Donald Ervin Knuth is an American computer scientist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming, he contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, the Computer Modern family of typefaces; as a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. Knuth opposes granting software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation. Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning.
His father had two jobs: running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, received academic accolades there because of the ingenious ways that he thought of solving problems. For example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create. Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found 4,500 words, winning the contest; as prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat. In 1956, Knuth received a scholarship to the Case Institute of Technology in Ohio, he joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity. While studying physics at the Case Institute of Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, one of the early mainframes. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school, because he believed he could do it better.
In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team win their games. He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News reported on. Knuth was one of the founding editors of the Engineering and Science Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in 1959, he switched from physics to mathematics, in 1960 he received his bachelor of science degree being given a master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who considered his work exceptionally outstanding. In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser, he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an assistant professor, he accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming.
He planned to publish this as a single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes, seven, to cover the subject, he published the first volume in 1968. Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division situated on the Princeton University campus, performing mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security Agency. Knuth left this position to join the Stanford University faculty, where he is now Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus. Knuth is a writer, as well as a computer scientist. Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms". In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a new field with no real identity, and the standard of available publications was not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite wrong.... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story, badly told."
By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published. Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science 2nd ed. which originated with an expansion of the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has been published. Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a good programmer... You should send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing." Knuth is the author of Surreal Numbers, a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing creative research. In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek, Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger. Knuth is an occasional contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics. Knuth has delved into recreational mathematics.
He contributed articles to the Journal of Recreational Mathematics beginning in the 1960s, was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's Mathematics on Vacation. Knuth has appeared in a number of Numberphile and Computerphile videos on YouTube where he has discussed topics f
Barnesville is a village in Belmont County, United States. It is located in the central portion of Warren Township in Belmont County and is part of the Wheeling, West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 4,193 at the 2010 census. The town was named after James Barnes, the first settler. Barnes was born in Montgomery County and was married to Nancy Harrison, "an intelligent Quaker lady". Barnes owned a farm in Montgomery County, laid out a town there known as Barnesville, where he operated a country store for a while. In 1803 he moved to Ohio where he operated a tavern and general store. In 1806 Barnes settled in Warren Township in Belmont County where he cleared forest, built a house, established a tannery and general store and planted orchards. In November 1808, the town of Barnesville was laid out, four years Mr. Barnes and his family became permanent residents of the new village. Barnesville was described in 1833 as having a steam mill. Barnesville was incorporated as a village in 1835.
Barnesville is located at 39°59′17″N 81°10′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.95 square miles, of which, 1.94 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,193 people, 1,763 households, 1,114 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,161.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,011 housing units at an average density of 1,036.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.0% White, 0.9% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 1,763 households of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.8% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the village was 41.4 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 46.2% male and 53.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,225 people, 1,769 households, 1,119 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,196.6 people per square mile. There were 1,964 housing units at an average density of 1,021.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.41% White, 0.71% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.26% of the population. There were 1,769 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.94. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $23,925, the median income for a family was $31,927. Males had a median income of $25,098 versus $16,119 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,105. About 21.2% of families and 22.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.1% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. The Belmont County Victorian Mansion Museum is located in Barnesville; the museum includes twenty-six rooms restored to the Victorian era. The village is the host of the Barnesville Pumpkin Festival every September, attracting tourists from the area.
The village of Barnesville is served by the Barnesville Exempted Village School District. The village's schools saw a renovation in 2002 to improve and expand classroom learning and appearances. There are three main schools in the village: Barnesville Elementary School, Barnesville Middle School, Barnesville High School. Located in the village is Olney Friends School, a small co-educational boarding high school affiliated with the Religious Society of Friends. Barnesville travel guide from Wikivoyage Village website Barnesville Area Chamber of Commerce Barnesville Pumpkin Festival
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor and innovator, credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885. Bell's father and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work, his research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which culminated in Bell being awarded the first U. S. patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Many other inventions marked Bell's life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders of the National Geographic Society, he had a strong influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7, 1898, until 1903. Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, 1847.
The family home was at South Charlotte Street, has a stone inscription marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace. He had two brothers: Melville James Bell and Edward Charles Bell, both of whom would die of tuberculosis, his father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, a phonetician, his mother was Eliza Grace. Born as just "Alexander Bell", at age 10, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers. For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the name "Graham", chosen out of respect for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father who had become a family friend. To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck"; as a child, young Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. Young Bell asked, he was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine, put into operation and used for a number of years.
In return, Ben's father John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to "invent". From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art and music, encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he became the family's pianist. Despite being quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits. Bell was deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour, he developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity. Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics, his family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known his The Standard Elocutionist, which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning. Bell's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. Bell became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities, he could decipher Visible Speech representing every language, including Latin, Scottish Gaelic, Sanskrit reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation. As a young child, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms.
His school record was undistinguished, marked by lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences biology while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father. Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with Alexander Bell. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study; the elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself. At the age of 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy at Elgin, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session; the following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada with his f
Highland Park, Illinois
Highland Park is an affluent suburban city in Lake County, United States, about 25 miles north of downtown Chicago. As of the 2016 population estimate, the population was 29,641. Highland Park is one of several municipalities located on the North Shore of the Chicago metropolitan area. In 1867, ten men purchased Highland Park for $39,198.70. They were the original stockholders of the Highland Park Building Company. Following construction of the Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad, a depot was established at Highland Park and a plat, extending south to Central Avenue, was laid out in 1856. Highland Park was established as a city on March 11, 1869, with a population of 500, evolved from two settlements—St. John and Port Clinton. Highland Park was named from its parklike setting at a lofty elevation relative to the lake, was given its name from Walter S. Gurnee; the town annexed the village of Ravinia in 1899. Highland Park has several attractions including a vibrant downtown shopping district and the Ravinia Festival.
Ravinia Festival is an open-air pavilion seating 3,200, which hosts classical and jazz concerts in the summers. It has been the summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra since 1936. Concert-goers can purchase seats in tickets to sit on the lawn. Many visitors arrive picnic on the lawn before and during concerts; the festival is located in Ravinia District an artists' colony, which still retains much of its early character and architecture. Highland Park has several landmark structures listed in the National Register of Historic Places, notably the Willits House by Frank Lloyd Wright. In addition to several houses designed by Wright, the National Register lists homes designed by prominent architects including John S. Van Bergen, Howard Van Doren Shaw, Robert E. Seyfarth, David Adler. Landscape architect Jens Jensen lived in Highland Park and designed a number of projects in the community that are listed on the register. There are three public beaches in Highland Park: Rosewood Beach, Moraine Beach and Park Avenue Beach.
Highland Park is home to the North Shore Yacht Club. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.2 square miles, of which 12.2 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.27%, is water. Its geographic features include a 100-foot-high bluff running along 6 miles of Lake Michigan shoreline and deep, wooded ravines extending up to 1 mile inland. Elevations range from 580 to 725 feet above sea level; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,763 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 91.05% White, 1.84% Black or African American, 2.9% Asian, 0.18% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.51% of some other race and 1.48% of two or more races. 7.28 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 31,365 people, 11,521 households, 8,917 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,537.5 people per square mile. There were 11,934 housing units at an average density of 965.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 91.20% White, 1.78% African American, 0.08% Native American, 2.28% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.46% from other races, 1.18% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.90% of the population. There were 11,521 households out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.9% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.6% were non-families. 19.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $100,967, the median income for a family was $317,235. Males had a median income of $83,121 versus $41,175 for females; the per capita income for the city was $55,331. About 2.3% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over.
Highland Park is governed by the council-manager form of government. The non-partisan City Council consists of seven members, including an elected mayor and six councilmembers, all elected at-large and serving staggered four-year terms; the current city council consists of: Highland Park is considered a Democratic stronghold. Highland Park voters overwhelmingly broke for Illinois Senator Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election, choosing him over Arizona Senator John McCain, 76.3%–23.1%. Highland Park voters tend to prefer Democrats in local races. At the state level, Highland Park is a part of the 58th House District, represented by Bob Morgan, the 29th Senate District, represented by Julie Morrison. At the county level, the city is split between Districts 11 and 12, represented by former Highland Park City Councilman Paul Frank and former Lake Forest Mayor Mike Rummel, respectively; the international headquarters of Solo Cup Company used to be located in Highland Park, before relocating to neighboring Lake Forest in 2009.
