A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport
Sherri Evonne Shepherd is an American actress, comedian and television personality. She has appeared in several TV shows in recurring roles, starred as Ramona Platt on the ABC sitcom Less than Perfect from 2002 to 2006, for which she was well received and was nominated for the BET Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series in 2005. From 2007 to 2014, Shepherd was a co-host on The View, for which she received multiple Daytime Emmy Award nominations, winning one in 2009. In 2009, she starred in a sitcom of her own on Lifetime, cancelled after one season, published the novel Permission Slips: Every Woman's Guide to Giving Herself a Break. In 2012, she appeared as a celebrity contestant on the fourteenth season of Dancing with the Stars. Shepherd was born in Chicago, the daughter of LaVerne and Lawrence A. Shepherd, a church deacon, she is the eldest of three sisters. Shepherd first became recognized for recurring roles on the sitcoms Suddenly Susan, Everybody Loves Raymond and The Jamie Foxx Show in the late 1990s, before starring in the show Less Than Perfect in the lead role of Ramona Platt from 2002-2006.
In 2009, she starred for one season in a sitcom about Shepherd's life. She played Daphne in several episodes of How I Met Your Mother in 2013; as of 2017, Shepherd starred in NBC's mockmumentary legal comedy series Trial & Error in the lead role of Anne Flatch. The show is being shopped around to networks for a third season. In addition to her film and television work, Shepherd appeared on Broadway in Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical production of Cinderella in 2013. Shepherd has appeared as a guest host and contestant on several television shows such as Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, Rachael Ray, To Tell The Truth. Shepherd hosted Nickelodeon's NickMom Night Out special from 2013-14,She co-hosted the 35th Daytime Emmy Awards on June 20, 2008. In 2006, Shepherd was a frequent guest co-host on ABC's The View, she became a permanent co-host from 2007 to 2014. She received several awards for her work on the show. Since leaving The View in 2014, Shepherd has continued to make several appearances on the show as a guest host and "lead contributor" throughout 2015 and 2016.
Shepherd was criticized after one 2007 broadcast of The View. The show was filmed "live", with little or no editing, she stated. Period." Co-host Whoopi Goldberg asked her, "Is the world flat?" She first responded, "I don't know," and expanded that she "never thought about it". Shepherd continued that it was more important to her that she thought about how she was "going to feed child". Barbara Walters replied by pointing out, "You can do both." However, Shepherd went on to quote Scripture. Shepherd referred to her statement as a "brain fart" brought on by nerves. Barbara Walters and Shepherd talked after that episode: Walters said, "Dear, the Earth is round", Shepherd responded with: "Barbara, I know that!" Similar criticism erupted after the December 4, 2007, broadcast of The View when, during a discussion initiated by Joy Behar about Epicurus, Shepherd attempted to assert that Christians existed in classical Greece, that the Greeks threw them to the lions. When confronted on this point, she further claimed that "Jesus came first" and stated, "I don't think anything predated Christians", to which Joy Behar responded: "The Jews."Shepherd garnered criticism after admitting to never voting due to her upbringing as a strict Jehovah's Witness.
She was quoted as saying that she just "never knew the dates or anything". In January 2008, Sherri referred to Gospel singer Shirley Caesar as "the black Patti LaBelle." LaBelle, like Caesar, is black. Sherri said, "I was taught not to confront and interrupt people, but that's what I do every day on The View." In March 2012, Shepherd participated as a celebrity contestant on the fourteenth season of ABC's Dancing with the Stars. Her dance partner was Val Chmerkovskiy; the team lasted several weeks. As of 2015, a project includes a line of wigs and hair add-ins. Shepherd wrote the book Permission Slips: Every Woman's Guide to Giving Herself a Break, published in October 2009. Shepherd has a co-author credit on Plan D: How to Lose Weight and Beat Diabetes, published in 2013. Sherri raises funds for the YAI Sherri Shepherd "Believe in Abilities" Fund. YAI organization developmentally challenged children to participate in life. In 2011, Shepherd offered to pay six months' rent and utilities of homeless former American Gladiators star Debbie Clark.
