Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)
"Bewitched and Bewildered" is episode 16 of season two of Buffy the Vampire Slayer. It was written by Marti Noxon and first broadcast on February 10, 1998. In this episode, Cordelia breaks up with Xander. Xander retaliates by attempting a love spell to "put her through the same hell", he gets a little more than he had bargained for. During a patrol through the cemetery, Xander shows Buffy a silver necklace he intends to give to Cordelia the following night for Valentine's Day; the next day at school, Xander witnesses Amy Madison use magic to avoid a homework assignment. Soon after, Giles runs into Jenny Calendar, however their relationship remains frosty, with Giles deciding talking to Buffy is more important than making amends with Jenny. Giles warns Buffy that Angelus becomes vicious around Valentine's Day, suggests she stays indoors for the following nights. Meanwhile, Cordelia is insulted by Harmony and the Cordettes, revealing to Cordelia that her relationship with Xander is not as secret as she once thought.
Xander gives the necklace to Cordelia. Xander is heart broken, blackmails Amy into casting a love spell upon Cordelia so he can take revenge by breaking up with her; the spell goes wrong, with Cordelia becoming the only female not to be affected by the spell. The following day, Xander is shocked to find Cordelia repels his advances, retreats to the library. Buffy makes it clear that she is attracted to Xander, but Amy interrupts them and tells Xander she believes the spell went wrong, she begins to act to Buffy, so Xander rushes home. The following day, all of the girls of Sunnydale High start following Xander around the corridors and Harmony criticises a shocked Cordelia for breaking up with Xander. Xander seeks help from Giles, appalled by Xander's foolishness. Giles goes looking for Amy, so that she can reverse the spell, while Xander barricades himself in the library. However, Buffy attempts to seduce a reluctant Xander. Amy arrives, becomes jealous of Buffy casting a spell that changes Buffy into a rat.
An angry Giles orders Xander to go home. Oz looks for the Buffy-rat to ensure; as Xander is leaving the school, he finds. He saves Cordelia from a group of girls. Xander and Cordelia seek shelter in Buffy's home, locking Joyce out when she too falls under the spell. While in Buffy's room, Xander is pulled out of the window by Angelus, who intends to kill him to upset Buffy. Xander is saved by an infatuated Drusilla. Xander barricades himself in the basement with Cordelia, touched to learn that Xander performed the spell for her; the love-crazed mob breaks in and attacks Xander and Cordelia just as Giles and Amy manage to lift the spell. "Bewitched and Bewildered" is the first episode where Buffy is not a major part of the main storyline. "Bewitched and Bewildered" on IMDb "Bewitched, Bothered And Bewildered" at TV.com
Amy Madison is a fictional character on the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, portrayed by Elizabeth Anne Allen. The character appears in every season of Buffy except Season Five. In the show, Amy is a witch. Although a good-natured individual, Amy begins misusing her magic becoming an enemy to Willow and her friends. In the series' comic book continuation, the character is more of an outright villain. Amy is a classmate of Buffy Summers at Sunnydale High School. In junior high, she would go over to Willow's house and eat brownies to escape her mother's abuse; the character first appears in the Season One episode "Witch", when she and Buffy both try out for the cheerleading team. At first, Amy performs poorly in the tryouts, but when a series of strange injuries to other contestants move her up in the standings, the Scooby Gang suspects that something is afoot, it is revealed that Amy's mother Catherine, a powerful witch, has switched bodies with Amy because she wants to relive her youth.
Buffy and the Scooby Gang succeed in restoring Amy to her own body and trapping her mother in the cheerleading trophy she won while a cheerleader for Sunnydale High. Afterward, Amy talks to Buffy and mentions that she is now living with her father and step-mother, that she is much happier; the character appears as a Sunnydale student in other episodes. Along with Jonathan Levinson and Harmony Kendall, she is one of many recurring student characters. In the Season Two episode "Bewitched and Bewildered", Xander Harris discovers that Amy inherited her mother's power, having become a potent, if sometimes ineffective, witch. Xander blackmails Amy into helping him perform a love spell on Cordelia Chase, the spell goes awry and causes the entire female population of Sunnydale, except Cordelia, to become infatuated with Xander. Under the influence of her own spell, a jealous Amy invokes the goddess Hecate and temporarily turns Buffy into a rat. Rupert Giles forces Amy to undo both spells. In Season Three, the character has joined a coven with warlock Michael Czajak.
