. Forbes is on the board of directors of the National Taxpayers' Union. Forbes is a member of the board of trustees of The Heritage Foundation, an influential Washington, D. C.-based public policy research institute. Forbes is a frequent panelist on the television program Forbes on Fox, which features members of the Forbes magazine staff, is shown Saturday mornings on Fox News Channel at 11:00 am EST. On March 28, 2007, Forbes joined Rudy Giuliani's campaign for the 2008 Presidential election, serving as a National Co-Chair and Senior Policy Advisor. In the 2008 presidential campaign, Forbes served as John McCain's Economic Adviser on Taxes, Energy a
Chorley (UK Parliament constituency)
Chorley is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1997 by Sir Lindsay Hoyle of the Labour Party. 1885–1918: The Sessional Division of Leyland Hundred, part of the Sessional Division of Leyland. 1918–1950: The Municipal Borough of Chorley, the Urban Districts of Adlington, Croston and Withnell, the Rural District of Chorley, in the Rural District of Wigan the civil parishes of Haigh, Parbold and Wrightington. 1950–1983: The Municipal Borough of Chorley, the Urban Districts of Adlington and Leyland, the Rural District of Chorley. 1983–1997: The Borough of Chorley, the District of West Lancashire wards of Parbold and Wrightington. 1997–2010: The Borough of Chorley. 2010–present: The Borough of Chorley wards of Adlington and Anderton and Buckshaw, Brindle and Hoghton, Chorley East, Chorley North East, Chorley North West, Chorley South East, Chorley South West, Clayton-le-Woods and Whittle-le-Woods, Clayton-le-Woods North, Clayton-le-Woods West and Cuerden, Euxton North, Euxton South, Heath Charnock and Rivington and Wheelton and Withnell.
Chorley constituency consists of the majority of the borough of Chorley. As well as the central market town of Chorley itself, the seat extends into southern Lancashire rural hinterland with three major villages and minor villages. Chorley's expansion is assured with the building of Buckshaw Village, an urban development sprawling over the former Royal Ordnance Site east of Leyland in the seat. Following their review of parliamentary representation in Lancashire leading up to the United Kingdom general election, 2010 the Boundary Commission for England created a new seat of Wyre and Preston North in the central part of the county, which caused "knock-on" effects elsewhere. Chorley constituency was one of the largest in electorate at the start of the review, a factor in the alterations to both its own composition and the changes to surrounding constituencies; these changes took away from the seat all the areas to the west of the M6 motorway, namely Croston, Eccleston and Mawdesley. These move to South Ribble.
Since the 1945 general election Chorley has proved to be a bellwether, changing hands between Labour and the Conservatives. Chorley itself is Labour's strongest area in the seat, with the rural hinterland and smaller towns and villages more inclined to vote Conservative; the Member of Parliament for the seat since 1997, Lindsay Hoyle of the Labour Party, is a Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.