Jooris van der Straeten
Jooris van der Straeten, known as Jorge de la Rúa in Spain and in France as Georges van der Straeten, was a Flemish portrait and history painter. From Ghent he travelled abroad and became portrait painter to the ruling houses in Portugal and France. A polyglot, van der Straeten was a versatile courtier, who worked as a portraitist for queens. Jooris van der Straeten was from Ghent, which explains his alias of Joris van Gent, it is believed he was portrait painter Frans Floris in Antwerp. It is possible that he trained under the prominent portrait painter Antonis Mor and travelled with him to the Iberian peninsula, he accompanied the future Spanish King Philip II when the travelled to England to marry the English Queen Mary I of England in 1554 as evidenced by the portrait he made of the future king with the order of the Garter. There are bust and rondella versions of this work. After leaving England he worked in Portugal. Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal paid him in 1556 for a portrait of her grandson, the future King Sebastian of Portugal at the age of two.
In 1559 he was recorded in Spain, with a commission to paint a Resurrection of Lazarus for the church of Santiago de Cáceres. He was documented from 1560 to 1568 under the name Jorge de la Rúa as painter of Elisabeth of Valois, the Spanish queen consort, he was her portrait painter together with the local painter Alonso Sánchez Coello, with whom he had worked in Portugal. He painted devotional works for queen Elisabeth, she paid a high sum for a painting of the Immaculate Virgin with five figures that hung over the queen's bed. He was still at the Spanish court in January 1571, as he is documented at that time occupied with a portrait of the infantas Isabella Clara Eugenia and Catherine Michelle; the portrait had been commissioned by the Duchess of Alba. He made two copies, one of, sent to the grandmother of the infantas, the queen of France Catherine de' Medici while the other was sent to the Duchess; the Duchess refused the work because of its high price. It is possible that this is the work preserved in the British Royal Collection that portrays the sisters with a puppy and a parrot.
At the Royal Collection website this work is attributed to workshop. The artist moved to France where he worked as a painter of Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France, wife of Charles IX of France, he painted a portrait of the queen in 1573. This is the only signed and dated work by the painter and is preserved in the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales in Madrid. To Jorge de la Rúa is attributed a portrait of Prince Don Carlos in armor in the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales; this work was attributed to the Portuguese painter Cristóvão de Morais. The artist worked in France for Catherine de' Medici; the artist made his testament in April 1577 while lying ill in bed in at a residence in Saint-Germain-des-Prés. He stated in his testament that he was a painter and valet de chambre of the French queen Louise of Lorraine, he further declared that he was the creditor of the queen and Nicholas Hilliard, painter to the English queen. The artist never married nor did he become a naturalised Frenchman. While Jooris van der Straeten is known as a portrait painter for rulers of the Habsburg and Valois, he created Christian devotional scenes for his royal patrons.
At the time he was working for the courts on the Iberian peninsula, many other portrait painters were active as court painters for the same ruling dynasty. They included Flemish painters Antonio Moro and Rolan de Mois, as well as Spanish painters Alonso Sánchez Coello and Juan Pantoja de la Cruz and Italian painter Sofonisba Anguissola; as these artists were working within a same ideological framework, their depictions show many similarities. This has made attributions of unsigned works difficult and some works have been attributed to one artist and to another one. For instance, the Portrait of Don Juan of Austria is now attributed to van der Straeten but was earlier attributed to Alonso Sánchez Coello; the coherence of portraits made by painters working at the court of Philip II can be explained by the propagandistic purpose behind their creation and use. The conception behind the portraits of the Habsburg ruling family was to project an image capable of conveying the family’s leading position in the world, its interests and dynastic destiny.