Shepherd was married to Jeff Tarpley from 2001 to 2010. TV writer Lamar Sally proposed to Shepherd on December 26, 2010, they married in August 2011 at the Fairmont Hotel in Chicago, in September 2012, Shepherd said the couple was searching for a surrogate in order to have a child. Sally filed for separation on May 2, 2014, Shepherd filed for divorce days later. In July 2014, Sally petitioned a Los Angeles court for full legal and physical custody of the child expected via surrogacy, born in August 2014. On April 21, 2015, a Pennsylvania court ruled Shepherd is the legal parent of a child born from a surrogate mother. Shepherd has type 2 diabetes after having had pre-diabetes for years. Shepherd is a devout Christian. 2019 “Wendy Williams Show” Herself 2 episodes Daytime Emmy Award and Nominations 2008 Nomination for Outstanding Talk Show Host 2009 Award for Outstanding Talk Show Host 2010 Nomination for Outstanding Talk Show Host 2011 Nomination for Outstanding Talk Show Host 2012 Nomination for Outstanding Talk Sho
Survivor is a reality competition television franchise produced in many countries throughout the world. The show features a group of contestants who are marooned in an isolated location, where they must provide food, water and shelter for themselves; the contestants compete in challenges for rewards and immunity from elimination. The contestants are progressively eliminated from the game as they are voted out by their fellow contestants until only one remains and is awarded the grand prize and is named the "Sole Survivor." The format for Survivor was created in 1992 by the British television producer Charlie Parsons for a United Kingdom TV production company called Planet 24, but the Swedish version, which debuted in 1997, was the first Survivor series to make it to television. There are 38 American seasons. Survivor, through its seasons and various international versions, has maintained the basic premise of the game despite several new rules and gameplay twists introduced in seasons. In the game, the contestants, known as castaways, are split into tribes and assigned separate camps at the filming's location a tropical setting.
As a tribe, the castaways must survive the elements, construct shelter, build fire, look for water, scrounge for food and other necessities for the entire length of the game, 39 days in the American version, but has ranged from 20 days to 134 days. In the first half of the game, the tribes face off in challenges, some for rewards of food, shelter, or luxury items, while others are for immunity, preventing the winning tribe from having to go to the next Tribal Council. At Tribal Council, the tribes discuss the events of the last few days with the host asking questions, vote out one of their own players, eliminating them from the game. In the second half of the game, the tribes are merged into a single tribe, challenges are played at an individual level for individual rewards and immunity. At subsequent Tribal Councils, those eliminated start to form the jury, who sit in on all subsequent Tribal Councils but otherwise do not participate; when only two or three castaways remain, those castaways attend the Final Tribal Council, where the jury is given the opportunity to ask them questions.
After this, the jury members vote to decide which of the remaining castaways should be declared the Sole Survivor and be awarded the grand prize. Episodes cover the events that occurred over two to three days since the start of the game or previous Tribal Council, including Challenges and events that occur at the tribes' camps; each episode ends with the Tribal Council and subsequent elimination of the voted-out player. The following description of the show is based on the U. S. version of Survivor, though the general format applies to all international versions. Players for each season are selected through applicants and casting calls, down-selecting to between 16 and 20 players and additional alternates. U. S. version host Jeff Probst noted that while 16 castaways assists in splitting the tribes with respect to age and sex, they have used 18 or 20 to provide them "wiggle room" in case of player injury or if one should want to quit the game. These players undergo physical and psychological evaluation to make sure they are physically and mentally fit for the survival endurance and will not quit during the filming period, replacing those that are questionable with the alternates.
In one case, Fiji, on the day before filming was to start after they had dismissed their alternates, one of the castaways opted out of the competition, forcing production to start with 19 players and adapting the activities of the first few days to accommodate the odd number of players. Tribes may be predetermined by production before filming starts; this is done to equalize the sexes and age ranges within both tribes. Other seasons have had the tribes separated by gender, or race. In other cases, the tribes may be created by the castaways through schoolyard picks. Most only two tribes are featured, but some seasons have begun with three or four tribes. Once assigned a tribe, each castaway is given a buff in their tribe color to aid the viewers in identifying tribal allocation. Tribes are subsequently given names inspired by the local region and culture, directions to their camps. At their camps, tribes are expected to build a shelter against the elements from the local trees and other resources.
Tribes are given minimal resources, such as a machete, water canteens, cooking pots, staples of rice and grains, though this will vary from season to season. Sometimes, tribes will be provided with a water well near the camp, but require the water to be boiled to make it potable, necessitating the need for the tribe to build a fire; the tribes are encouraged to forage off the land for food, including fruits, wild animals, fish. In some seasons, tribe swaps will occur where one or more players will shift from one tribe to another; these new tribal designations are determined by random draw or schoolyard pick. When these occur, those players that shift tribes are given new buffs for their new tribe and return to that tribe's camp, with any personal possessions from their former camp moved with them. In seasons with more than two tribes, tribe swaps will reduce the number of tribes to two. In Survivor: Cambodia, a tribe swap increased the number of tribes from two to three. Tribes that have lost too many members may be absorbed by the other remaining tribes, as seen with the Ulong tribe in Survivor: Palau and the Matsing tribe of Survivor: Philippines.
Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a field that has base lengths of 60 feet, a pitcher's mound that ranges from 35-43 feet away from home plate, a homerun fence, 220 feet away from home plate. It was invented in 1887 in Chicago, United States as an indoor game; the game moves at a faster pace than traditional baseball. There is less time for the base runner to get to first; the name softball was given to the game in 1926, because the ball used to be soft, however in modern day usage, the balls are hard. A tournament held in 1933 at the Chicago World's Fair spurred interest in the game; the Amateur Softball Association of America governs the game in the United States and sponsors annual sectional and World Series championships. The World Baseball Softball Confederation regulates rules of play in more than 110 countries, including the United States and Canada. Women's fast pitch softball became a Summer Olympic sport in 1996, but it and baseball were dropped from the 2012 Games.
There are three types of softball. In the most common type, slow-pitch softball, the ball, which can measure either 11 or 12 inches in circumference depending on gender and league, must arch on its path to the batter, there are 10 players on the field at once. In fastpitch softball, the pitch is fast, there are nine players on the field at one time, bunting and stealing bases are permitted. Modified softball restricts the "windmill" wind-up used by fastpitch pitchers, although the pitcher is allowed to throw as hard as possible with the restricted back swing. Softball rules vary somewhat from those of baseball. Two major differences are that the ball must be pitched underhand—from 46 ft for men or 43 ft for women as compared with 60.5 ft in baseball—and that seven innings instead of nine constitute a regulation game. Despite the name, the ball used in softball is not soft, it is about 12 in in circumference, 3 in larger than a baseball. Softball recreational leagues for children use 11-inch balls until they participate in travel ball around age 12 and adjust to a 12-inch sized ball.
The infield in softball is smaller than on an adult or high school baseball diamond but identical to that used by Little League Baseball. In fast pitch softball the entire infield is dirt, whereas the infield in baseball is grass except at the bases and on the pitcher's mound which are dirt. Softball mounds are flat, while baseball mounds are a small hill. Softballs are pitched underhand; this changes the arc of the ball. For example, depending if the pitcher pitches a fastball, in softball the ball would most rise while in baseball because the pitcher is on a hill, the ball would drop; the earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club at a gathering to hear the outcome of the Yale University and Harvard University football game; when the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The Harvard fan swung at the rolled up glove. George Hancock, a reporter there, called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat.
This first contest ended with a score of 41–40. The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded. George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of a 17" ball and an undersized bat in the next week; the Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball". Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, the first rules were published in 1889. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters. Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches in circumference, rather than the 16-inch ball used by the Farragut club, the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one. Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. Fire Station No. 19 in Minneapolis, Rober's post from 1896 to 1906, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in part for its association with the sport's development.
The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897. The name "softball" dates back to 1926; the name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress. The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. By 1936, the Joint Rules Committee on Softball had standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States. Sixteen-inch softball sometimes referred to as "mush ball" or "super-slow pitch", is a direct descendant of Hancock's original game. Defensive players are not allowed to wear fi
Josephine Victoria "Joy" Behar is an American comedian and actress. She co-hosts, she hosted The Joy Behar Show on HLN from 2009 to 2011 and Joy Behar: Say Anything! on Current TV, from 2012 until the channel switched formats in August 2013. Behar's latest weekly late-night talk show, Late Night Joy, aired on TLC in 2015, she wrote The Great Gasbag: An A–Z Study Guide to Surviving Trump World. Behar was born Josephine Occhiuto in Williamsburg, New York, the only child to a Roman Catholic family of Italian descent, her mother, was a seamstress, her father, Gino Occhiuto, was a truck driver for Coca-Cola. Behar earned a BA in sociology from Queens College in 1964 and an MA in English education from Stony Brook University in 1966. From the late 1960s to the early 1970s, she taught English on Long Island at Lindenhurst Senior High School in Lindenhurst, New York.. She studied acting at HB Studio. Behar started her career in show business in the early 1980s as a receptionist and a producer on Good Morning America.