In the episode "Gingerbread", the parents of Sunnydale become paranoid about the supernatural's influence on their children, prepare to burn Amy and Willow at the stake. To escape her bonds, Amy turns herself into a rat, but being a rat, she is unable to remove her own spell. Willow captures keeps her in a cage until the spell can be reversed. Willow makes several unsuccessful attempts to return Amy to human form over the next two seasons. In the Season Four episode "Something Blue", who, at this time, has the power to make anything she wants happen, accidentally turns Amy back into a human. Doug Petrie, a writer on the show, describes this series of events as "as cruel and funny as anything could be". By Season Six, Willow has become an powerful witch and permanently "de-rats" Amy by conjuring an incantation; the two become friends again, though Amy now seems to be drastically different from before she turned into a rat. The character had been involved with the warlock Rack before becoming a rat.
Amy gets. When Willow decides to give up magic, Amy casts a spell on her, causing her to magically manipulate everything she touches for a while. Amy responds by mocking her, implying that she did it as revenge for being trapped as a rat for years; as a result, Willow cuts Amy out of her life entirely. Amy's final appearance in the television series occurs in the Season Seven episode "The Killer in Me." When asked her feelings about Amy's actions in this episode, Elizabeth Anne Allen said, "I think after all the things that she went through, there were a lot of reasons why she was so angry."Having physically transformed into Warren Mears, whom she tortured and flayed in a rage over the murder of her girlfriend Tara Maclay, Willow seeks help from the UC Sunnydale Wicca Group and discovers that Amy is a member. Amy explains that she had hit "rock bottom", was doing much better now, it is soon revealed, that Amy is in fact responsible for Willow's transformation, the result of a hex placed on her out of jealousy and spite.
However, in the Season Eight comic book, it's made known this random event is part of a larger plan orchestrated by Warren, after Amy rescued him from death in the earlier episode "Villains." Allen says she would have liked to explore Amy's struggle to overcome her anger, so that she could "get a grip and come back to the fold with her friends." In the first issue of the Season Eight comic book story "The Long Way Home," an expedition of the United States Army finds Amy living sixty feet under the Hellmouth after its collapse with her "boyfriend," an unrevealed creature whom General Voll regards with disgust. Her first words to an exploratory member were "I'm gonna help you kill her." In exchange for their cooperation, Amy requests unlimited access to all the government's magical hardware as well as a weapons lab for her "boyfriend". Amy attacks Buffy at the Slayers' base in Scotland, putting her under a mystical sleep which only a kiss of someone's love can undo. Raising an army of
Buffy the Vampire Slayer
Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American supernatural drama television series based on the 1992 film of the same name. It was created by Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions, with co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, David Greenwalt, Doug Petrie, Marti Noxon, David Solomon; the series premiered on March 10, 1997, on The WB and concluded on May 20, 2003, on UPN. The series narrative follows Buffy Summers, the latest in a line of young women known as "Vampire Slayers", or "Slayers". In the story, Slayers or the'Chosen Ones' are "called" to battle against vampires and other forces of darkness. Buffy wants to live a normal life. Like previous Slayers, Buffy is aided by a Watcher, who guides and trains her. Unlike her predecessors, Buffy surrounds herself with a circle of loyal friends who become known as the "Scooby Gang"; the series received critical and popular acclaim being listed as one of the greatest TV shows of all time, reached between four and six million viewers on original airings.
Although such ratings are lower than successful shows on the "big four" networks, they were a success for the new and smaller WB Television Network. The success of Buffy has led to hundreds of tie-in products, including novels and video games; the series has received attention in fandom and academia, has influenced the direction of other television series. The series, as well as its spinoff series Angel, extensions thereof, have been collectively termed the "Buffyverse"; as of 2018, a reboot of the series is being developed for television, with Monica Owusu-Breen as showrunner. Buffy Summers is the "Slayer", one in a long line of young women chosen by fate to battle evil forces; this mystical calling endows her with powers that increase physical strength, agility, accelerated healing, a limited degree of clairvoyance in the form of prophetic dreams. She is known as a reluctant hero who wants to live a normal life. However, she learns to embrace her destiny as the vampire slayer. Buffy receives guidance from Rupert Giles.
Giles referred to by his first name, is a member of the Watchers' Council, whose job is to train and guide the Slayers. Giles researches the supernatural creatures that Buffy must face, offers insights into their origins and advice on how to defeat them, helps her train to stay in fighting form. Buffy is helped by friends she meets at Sunnydale High: Willow Rosenberg and Xander Harris. Willow is a wallflower who excels at academics, providing a contrast to Buffy's outgoing personality and less-than-stellar educational record, they share the social isolation that comes with being different, from being exceptional young women. As the series progresses, Willow becomes a more assertive character and a powerful witch, comes out as a lesbian. In contrast, with no supernatural skills but athletic, provides comic relief and a grounded perspective, it is Xander who provides the heart to the series, in season six, becomes the hero in place of Buffy who defeats the "Big Bad." Buffy and Willow are the only characters.