Achieving a likeness in the portrait of the king and his family was secondary to giving form to the concept of the Habsburg majesty. The establishment and repetition of a series of conventions repeated by each court painter forged a uniform court painting procedure; this so-called'Spanish school of portrait painting' depicted the royal sitters at full or three-quarter length in a not overly heroic but rather personal manner. This was because portraits had a semi-private and familial as well as genealogical role; as the royal family was spread out over Europe, the portraits could be kept to remember close family members as well as serve in the negotiation of royal marriages to give a preview of the prospective spouse's appearance. Media related to Jooris van der Straeten at Wikimedia Commons
Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain
Anna of Austria was Queen of Spain by marriage to her uncle, King Philip II of Spain. Anna was the eldest daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria of Spain, who were first cousins, she was born in Spain during the reign of her maternal grandfather, Emperor Charles V, but lived in Vienna from the age of four. Anna was considered her father's favorite child; the story goes that he enjoyed playing and gambling with her and once a meeting of the Estates of Hungary was postponed because Anna was sick. She received a Catholic education though her father was sympathetic to Lutheranism; as the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Anna was a desirable candidate for marriage at the European courts. Her parents thought a Spanish marriage would strengthen links between the Austrian and Spanish Habsburg families, she considered her cousin Don Carlos of Spain, the only son of her maternal uncle Philip II of Spain. These plans were shattered in 1568. Plans for a Spanish marriage were revived when Philip's third wife, died in childbirth in 1568.
As a result, Philip was left a widower with two young daughters. Philip had been married three times before: first to his double first cousin Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal, secondly to his first cousin, once removed Mary I of England, thirdly to Elisabeth of Valois. Philip was now looking for his fourth wife; the marriage was at first opposed by many, including Pope Pius V. In February 1569, Anna's engagement to her uncle Philip II was announced and in May 1570 they married by proxy. Anna traveled from Austria to Spain in the autumn of 1570 accompanied by her brothers Albert and Wenzel, they traveled through the Netherlands, where Anna was accosted by friends and relatives of Floris of Montigny, the younger brother of the executed Count of Horn. Floris had been imprisoned in Spain since 1567. Now that King Philip had entered into a new marriage, Floris' family and friends hoped for leniency, they received a promise from the future queen. Anna passed along the English Channel, where Elizabeth I sent her admirals, Charles Howard and William Wynter, to offer support and safe passage.
On 3 October Anna arrived on Spanish soil, but before she could reach the king, Floris was secretly put to death on 16 October 1570. The historian John Brewer believes that Philip had him hastily executed soon after Philip's first meeting with Anna, in which he refused to free Floris. Upon her arrival in Spain, Anna was provided with a new household formed under the direction of the experienced and influential lady-in-waiting Margarita de Cardona, the lady-in-waiting of her mother and who would have been known to her since her childhood in Austria. Queen Anna was described as vivid and cheerful, managed to ease up some of the stiff atmosphere at the Spanish court. Anna busied herself with needlework; the marriage between Anna and Philip is described as happy. Besides being her father's favorite child, Anna was also Philip's most beloved wife. According to diplomats, the king was in love with his young bride. There are no records of Philip having mistresses during the time of their marriage. Anna had a personality much like his own, he was devoted to her.
Philip was a conscientious monarch and maintained his relationship with Anna twice a week in the form of notes, as well as visiting his niece's bedchamber up to three times a day. It was Philip's fourth marriage, but the king still had no male heir, the marriage had been arranged to provide him with heirs; the desired result was achieved, Anna gave birth to five children, including four sons, of which the eldest three died before Philip, the youngest succeeded as Philip III. Anna was described as a good stepmother to Philip's daughters Isabella Clara Eugenia and Catherine Michelle, In 1580 she was in Badajoz, where the court was based because of Philip II's claim to the Portuguese throne, she died there, eight months after giving birth to her last child, who outlived her mother by less than three years. She was buried in Badajoz, but her body was transferred to El Escorial. Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias. Carlos Lorenzo. Diego, Prince of Asturias. Philip III of Spain, succeeded his father. Maria J. Brouwer, Representative of the Netherlands by Philip II.
R. Rodríguez Raso, Maximiliano de Austria, gobernador de Carlos V en España: cartas al emperador. Fernando González-Doria, Las Reinas de España. A. W. Lovett, Early Habsburg Spain, 1517-1598. John Lynch, Spain 1516-1598. From nation state to world empire. Geoffrey Parker, Philip II. Henry Kamen, Philip of Spain. Manuel Ríos Mazcarelle, Reinas de España. Casa de Austria. L. Cabrera de Córdoba, Historia de Felipe II, rey de España, J. Martínez Millán and C. J. ed the Carlos Morales. Paula Sutter Fichtner, The Emperor Maximilian II. Pedro Gargantilla, Enfermedades de los reyes de España. Los Austrias. De la locura a la impotencia de Juana de Carlos II el Hechizado
County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards the Counts of Flanders were one of the original twelve peers of the Kingdom of France. For centuries their estates around the cities of Ghent and Ypres formed one of the most affluent regions in Europe. Up to 1477, the area under French suzerainty was located west of the Scheldt River and was called "Royal Flanders". Aside from this the Counts of Flanders from the 11th century on held land east of the river as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, an area called "Imperial Flanders". Part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1384, the county was removed from French to Imperial control after the Peace of Madrid in 1526 and the Peace of Ladies in 1529. In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic and passed to the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815; the former County of Flanders, except for French Flanders, is the only part of the medieval French kingdom, not part of modern-day France.
Flanders and Flemish are derived from the Frisian *flāndra and *flāmisk, the roots of which are Germanic *flaumaz meaning "overflow, flooding". The coastal area of Flanders was flooded twice per day from the 3rd century to the 8th century by the North Sea at the time when the coast was visited by Frisian traders and largely inhabited by Frisians; the Flemish people are first mentioned in the biography of the Vita sancti Eligii. This work was written before 684, but only known since 725; this work mentions the "Flanderenses", who lived in "Flandris." The geography of the historic County of Flanders only overlaps with present-day region of Flanders in Belgium, though there it extends beyond West Flanders and East Flanders. Some of the historic county is now part of France and the Netherlands; the land covered by the county is spread out over: Belgium: two of the five Flemish provinces: West-Flanders and East-Flanders part of the Flemish province of Antwerp: the land of Bornem part of the Walloon province of Hainaut: Tournaisis and the region around Moeskroen France: French Flanders the French westcorner: the region around Dunkirk and Bailleul, an area where Flemish used to be the main language Walloon Flanders, where the Picard language related to French, was spoken.
Artois: removed from Flanders in 1191 and created as independent county in 1237 Netherlands: Zeelandic Flanders, a region between Belgium and the Western Scheldt in the southern part of the modern province of Zeeland, which from 1581 formed part of the Generality Lands under control of the Dutch Republic. The arms of the County of Flanders were created by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. In the story about the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the arms and its corresponding battlecry Vlaendr'n den leeuw plays a crucial role in the forming of a Flemish consciousness, popularised in recent times by the book De Leeuw van Vlaanderen by Hendrik Conscience; as a result, the arms of the county live on as arms of the Flemish Community. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy Land, where in 1177 he conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth; the simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it.
In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions appeared in the arms of Brabant, Holland and other territories, it is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well-known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop; the future county of Flanders had been inhabited since prehistory. During the Iron Age the Kemmelberg formed an important Celtic settlement. During the times of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants were part of the Belgae, a collective name for all Celtic and Germanic tribes in the north of Gallia. For Flanders in specific these were the Morini, the Nervii and the Atrebates. Julius Caesar conquered the area around 54 BC and the population was romanised from the 1st to the 3rd century; the Roman road that connected Cologne with Boulogne-sur-Mer was used as a defense perimeter.
In the south the Gallo-Romanic population was able to maintain itself, while the north became a no-mans land that suffered from regular floods from the North Sea. In the coastal and Scheldt areas Saxon tribes appeared. For the Romans, Saxon was a general term, included Angles, Saxons and Erules; the coastal defense around Boulogne and Oudenburg, the Litus Saxonicum, remained functional until about 420. These forts were manned by Saxon soldiers. From their base land Toxandria the Salian Franks further expanded into the Roman empire; the first incursion into the lands of the Atrebates was turned away in 448 at Vicus Helena. But after the murder of the Roman general Flavius Aëtius in 454 and Roman emperor Valentinianus III in 455, the Salic Franks encounterd hardly any resistance. From Duisburg, king Chlodio conquered Cambrai and Tournai, he reached the Somme. After his death two Salic kingdoms
François Clouet, son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family. François Clouet was born as the son of the court painter Jean Clouet. Jean Clouet was a native of the Southern Netherlands and from the Brussels area. François Clouet studied under his father, he inherited his father's nickname ‘Janet’ and is referred to as such in some early sources and the older literature. The earliest reference to François Clouet is a document dated December 1541 in which the king renounces for the benefit of François his father's estate, which had escheated to the crown as the estate of a foreigner. In this document, the younger Clouet is said to have followed his father closely in his art. Like his father, he held the office of groom of the chamber and painter in ordinary to the king, so far as salary is concerned, he started where his father left off. Many drawings are attributed to this artist without perfect certainty. There is, more to go upon than there is in the case of his father.
As the praises of François Clouet were sung by the writers of the day, his name was preserved from reign to reign, there is an ancient and unbroken tradition in the attribution of many of his pictures. There are not, any original attestations of his works, nor are any documents known which would guarantee the ascriptions accepted. To him are attributed the portraits of Francis I at the Uffizi and at the Louvre, various drawings relating to them, he also painted the portrait of Catherine de' Medici at Versailles and other works, in all probability a large number of the drawings ascribed to him were from his hand. One of his most remarkable portraits is that of Mary, Queen of Scots, a drawing in chalks in the Bibliothèque Nationale, of similar character are the two portraits of Charles IX and the one at Chantilly of Marguerite of France, his masterpiece is the portrait of Elizabeth of Austria in the Louvre. This piece made an important impression on Claude Lévi-Strauss. In particular it helped inspire his theory of the modèle réduit, or of works of art as'miniature models', other theories of artworks, in his book The Savage Mind.
Clouet resided in Paris in the rue de Ste Avoye in the Temple quarter, close to the Hotel de Guise, in 1568 is known to have been under the patronage of Claude Gouffier de Boisy, Seigneur d'Oiron, his wife Claude de Baune. Another ascertained fact concerning François Clouet is that in 1571 he was summoned to the office of the Court of the Mint, his opinion was taken on the likeness to the king of a portrait struck by the mint, he prepared the death-mask of Henry II, as in 1547 he had taken a similar mask of the face and hands of Francis I, in order that the effigy to be used at the funeral might be prepared from his drawings. Several miniatures are believed to be his work, one remarkable portrait being the half-length figure of Henry II in the collection of J. Pierpont Morgan. Another of his portraits is that of François, duc d'Alençon in the Jones collection at the Victoria & Albert Museum. Catherine de Medici described the efforts of Maistre Jamet on Alençon's portrait to the ambassador in London, Mothe Fénélon.
Certain representations of members of the royal family which were in the Hamilton Palace collection and the Magniac sale are ascribed to him. He died on 22 December 1572, shortly after the massacre of St Bartholomew, his will, mentioning his sister and his two illegitimate daughters, dealing with the disposition of a considerable amount of property, is still in existence, his daughters subsequently became nuns. His work is remarkable for the elaborate finish of all the details, the extreme accuracy of the drawing, the exquisite completeness of the whole portrait, he must have been a man of high intelligence, of great penetration, intensely interested in his work, with considerable ability to represent the character of his sitter in his portraits. His coloring is not specially remarkable, nor from the point of style can his pictures be considered fairly beautiful, but in perfection of drawing he has hardly any equal. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Clouet, François". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to François Clouet at Wikimedia Commons
Gaspard II de Coligny
Gaspard de Coligny, Seigneur de Châtillon was a French nobleman and admiral, best remembered as a disciplined Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion and a close friend and advisor to King Charles IX of France. Coligny came of a noble family of Burgundy, his family traced their descent from the 11th century, in the reign of Louis XI, were in the service of the King of France. His father, Gaspard I de Coligny, known as the'Marshal of Châtillon', served in the Italian Wars from 1494 to 1516, married in 1514, was created Marshal of France in 1516. By his wife, Louise de Montmorency, sister of the future constable, he had three sons, all of whom played an important part in the first period of the Wars of Religion: Odet and François. Born at Châtillon-sur-Loing in 1519, Gaspard came to court at the age of 22 and began a friendship with François of Guise. In the campaign of 1543 Coligny distinguished himself, was wounded at the sieges of Montmédy and Bains. In 1544 he served in the Italian campaigns under the Count of Enghien, King Charles VIII, King Louis XII, King Francis I and was knighted on the Field of Ceresole.
Returning to France, he took part in different military operations. That year he married Charlotte de Laval, he was made admiral on the death of Claude d'Annebaut. In 1557 he was entrusted with the defence of Saint-Quentin. In the siege he displayed great courage and strength of character. On payment of a ransom of 50,000 crowns he recovered his liberty; the Coligny brothers were the most zealous and consistent aristocratic supporters of Protestantism in sixteenth-century France. By this time he had become a Huguenot, through the influence of his brother, d'Andelot; the first known letter which John Calvin addressed to him is dated 4 September 1558. Gaspard de Coligny secretly focused on protecting his co-religionists, by attempting to establish colonies abroad in which Huguenots could find a refuge, he organized the expedition of a colony of Huguenots to Brazil, under the leadership of his friend and navy colleague, Vice-Admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, who established the colony of France Antarctique in Rio de Janeiro, in 1555.
They were afterwards expelled by the Portuguese, in 1567. Coligny was the leading patron for the failed French colony of Fort Caroline in Spanish Florida led by Jean Ribault in 1562. In 1566 and 1570, Francisque and André d'Albaigne submitted to Coligny projects for establishing relations with the Austral lands. Although he gave favourable consideration to these initiatives, they came to naught when Coligny was killed in 1572 during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacres. Following the death of Henry II he placed himself with Louis, Prince of Condé, at the forefront of the Huguenot party, demanded religious toleration and certain other reforms. In 1560, at the Assembly of Notables at Fontainebleau, the hostility between Coligny and François of Guise broke forth violently; when the civil wars began in 1562, Coligny decided to take arms only after long hesitation, remained always ready to negotiate. In none of these wars did he show superior genius, but he acted throughout with great prudence and extraordinary tenacity.
He was blamed by the Guise faction for the assassination of Francis, Duke of Guise at Orléans in 1563. In the "third war" of 1569 the defeat and death of the Prince of Condé at the Battle of Jarnac left Coligny the sole leader of the Protestant armies. Victorious at the Battle of La Roche-l'Abeille, but defeated in the Battle of Moncontour on 3 October, he entered into the negotiations for what became the Peace of Saint-Germain. Marrying Jacqueline de Montbel d'Entremont, returning to court in 1571, he grew in favour with Charles IX, becoming a close mentor to the weak manipulated King; as a means of emancipating the king from the tutelage of his mother and the faction of the Guises, the admiral proposed to him a descent on Spanish Flanders, with an army drawn from both faiths and commanded by Charles in person. The king's regard for the admiral and the bold demands of the Huguenots alarmed Catherine de' Medici, the Queen Mother; the wedding of the Protestant Henry, King of Navarre, Marguerite de Valois, the King's sister brought a great number of Huguenot notables to Paris, political and religious tensions were running high.
On 22 August 1572, the day after the end of the wedding festivities, Coligny was shot in the street by a man called Maurevert from a house belonging to de Guise. However, the bullets only shattered his left elbow; the would-be assassin escaped. It never became clear who, if anyone, had hired or encouraged Maurevert to carry out the attempt but historians centre on three possibilities: the Guise family, Catherine de Medici, or the duke of Alba on behalf of Philip II of Spain; the King sent his own physician to treat Coligny and visited him, but the queen mother prevented all private discourse between them. The Catholics now feared Huguenot retaliation for the attempt on Coligny's life, it was decided to pre-emptively assassinate their leadership, in what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; as one of the main targets, on the nig
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian II, a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded. Maximilian's rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Though a Habsburg and a Catholic, he approached the Lutheran Imperial estates with a view to overcome the denominational schism, which failed, he was faced with the ongoing Ottoman–Habsburg wars and rising conflicts with his Habsburg Spain cousins. According to Fichtner, Maximilian failed to achieve his three major aims: rationalizing the government structure, unifying Christianity, evicting the Turks from Hungary. Maximilian was born in Vienna, the eldest son of the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand I, younger brother of Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, the Jagiellonian princess Anne of Bohemia and Hungary.
He was named after his great-grandfather, Emperor Maximilian I. At the time of his birth, his father Ferdinand succeeded his brother-in-law King Louis II in the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary, laying the grounds for the global Habsburg Monarchy. Having spent his childhood years at his fathers's court in Innsbruck, Maximilian was educated principally in Italy. Among his teachers were humanist scholars like Kaspar Ursinus Velius and Georg Tannstetter, he came in contact with the Lutheran teaching and early on corresponded with the Protestant prince Augustus of Saxony, suspiciously eyed by his Habsburg relatives. From the age of 17, he gained some experience of warfare during the Italian War campaign of his uncle Charles V against King Francis I of France in 1544, during the Schmalkaldic War. Upon Charles' victory in the 1547 Battle of Mühlberg, Maximilian put in a good word for the Schmalkaldic leaders, Elector John Frederick I of Saxony and Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, soon began to take part in Imperial business.
On 13 September 1548 Emperor Charles V married Maximilian to Charles's daughter Maria of Spain in the Castile residence of Valladolid. By the marriage his uncle intended to strengthen the ties with the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs, but to consolidate his nephew's Catholic faith. Maximilian temporarily acted as the emperor's representative in Spain, however not as stadtholder of the Habsburg Netherlands as he had hoped for. To his indignation, King Ferdinand appointed his younger brother Ferdinand II administrator in the Kingdom of Bohemia Maximilian's right of succession as the future king was recognised in 1549, he returned to Germany in December 1550 in order to take part in the discussion over the Imperial succession. Maximilian's relations with his uncle worsened, as Charles V, again embattled by rebellious Protestant princes led by Elector Maurice of Saxony, wished his son Philip II of Spain to succeed him as emperor. However, Charles' brother Ferdinand, designated as the next occupant of the imperial throne, his son Maximilian objected to this proposal.
Maximilian sought the support of the German princes such as Duke Albert V of Bavaria and contacted Protestant leaders like Maurice of Saxony and Duke Christoph of Württemberg. At length a compromise was reached: Philip was to succeed Ferdinand, but during the former's reign Maximilian, as King of the Romans, was to govern Germany; this arrangement was not carried out, is only important because the insistence of the emperor disturbed the harmonious relations that had hitherto existed between the two branches of the Habsburg family. The relationship between the two cousins was uneasy. While Philip had been raised a Spaniard and travelled out of the kingdom during his life, Maximilian identified himself as the quintessential German prince and displayed a strong dislike of Spaniards, whom he considered as intolerant and arrogant. While his cousin was reserved and shy, Maximilian was charismatic, his adherence to humanism and religious tolerance put him at odds with Philip, more committed to the defence of the Catholic faith.
He was considered a promising commander, while Philip disliked war and only once commanded an army. Nonetheless, the two remained committed to the unity of their dynasty. In 1551 Maximilian attended the Council of Trent and the next year took up his residence at Hofburg Palace in Vienna, celebrated by a triumphal return into the city with a large entourage including the elephant Suleiman. While his father Ferdinand concluded the 1552 Treaty of Passau with the Protestant estates and reached the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, Maximilian was engaged in the government of the Austrian hereditary lands and in defending them against Ottoman incursions. In Vienna, he had his Hofburg residence extended with the Renaissance Stallburg wing, the site of the Spanish Riding School, ordered the construction of Neugebäude Palace in Simmering; the court held close ties to the University of Vienna and employed scholars like the botanist Carolus Clusius and the diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. Maximilian's library curated by Hugo Blotius became the nucleus of the Austrian National Library.
He implemented the Roman School of composition with his court orchestra, his plans to win Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina as Kapellm
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c