She was a stand-up comedian and made appearances on ABC's Good Morning America and The New Show, a short-lived Lorne Michaels NBC project. In 1987, she had a talk show on Lifetime Television called Way Off Broadway and was a host on the show Live from Queens. From there, she continued to work the comedy club circuit, was a regular on NBC's Baby Boom, had minor film roles including Cookie, This Is My Life, Manhattan Murder Mystery, she was a WABC radio talk-show host, made appearances on HBO comedy specials One Night Stand and Women of the Night 2. In 1997, Behar became one of the original panel members of the ABC daytime talk show The View, co-created by Barbara Walters. Behar appeared only on the days when Walters was off, but she became a permanent co-host. Behar hosted a segment called "Joy's Comedy Corner" in which she presented both established and up-and-coming comedians. Behar had well-publicized disputes with a former co-host of the program. On March 27, 2006, Jones phoned into the show to discuss a recent operation.
After talking with the show's co-hosts, Behar abruptly stated to Jones, "OK, Star. That's enough about you. On to us. Bye. Keep your tits perky!" Jones responded, "Even today, you are still a bitch."In August 2009, Behar and the other co-hosts, Whoopi Goldberg, Elisabeth Hasselbeck, Sherri Shepherd, Barbara Walters, won the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Talk Show Host following over a decade of nominations for the show. On March 7, 2013, it was announced that Behar would be leaving the show at the end of the current season, she told Deadline, "It seemed like the right time... You reach a point when you say to yourself,'Do I want to keep doing this?' There are other things on my plate I want to do — I've been writing a play, I've been neglecting my standup". Her last show was on August 9, 2013 in which the program staged a "This is Your Life" style tribute to Behar. After departing in 2013, Behar continued to guest co-host throughout 2014 and 2015. On August 25, 2015, ABC announced that Behar would return as a regular co-host starting with the premiere of the 19th season on September 8, 2015.
Behar was quoted as saying, ``, they pulled me back in. Plus, Steve was getting tired of applauding every time, but I'm happy to be back home. And I'm looking forward to sticking my two cents into the hot topics now that Hillary and the Donald are in the spotlight."On October 10, 2016, Behar received a significant amount of criticism for referring to Bill Clinton's sexual assault accusers as "tramps." Behar apologized for the sexual slur shortly afterwards. On February 13, 2018, Behar accused Vice President Mike Pence of having a mental illness because he stated that he hears Jesus speak to him, she apologized to Pence for what were termed "anti-Christian" remarks. Beginning in 2007, she filled in as a guest host on Larry King Live. On June 11, 2009, Behar announced that she would be hosting her own news/talk program on CNN's HLN beginning in the fall of 2009, titled The Joy Behar Show, she worked on both shows simultaneously. Despite being the network's second highest-rated show, HLN decided to cancel the talk show after only two years.
The final broadcast of The Joy Behar Show aired on December 15, 2011. In June 2012, it was formally announced that Behar would be getting another talk show, Joy Behar: Say Anything!, premiering September 4, 2012 on the Current TV network. Its content is expected to be in line with her previous HLN series. Before the new show's launch, Behar began acting as fill-in host for Eliot Spitzer's Current TV talk show, Viewpoint with Eliot Spitzer, starting on July 18, 2012; the show ended in August 2013 due to Current TV being purchased by Al Jazeera and being replaced by Al Jazeera America. Behar's new weekly late night talk show, Late Night Joy, premiered on TLC on November 4, 2015; each episode features Behar having intimate chats with friends in her New York City apartment. Behar has made theater appearances in The Food Chain and The Vagina Monologues. Behar wrote a book of humorous essays and stories called Joy Shtick — Or What is the Existential Vacuum and Does It Come with Attachments?, published in 1999.
She has written a children's book called Sheetzucacapoopoo: My Kind of Dog, published in 2006. Behar incorporates her Italian-American culture into her comedy, she appeared on the eighth season of Bravo's Celebrity Poker Showdown and finished in fourth place, behind Robin Tunney, Christopher Meloni and Macy Gray, but ahead of Andy Dick. She played for the U. S. Fund for UNIC
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Michelle Janine Howard is a retired United States Navy officer who last served as the commander of U. S. Naval Forces Europe while she concurrently served as the commander of U. S. Naval Forces Africa and commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples, she served as the 38th Vice Chief of Naval Operations. She assumed her last assignment on June 7, 2016. Howard has achieved many historical firsts throughout her naval career, she was the first African-American woman to command a U. S. Navy ship, the USS Rushmore, the first to achieve two- and three-star rank. In 2006, she was selected for the rank of rear admiral, making her the first admiral selected from the U. S. Naval Academy class of 1982 and the first female graduate of the U. S. Naval Academy selected for flag rank. On July 1, 2014, Howard became the first woman to become a U. S. Navy four-star admiral; as Vice Chief of Naval Operations, which she began that same day, she was the first African-American and the first woman to hold that post. Howard became the first female four-star admiral to command operational forces, when she assumed command of U.
S. Naval Forces Europe and U. S. Naval Forces Africa. Howard retired on 1 December 2017 after nearly 36 years of service in the United States Navy. Howard was born at March Air Force Base in California, the daughter of former U. S. Air Force master sergeant, Nick Howard, his British wife, Phillipa, she is a 1978 graduate of Gateway High School in Colorado. She graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1982 and from the U. S. Army's General Staff College in 1998 with a Masters in Military Arts and Sciences. Howard's initial sea tours were aboard the USS Lexington. While serving on board USS Lexington, she received the Secretary of the Navy/Navy League Captain Winifred Collins award in May 1987; this award is given to one woman officer a year for outstanding leadership. She reported to USS Mount Hood as Chief Engineer in 1990 and served in the Persian Gulf War, during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, she assumed duties as First Lieutenant on board the USS Flint in July 1992. In January 1996, she became the Executive Officer of USS Tortuga and deployed to the Adriatic in support of Operation Joint Endeavor, a peacekeeping effort in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia.
Sixty days after returning from the Mediterranean deployment, Tortuga departed on a West African Training Cruise, where the ship's sailors, with embarked U. S. Marines and U. S. Coast Guard detachment, operated with the naval services of seven African nations. Howard took command of USS Rushmore on March 12, 1999, becoming the first African-American woman to command a ship in the U. S. Navy. Howard commanded Amphibious Squadron 7 from May 2004 to September 2005. Deploying with Expeditionary Strike Group 5, operations included tsunami relief efforts in Indonesia and maritime security operations in the North Persian Gulf. Howard's shore assignments include: Course Coordinator/Instructor for the Steam Engineering Officer of the Watch course. Howard was the Deputy Director, Expeditionary Warfare Division, OPNAV staff from July 2006 to December 2006, senior military assistant to the secretary of the Navy January 2007 – January 2009, she served as chief of staff to the director for Strategic Plans and Policy, J-5, Joint Staff from August 2010 until July 2012.
From August 2012 to July 2013 VAdm Howard served as Deputy Commander U. S. Fleet Forces Command headquartered in Norfolk, Va. Howard assumed command of Expeditionary Strike Group 2 and Combined Task Force 151 aboard the amphibious assault ship USS Boxer in April 2009. Boxer was the flagship for CTF 151, a multinational task force established to conduct counter-piracy operations in the Indian Ocean, she played a key role in the rescue of Captain Richard Phillips, whose kidnapping by Somali pirates became a major motion picture film. Howard was promoted to rear admiral, effective September 1, 2007 and to rear admiral, effective August 1, 2010, she was promoted to vice admiral on August 24, 2012. On July 1, 2014, Howard was promoted to admiral, she became the 38th Vice Chief of Naval Operations the same day. After Howard retired from the navy on December 1, 2017, she became the J. B. and Maurice C. Shapiro Visiting Professor of International Affairs at George Washington University, teaching cybersecurity and international policy.
International Business Machines Corporation announced that it appointed Howard to its board, effective March 1, 2019. She is the recipient of the 2008 Women of Color Science Technology Engineering and Math Career Achievement Award, 2009 Dominion Power Strong Men and Women Excellence in Leadership Award, the 2011 USO Military Woman of the Year. On February 1, 2013, Howard was honored with the "Chairman's Award" at the 44th NAACP Image Awards, she is a 1987 recipient of the Secretary of the Navy/Navy League Captain Winifred Collins Award. On June 13, 2015, Admiral Howard was awarded the Doctor of Public Service honorary degree from the American Public University System for her many years of service in the United States Navy, her contribution to the advancement of women in the United States Military, to her continued service to the people of the United States and around the world. A female voice identified as "Admiral Howard" is included in Captain Phillips. By radio, Admiral Howard coordinated the rescue of the