The cast of characters grew over the course of the series. Buffy first arrives in Sunnydale with her mother, Joyce Summers, who functions as an anchor of normality in the Summers' lives after she learns of Buffy's role in the supernatural world. Buffy's younger sister. A vampire tortured with a soul in return for horrific deeds committed in the past to many, including a young gypsy girl and her family, Angel, is Buffy's love interest throughout the first three seasons, he leaves Buffy. He goes on to search for redemption in his own spin-off, Angel, he makes several guest appearances in the remaining seasons, including the last episode. At Sunnydale High, Buffy meets several other students besides Willow and Xander willing to join her fight for good, an informal group tagged the "Scooby Gang" or "Scoobies." Cordelia Chase, the archetypal shallow cheerleader, reluctantly becomes involved. Daniel "Oz" Osbourne, a fellow student, rock guitarist and werewolf, joins the group through his relationship with Willow.
Jenny Calendar, Sunnydale's computer science teacher, joins the group after helping destroy a demon trapped in cyberspace during season 1. She becomes Giles' love interest. Anya, a former vengeance demon who specialized in avenging scorned women, becomes Xander's lover after losing her powers and joins the group in season four. In Buffy's senior year at high school, she meets Faith, the other current Slayer, "called" forth when Slayer Kendra Young was killed by vampire Drusilla, in season two. Although Faith fights on the side of good with Buffy and the rest of the group, she comes to stand against them and sides with Mayor Richard Wilkins after accidentally killing a human in season three, she reappears in the fourth season, looking for vengeance, moves
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Doogie Howser, M.D.
Doogie Howser, M. D. is an American medical comedy-drama television series that ran for four seasons on ABC from September 19, 1989, to March 24, 1993, totaling 97 episodes. Created by Steven Bochco and David E. Kelley, the show stars Neil Patrick Harris in the title role as a teenage physician who balances the challenge of practicing medicine with the everyday problems of teenage life. Dr. Douglas "Doogie" Howser is the son of Katherine Howser; as a child, he twice survived early-stage pediatric leukemia after his father—a family physician—discovered suspicious bruising. The experience contributed to the younger Howser's desire to enter medicine. Possessing a genius intellect and an eidetic memory, Howser participates in a longitudinal study of child prodigies until his 18th birthday, he earned a perfect score on the SAT at the age of six, completed high school in nine weeks at the age of nine, graduated from Princeton University in 1983 at age 10, finished medical school four years later. At age 14, Howser was the youngest licensed doctor in the country.
As a newspaper article stated, he "can't buy beer... can prescribe drugs". The series begins on Howser's 16th birthday. Howser is a second-year resident surgeon at Eastman Medical Center in Los Angeles, still lives at home with his parents, his best friend and neighbor, Vinnie Delpino, is a more typical teenager—climbing through Howser's bedroom window to visit—and connects him to life outside of medicine. Howser has kept a diary on his computer since 1979. Howser seeks acceptance from both children his age, his professional colleagues. Many episodes deal with wider social problems: AIDS awareness, homophobia, gang violence, access to quality medical care, losing one's virginity are topics, along with aging, body issues, friendship. Howser has a girlfriend, Wanda Plenn, but they break up after she leaves for college. Bochco intended to end the show with a "season-long story arc for Doogie where he becomes disaffected with the practice of medicine and quits medicine to become a writer". ABC abruptly canceled the show due to low ratings, preventing Bochco and the show's writers from implementing the storyline other than Howser's resignation from Eastman and departure for Europe in the final episode.
The weekly, half-hour dramedy was created by Steven Bochco. He originated the concept and asked David E. Kelley to help write the pilot, giving Kelley a "created by" credit. Harris was the first actor the show's staff had found that could convincingly play a teenage doctor, but ABC executives opposed his casting. Bochco's contract required that the network pay an "enormous" penalty if it canceled the project, so ABC was forced to let him film the pilot; the network still opposed Harris's casting and disliked the pilot, but after positive reception during test screenings, ABC greenlit the show. Neil Patrick Harris as Dr. Douglas "Doogie" Howser, the show's protagonist. Max Casella as Vincent "Vinnie" Salvatore Delpino, Howser's best friend since they were five years old. A typical girl-crazy teenager, Delpino resists his father's demands to join the family business and instead attends film school to pursue a career as a film director. James B. Sikking as Dr. David Howser, Doogie Howser's father.