The main highway in Highland Park is US-41. Commuter rail is available at four Metra stations within city borders (Braeside, Ravinia Park and Hig
Invention of the telephone
The invention of the telephone was the culmination of work done by many individuals, led to an array of lawsuits relating to the patent claims of several individuals and numerous companies. The first telephone was invented by Antonio Meucci, but Alexander Graham Bell is credited with the development of the first practical telephone; the concept of the telephone dates back to the string telephone or lover's telephone, known for centuries, comprising two diaphragms connected by a taut string or wire. Sound waves are carried as mechanical vibrations along the string or wire from one diaphragm to the other; the classic example is the tin can telephone, a children's toy made by connecting the two ends of a string to the bottoms of two metal cans, paper cups or similar items. The essential idea of this toy was that a diaphragm can collect voice sounds from the air, as in the ear, a string or wire can transmit such collected voice sounds for reproduction at a distance. One precursor to the development of the electromagnetic telephone originated in 1833 when Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Eduard Weber invented an electromagnetic device for the transmission of telegraphic signals at the University of Göttingen, in Lower Saxony, helping to create the fundamental basis for the technology, used in similar telecommunication devices.
Gauss's and Weber's invention is purported to be the world's first electromagnetic telegraph. In 1840, American Charles Grafton Page passed an electric current through a coil of wire placed between the poles of a horseshoe magnet, he observed that disconnecting the current caused a ringing sound in the magnet. He called this effect "galvanic music". Innocenzo Manzetti considered the idea of a telephone as early as 1844, may have made one in 1864, as an enhancement to an automaton built by him in 1849. Charles Bourseul was a French telegraph engineer who proposed the first design of a "make-and-break" telephone in 1854; that is about the same time that Meucci claimed to have created his first attempt at the telephone in Italy. Bourseul explained: "Suppose that a man speaks near a movable disc sufficiently flexible to lose none of the vibrations of the voice, it is certain that, in a less distant future, a speech will be transmitted by electricity. I have made experiments in this direction; the Reis telephone was developed from 1857 on.
The transmitter was difficult to operate, since the relative position of the needle and the contact were critical to the device's operation. Thus, it can be called a "telephone", since it did transmit voice sounds electrically over distance, but was hardly a commercially practical telephone in the modern sense. Thomas Edison tested the Reis equipment and found that "single words, uttered as in reading and the like, were perceptible indistinctly, notwithstanding here the inflections of the voice, the modulations of interrogation, command, etc. attained distinct expression."In 1947, the Reis device was tested by the British company Standard Telephones and Cables. The results confirmed it could transmit and receive speech with good quality, but low intensity. At the time STC was bidding for a contract with Alexander Graham Bell's American Telephone and Telegraph Company, the results were covered up by STC's chairman Sir Frank Gill to maintain Bell's reputation. An early voice communicating device was invented around 1854 by Antonio Meucci, who called it a telettrofono.
In 1871 Meucci filed a caveat at the US Patent Office. His caveat describes his invention, but does not mention a diaphragm, conversion of sound into electrical waves, conversion of electrical waves into sound, or other essential features of an electromagnetic telephone; the first American demonstration of Meucci's invention took place in Staten Island, New York in 1854. In 1861, a description of it was published in an Italian-language New York newspaper, although no known copy of that newspaper issue or article has survived to the present day. Meucci claimed to have invented a paired electromagnetic transmitter and receiver, where the motion of a diaphragm modulated a signal in a coil by moving an electromagnet, although this was not mentioned in his 1871 U. S. patent caveat. A further discrepancy observed was that the device described in the 1871 caveat employed only a single conduction wire, with the telephone's transmitter-receivers being insulated from a'ground return' path. In the 1880s Meucci was credited with the early invention of inductive loading of telephone wires to increase long-distance signals.
Serious burns from an accident, a lack of English, poor business abilities resulted in Meucci's failing to develop his inventions commercially in America. Meucci demonstrated some sort of instrument in 1849 in Havana, however, this may have been a variant of a string telephone that used wire. Meucci has been further credited with the invention of an anti-sidetone circuit. However, examination showed that his solution to sidetone was to maintain two separate telephone circuits and thus use twice as many transmission wires; the anti-sidetone circuit introduced by Bell Telephone instead canceled sidetone through a feedback process. An American District Telegraph laboratory lost some of Meucci's working models, his wife disposed of others and Meucci, who sometimes lived on public assistance, chose not to renew his 1871 teletrofono patent caveat after 1874. A r
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl