Kings Cross, New South Wales
Kings Cross is an inner-city locality of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately 2 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district and it is bounded by the suburbs of Potts Point, Elizabeth Bay, Rushcutters Bay and Darlinghurst. Colloquially known as The Cross, the area is known as Sydneys red-light district, once known for its music halls and grand theatres, it was rapidly transformed after World War II by the influx of troops returning and visiting from the nearby Garden Island naval base. Today, it is a mixed locality offering both services to residents and entertainment venues including bars, nightclubs, brothels. The intersection of William Street, Darlinghurst Road and Victoria Street at the localitys southernmost limit was named Queens Cross to celebrate Queen Victorias diamond jubilee in 1897. Confusion with Queens Square in King Street in the city prompted its renaming as Kings Cross, after King Edward VII, during the early 19th century the Darlinghurst area, which extended to include current day Kings Cross, was one of Sydneys most prestigious locations.
Being far enough to escape the noise and smell of the central city, an additional attraction was the commanding harbour views to the east and north and views to the west as far as the Blue Mountains. They built a series of grandiose mansions with sprawling gardens of up to ten acres, the remnants of these gardens helped give the area its leafy character, and many of the mansions are commemorated through street names such as Roslyn and Kellett. Most of the estates were ultimately subdivided with all but a handful of the great houses demolished. One of the homes, located nearby in the suburb of Elizabeth Bay, is Elizabeth Bay House. Others, now used for other purposes, include Tusculum in Manning Street, a prominent past resident of this era was David Scott Mitchell. The Kings Cross district was Sydneys bohemian heartland from the decades of the 20th century. The illegal trading of alcohol, known as sly grog, was notorious in the area up until mid-century, led by rival owners, Tilly Devine. Anthony, actors including Peter Finch and Chips Rafferty, and painter Sir William Dobell, from the 1960s onwards Kings Cross came to serve as both the citys main tourist accommodation and entertainment mecca, as well as its red-light district.
It thereby achieved a level of notoriety out of all proportion to its limited geographical extent. Hundreds of American servicemen on R & R leave flocked to the area each week in search of entertainment, much of this activity can be related with Abe Saffron, commonly known as Mr Sin or the boss of the Cross. A positive influence in the area during that time was The Wayside Chapel and his church was open most of the time, providing a drop in centre and counselling services to many of the itinerants who were drawn to the area. The Ted Noff Foundation, established in 1971, continues his work supporting young people and their families who are experiencing drug and alcohol problems and related trauma
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Potts Point, New South Wales
Potts Point is a small, densely populated suburb of inner-city Sydney, Australia. Potts Point is located 3 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district and is part of the government area of the City of Sydney. Potts Point sits on a ridge immediately east of Woolloomooloo, west of Elizabeth Bay and Rushcutters Bay, the suburb has a roughly trapezoidal shape, and at its greatest extent is no more than 1 kilometre long by 200 metres wide. Potts Points eastern boundary is Macleay Street, the suburbs other boundaries include Darlinghurst Road to the southeast, William Street to the south, Brougham Street and part of Cowper Road to the west. Kings Cross is not a designated suburb of Sydney, but rather a locality encompassed entirely by the suburbs of Potts Point. Kings Cross is an area that is dominated by bars, nightclubs, strip clubs. Kings Cross railway station is situated beneath Darlinghurst Road and the Garden Island facility of the Royal Australian Navy sits on the end of Potts Point.
Potts Point is named for Joseph Hyde Potts, who was employed by the Bank of New South Wales and he purchased six-and-a-half acres of harbourside land in an area known as Woolloomooloo Hill – which he renamed Potts Point. NSW Judge Advocate, John Wylde was another 19th-century public servant who owned land in the area, the area was further subdivided after Macleays time, and a number of grand Georgian mansions were built along the high point of the suburbs ridge line. Several of these survive, including Rockwall House and Tusculum, Rockwall House, located in Rockwall Crescent, is a two-storey sandstone villa with five bays and a verandah that encircles the house. It was one of the homes designed by architect John Verge and was built from 1831 to 1837. It is the one of these which has a garden and is in private ownership. The building is now listed on the Register of the National Estate, located in Manning Street, is a two-storey Regency mansion that was designed by John Verge. His client was the merchant A. B, for whom the house was built in 1831–35.
It was a twin to Rockwell House and was enlarged in the 1870s by the addition of verandahs on three sides, the first tenant was Bishop Broughton. Tusculum now serves as the headquarters for the NSW chapter of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects, like Rockwall House, it is listed on the Register of the National Estate. Kenilworth, was built on land that was part of the 1831 grant to Thomas Barker and was once a neighbour Barkers house. The Roslyn Hall estate was subdivided into seven lots in 1860, around 1869, Kenilworth was built for Henry Williams
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was initially established, due to its pivotal role in Australias early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, at the 2011 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 14,308. Sydney CBD is very used to refer not only to the CBD proper. The Sydney CBD is Australias main financial and economic centre, as well as a hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region. The city centre employs approximately 13% of the Sydney regions workforce and it produced $64.1 billion worth of goods and services in 2011–12. Culturally, the city centre is Sydneys focal point for nightlife and it is home to some of the citys most significant buildings and structures.
The Sydney CBD is an area of very densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens. George Street is the Sydney CBDs main north–south thoroughfare, the CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie Street and York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream, bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east–west that once crossed this stream. Pitt Street is the heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies. Sydneys CBD is serviced by rail, light rail, buses.
There is a largely-underground CBD rail loop, accessed in both directions via Central, which services five additional CBD stations, plus a spur line to Bondi Junction which services two. The only light rail line currently operating links the southern part of the CBD, both government-run and privately owned, service the CBD along several dozen routes to both inner and more remote suburbs. NightRide is an bus service that operates between midnight and 5, 00am, with most services running from George Street outside the Sydney Town Hall. Sydney Ferries operate largely from Circular Quay, on the edge of the CBD
Boomerang, Elizabeth Bay
Boomerang is a historic home in the suburb of Elizabeth Bay in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Built in 1926, it lies on Billyard Avenue and has ranked as one of the most expensive houses in Sydney. English architect Neville Hampson designed Boomerang in 1926 for wealthy Sydney music publisher Frank Albert, spanish-American in style, the building is named after Franks father Jacques Alberts business trademark, and Boomerang song books and mouth organs were well known in Sydney at the time. The waterfront land had originally been part of the Elizabeth Bay House Estate, Frank Albert himself had married and built a two-storey brick house in 1902, which he demolished to make way for Boomerang. Boomerang has been described as the oldest and finest example of Spanish architecture in Australia, a three-storey mansion with rendered walls, it has 25 rooms,6 bathrooms and 4 kitchens. A private cinema was constructed in the basement by Albert in 1928, likened to a miniature version of the State Theatre, it could seat 200 people.
Albert resided at Boomerang until his death in 1962, after which the house remained closed with a caretaker until 1978, oil recycler Peter Burnett bought the property in 1978 for $1.25 million, which was reputedly Sydneys first million-dollar house sale. Film entrepreneur and businessman Peter Fox bought it in 1981, but died when his Ferrari hit a tree at Kempsey, kowloon-based expatriate funds manager Duncan Mount and his wife Sally procured the house in 1996 from Nati Stoliar, who in turn had obtained it for $6.6. The previous owner, Perth-based developer Warren Anderson, paid $5.1 million in 1985, the Mounts in turn sold to John and Julie Schaeffer in 2002. Boomerang was sold to the family of Melbourne trucking magnate Lindsay Fox for $21 million in March 2005, the house was used as a set for the film Mission Impossible 2. The garden was redesigned by Myles Baldwin. Irving, Kinstler, Dupain, Max
Australian residential architectural styles
A common feature of the Australian home is the use of fencing in front gardens, common in both the UK and the USA. Climate has influenced housing styles, with balconies and veranda spaces being more prevalent in subtropical Queensland due to the mild, for many years, Australian homes were built with little understanding of the Australian climate and were widely dependant on European styles that were unsympathetic to Australian landscapes. Another aspect of Australian suburbia is that the suburbs tend to have a combination of upper class and middle class housing in the same neighbourhood. In Melbourne, for instance, one observer noted that a poor house stands side by side with a good house. This is less common in the United States of America and England and this is less common in the United States of America and England, because most of the homes had been long established well into the 19th century and reflect a similar style in both regions. Home planners and architects in Australia have suggested adapting similar styles of new homes with the surrounding established homes to create a sense of uniformity, in Australia, the artificial background of life is all highs and lows.
A modernistic folly in multi-coloured brickwork may sit next door to a Georgian mansionette on one side and they managed the land through which they travelled by biennial burning-off which stunted the growth of forests and encourage grassland from which seed crops and kangaroos could be harvested. Other types of structures were seen including lean-tos and in tropical regions raised sleeping platforms. Grass and reeds were used as a thatch where suitable bark was not available, there are isolated instances of indigenous peoples constructing partially using dry-stone wall techniques in Western Australia. The Aboriginal people built dry-stone Fish Traps, of which the most extensive and it has been maintained and rebuilt after floods many times and is said traditionally to have been given to the local tribes by the Creator Spirit. It appears that in conjunction with such catchment schemes, there may have been nearby sedentary settlements of people who maintained them, there is evidence at Lake Condah in Victoria of houses in conjunction with eel traps dating back about 8,000 years.
In January 2006, bushfires uncovered another nearby site of a village of houses that are large enough to have provided sleeping space for several families. Colonial Architecture is the used for the buildings constructed in Australia between European settlement in January 1788 and about 1840. The first buildings of the British penal settlement in Sydney were a house for the Governor. Building anything more substantial was made difficult by the poor quality of spades and axes that had been provided. The convicts adapted simple country techniques commonly used for animal shelters, so useful were the local acacia trees for weaving shelters that they were given the name Wattle. Some pipe clay was obtained from the coves around Port Jackson, bricks were fired in wood fires and were therefore soft. Lime for cement was obtained by burning oyster shells, the first imported roofing material was corrugated iron sheeting
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
City of Sydney
The City of Sydney is the local government area covering the Sydney central business district and surrounding inner city suburbs of the greater metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. On 6 February 2004, the local government area of the City of South Sydney was formally merged into the City of Sydney. The leader of the City of Sydney holds the title of the Lord Mayor of Sydney, the current Lord Mayor is Councillor Clover Moore who has been in office since 27 March 2004. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 1. 3% of the population, the median age of people in the City of Sydney was 32 years. Children aged 0 –14 years made up 7. 1% of the population and people aged 65 years, of people in the area aged 15 years and over,25. 5% were married and 10. 1% were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the City of Sydney between the 2001 Census and the 2006 Census was 3. 31%, and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 Census, population growth was 4. 57%. The median weekly income for residents within the City of Sydney was more than 1.5 times the national average.
The proportion of dwellings in the City of Sydney that are apartments or units is 73. 6%, the proportion of residents in the Sydney local government area that claimed Australian ancestry was approximately half the national average. ^a 1996 Census figures refer to the City of Sydney prior to its merger with the City of South Sydney, in 1972 the Council had prepared the City of Sydney Strategic Plan, only the second city to prepare a comprehensive assessment and plan of major issues for the future. With triennial reviews, this development of the City for twenty years. A1987 Liberal re-organisation saw Sydney Council split, with southern suburbs forming a new South Sydney Council and this was thought to advantage the Liberal government of the day, as the southern suburbs had traditionally voted Labor. In 2004, the Labor State Government undid this change, again merging the councils of the City of Sydney, critics claimed that this was performed with the intention of creating a super-council which would be under the control of Labor, which controlled the State Government.
Critics of the claimed that this was a result of a voter backlash against the party for attempting to create the super-council. The daily administration of the City of Sydney is performed by its General Manager, currently Monica Barone, Sydney City Council is composed of ten Councillors, including the Lord Mayor, for a fixed four-year term of office. The Lord Mayor is directly elected while the nine other Councillors are elected proportionally. On 26 January 1788, he named it after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, who was the secretary at the time. The City of Sydney was established on 20 July 1842 by the Corporation Act which encompasses present-day Woolloomooloo, Surry Hills and Pyrmont, there were six wards established by boundary posts. A boundary post still exists in front of Sydney Square, the boundaries of the City of Sydney have changed fairly regularly since 1900
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially. Participation in the census is compulsory, though answering some questions is optional, the count is taken every five years and is managed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April, in 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August, the most recent was held on 9 August 2016. The cost of the 2011 census was $440 million, a separate census of Norfolk Island has been conducted by the Norfolk Island Government every five years since 1981, and occurs on the same day as the Australian census. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 led to the 1906 establishment of the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics.
The Bureau was renamed the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 1975, the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published a set of spatial units called mesh blocks. The primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a block for constructing alternative. Only data on persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban district because of their size. In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings, in rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2001 census there were 37,209 collection districts and 1,353 Statistical Local Areas defined throughout Australia, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public.
However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access, in the 1970s there was public debate about privacy and the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on Privacy and the Census, one of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names. It was found that excluding names reduced the accuracy of the data, individuals were likely to leave questions blank