The Vietnam War MASH veteran has a family practice. Belinda Montgomery as Katherine Howser, Doogie Howser's mother. A housewife, she returns to work as a patient advocate at her son's hospital. Lisa Dean Ryan as Wanda Plenn, Delpino's high-school classmate and Howser's girlfriend. After her mother dies in an automobile accident, Plenn's relationship with Howser suffers. After she leaves for the School of the Art Institute of Chicago they end their relationship. Lucy Boryer as Janine Stewart, Delpino's girlfriend and Plenn's best friend, she becomes a buyer for a department store. Lawrence Pressman as Dr. Benjamin Canfield, head of Eastman Medical. Canfield is an old friend and classmate of David Howser, persuades him to join the hospital to run its family practice. Mitchell Anderson as Dr. Jack McGuire, a resident at Eastman and Howser's friendly rival. A visit to rural Mexico inspires him to leave the hospital to serve the poor overseas. Kathryn Layng as Mary Margaret "Curly" Spaulding, a nurse at Eastman.
Spaulding dates McGuire and both Canfield and Howser. Markus Redmond as Raymond Alexander, an orderly at Eastman. While he was a gang member, Alexander meets Howser after taking him hostage during a convenience-store robbery. Rif Hutton as Dr. Ron Welch, a fellow doctor, friends with Howser. Robyn Lively as Michele Faber, a nursing student, she becomes Howser's girlfriend shortly before he decides to go to Europe. Barry Livingston as Dr. Bob Rickett, a fellow doctor working at Eastman. Anchor Bay Entertainment released all four seasons of Doogie Howser, M. D. on DVD in Region 1 between 2005 and 2006. At one point there were plans f
Gingerbread (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)
"Gingerbread" is episode eleven of season three of the television show Buffy the Vampire Slayer. It was written by Thania St. John and Jane Espenson, directed by James Whitmore, Jr. and first broadcast on January 12, 1999. While waiting in the park for Buffy, her mother Joyce discovers the bodies of two dead children. At school the next day, Buffy shows Giles a symbol, visible on the hands of the two children, he tells her that demons do not use symbols, that it is no doubt occult-related. This angers Buffy, as Slayers are forbidden to harm humans dark witches. At lunch, Buffy tells the Scooby Gang about the murders. Joyce announces that there will be a vigil at City Hall that night. Many concerned parents attend the vigil, including Willow's mother. Mayor Wilkins says a few words before Joyce gives a speech about how the people of Sunnydale must take back their city from the monsters and slayers. Michael and Willow perform a spell in a circle that surrounds the symbol Buffy saw on the children's hands.
Buffy finds the symbol in one of Willow's notebooks. Willow explains. Meanwhile, all the school lockers are searched for witch-related material, Giles's occult books are seized by police. Amy and Willow are taken to Principal Snyder's office for questioning. At Buffy's home, Joyce forbids Buffy to see Willow anymore, takes credit for the locker searches and states that Buffy's slaying does Sunnydale no good; the ghosts of two children appear to Joyce and tell that she has to hurt the "bad girls". At the park, Buffy talks with Angel; when he makes a passing remark about the children and their parents, Buffy is struck by the thought that the children's parents were never seen or mentioned, the fact that no one knows the children's names. After using the Internet to contact Willow, the Scooby Gang learns that every fifty years throughout history, the murdered bodies of two nameless children have been found, resulting in peaceful communities being torn apart by vigilante chaos; the earliest record dating from Germany during 1649, where a cleric from the Black Forest discovered the corpses of "Hans and Greta Strauss", inspiring the fairy tale of Hansel and Gretel.
Giles explains that certain demons thrive on watching humans destroy each other through persecution and ignorance. According to Giles, this is. Buffy and Giles are knocked out with chloroform by Joyce and her friends, at the behest of the two children. Amy and Buffy are taken to City Hall where they are tied to wooden posts surrounded by books. Cordelia finds Giles unconscious, wakes him and they rush to City Hall. Just as Buffy wakes up, her mother lights books on fire, sentencing the three girls to death by burning at the stake. Amy escapes by transforming herself into a rat. At City Hall, Cordelia uses a fire hose to put the burning stakes out; the two children transform into a large demon. She uses it to impale the demon. Noel Murray of The A. V. Club praised "Gingerbread" for its humorous dialogue and the way it progressed the story arc, but criticized the action as slow and repetitive. A reviewer for the BBC said the episode was well paced and atmospheric Willow being accused of witchcraft, the restrictions on personal liberty and book burning.
"Gingerbread" on IMDb "Gingerbread" at TV.com
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi