Brendan T. Byrne State Forest
The Brendan T. Byrne State Forest is a 37,242 acres state forest in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, its protected acreage is split between Ocean Counties. The Brendan T. Byrne State Forest is the state's second largest state forest. There are 25 miles of a camping area; the park is maintained by the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry. Named for the Lebanon Glassworks, which operated in the 1850s and 1860s, it was renamed for Brendan Byrne in 2004. Byrne served as governor of New Jersey from 1974 to 1982, he championed and signed the Pinelands Protection Act in February 1979 which preserved thousand of acres in southern New Jersey. The park was renamed for him during the 25th anniversary of the Pinelands legislation by Governor James McGreevey; the forest lies within the Atlantic coastal pine barrens ecoregion. It includes the 735-acre Cedar Swamp Natural Area: with upland pine-oak forest, oak-pine forest, pitch pine lowland forest, Atlantic white cedar swamp forest plant communities; the Natural Area protects habitat of the threatened Swamp pink and other endangered plant species.
The Mount Misery Trail allows mountain biking. The Cranberry Trail is wheelchair-accessible; the Batona Trail, designed for hiking, cross country skiing, snowshoeing, is 50 miles in length. There is a loop trail of about 2 miles, starting at the forest office, a 1 mile loop at Pakim Pond. By combining different trails with the Batona Trail, loops of 6 miles and 14 miles provide day hikes; the forest contains Whitesbog Village, an historic company town, founded in the 1870s by Joseph J. White, once one of the largest cranberry and blueberry farms in the state, active through the mid-20th century; the cultivated blueberry, a hybrid of the native Vaccinium caesariense, was developed and commercialized here by Elizabeth Coleman White and Frank Coville. The now silent Whitesbog Village exemplifies the changes in agriculture in this state; the site has been leased to the nonprofit Whitesbog Preservation Trust for restoration. List of New Jersey state parks Whitesbog Preservation Trust NY-NJTC: Brendan T. Bryne State Forest Trails information website Historic American Landscapes Survey No.
NJ-1, "Whitesbog Village and Cranberry Bog, Whitesbog Road, Burlington County, NJ", 72 photos, 13 measured drawings, 67 data pages, 4 photo caption pages
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering a serious illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation while awaiting for an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut. First aid is performed by someone with basic medical training. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to cover mental health. There are many situations which may require first aid, many countries have legislation, regulation, or guidance which specifies a minimum level of first aid provision in certain circumstances; this can include specific training or equipment to be available in the workplace, the provision of specialist first aid cover at public gatherings, or mandatory first aid training within schools.
First aid, does not require any particular equipment or prior knowledge, can involve improvisation with materials available at the time by untrained people. First aid can be performed on all mammals, although this article relates to the care of human patients. Skills of what is now known as first aid have been recorded throughout history in relation to warfare, where the care of both traumatic and medical cases is required in large numbers; the bandaging of battle wounds is shown on Classical Greek pottery from c. 500 BCE, whilst the parable of the Good Samaritan includes references to binding or dressing wounds. There are numerous references to first aid performed within the Roman army, with a system of first aid supported by surgeons, field ambulances, hospitals. Roman legions had the specific role of capsarii, who were responsible for first aid such as bandaging, are the forerunners of the modern combat medic. Further examples occur through history, still related to battle, with examples such as the Knights Hospitaller in the 11th century CE, providing care to pilgrims and knights in the Holy Land.
During the late 18th century, drowning as a cause of death was a major concern amongst the population. In 1767, a society for the preservation of life from accidents in water was started in Amsterdam, in 1773, physician William Hawes began publicizing the power of artificial respiration as means of resuscitation of those who appeared drowned; this led to the formation, in 1774, of the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned the Royal Humane Society, who did much to promote resuscitation. Napoleon's surgeon, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, is credited with creating an ambulance corps, which included medical assistants, tasked to administer first aid in battle. In 1859 Jean-Henri Dunant witnessed the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino, his work led to the formation of the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field"; the Red Cross and Red Crescent are still the largest provider of first aid worldwide. In 1870, Prussian military surgeon Friedrich von Esmarch introduced formalized first aid to the military, first coined the term "erste hilfe", including training for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War on care for wounded comrades using pre-learnt bandaging and splinting skills, making use of the Esmarch bandage which he designed.
The bandage was issued as standard to the Prussian combatants, included aide-memoire pictures showing common uses. In 1872, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England changed its focus from hospice care, set out to start a system of practical medical help, starting with making a grant towards the establishment of the UK's first ambulance service; this was followed by creating its own wheeled transport litter in 1875, in 1877 established the St John Ambulance Association "to train men and women for the benefit of the sick and wounded". In the UK, Surgeon-Major Peter Shepherd had seen the advantages of von Esmarch's new teaching of first aid, introduced an equivalent programme for the British Army, so being the first user of "first aid for the injured" in English, disseminating information through a series of lectures. Following this, in 1878, Shepherd and Colonel Francis Duncan took advantage of the newly charitable focus of St John, established the concept of teaching first aid skills to civilians.
The first classes were conducted in the hall of the Presbyterian school in Woolwich using a comprehensive first aid curriculum. First aid training began to spread through the British Empire through organisations such as St John starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways; the primary goal of first aid is to prevent death or serious injury from worsening. The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points, sometimes known as'the three Ps': The overriding aim of all medical care which includes first aid, is to save lives and minimize the threat of death. Prevent further harm sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous. First aid involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury,and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound
Church Women United
Church Women United is a national ecumenical Christian women's movement representing Protestant, Roman Catholic and other Christian women. Founded in 1941, as the United Council of Church Women, this organization has more than 1,200 local and state units in the United States and Puerto Rico. CWU's members represent 26 supporting organizations. Offices are located at the United Nations. Church Women United's mission is to be a racially and theologically inclusive Christian women's movement celebrating unity in diversity and working for a world of peace and justice for women and children. CWU strives to provide for its members resources and information on a wide range of social justice issues, opportunities for worship and action, an expansive network of women and women's organizations working to ensure a better world for all. Church Women United holds four annual worship celebrations: World Day of Prayer, Human Rights Day, May Friendship Day, World Community Day; these ecumenical worship celebrations are the centerpiece of CWU's ecumenical life and spiritual thrust.
Each is celebrated around an annual theme, written by CWU members. The celebrations energize and mobilize the movement and enable Christian friendship and spiritual growth. World Day of Prayer takes place on the first Friday in March, brings together in prayer women from 170 countries; the Human Rights Celebration began as a national event, in support of the UN Human Rights Day, is now celebrated as a local unit event to honor individuals and groups who have done outstanding work in the field of human rights. As a local celebration it can be held at any time during the year. First observed in 1933, May Friendship Day focuses on "creative and healing relationships" that exist in local communities including intergenerational activities, ecumenical Bible study and worship, opportunities for action in one's local community, it is celebrated on the first Friday in May each year. On World Community Day, first observed in 1939, Christian women pray and do projects that work towards global peace, it is an inclusive worship service, now adapted to include opportunities for interfaith participation and worship, to further CWU's commitment to peace and justice among all peoples and nations.
It is celebrated during the first weekend in November. The International Fellowship of the Least Coin is a worldwide ecumenical movement of prayer for peace and reconciliation. Persons in this movement make a commitment to spend time in prayer, to uphold in prayer others who are victims of jealousy, hatred and injustice; every time one prays, she sets aside a "least coin" of her currency as a tangible token of her prayer. CWU is the custodian for FLC offerings in the United States; every four years CWU adopts a quadrennial priority to focus its social justice advocacy and action on a specific area or areas of need. The priority is used to guide CWU's work at the local and national levels; the priority for 2008–2012 is "Building a World Fit for All God's Children". This theme further breaks down into four "building blocks": health, economic justice, environmental care and peace; the priority for 2017–2020 is "Learning and Leading …Using the Principles of God’s Word," with the four "building blocks" being human rights and poverty, health and wellness, diversity and inclusiveness.
In 1941, three organizations – the Council of Women for Home Missions, the Committee on Women's Work of the Foreign Missions Conference, the National Council of Federated Church Women – combined to form one national organization representing women from seventy Christian denominations. The new organization was called the United Council of Church Women; the founders of Church Women United met in Atlantic City, NJ in December, 1941, while bombs were dropping on Pearl Harbor and the world was at war. Their first action, upon convening, was to circulate a petition signed by 84,000 church women "urging the United States at the signing of the United Nations Charter, to join and take its full responsibility in a world organization." The action received wide publicity in the media, encouraging Eleanor Roosevelt to involve the leaders of CWU in a conference at the White House on "How Women May Share in Post War Policy Making". Such action remains typical for CWU today, as its quest for informed prayer and prayerful action continues.
Women in the movement affirm that prayer and action are inseparable and that both have immeasurable influence in the world. As of 2017, there are CWU units in: Arizona California Connecticut Florida Massachusetts New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Oregon South Carolina Texas Virginia Wisconsin African Methodist Episcopal Church, Women's Missionary Society African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Women's Home and Overseas Missionary Society American Baptist Churches in the USA, American Baptist Women's Ministry Christian Church, Christian Women's Fellowship Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, Women's Missionary Council Church of God, Women of the Church of God Community of Christ, Women's Ministries Commission Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Cumberland Presbyterian Women The Episcopal Church, Episcopal Church Women The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Women of the ELCA International Council of Community Churches, Women's Christian Fellowship Korean American Church, Ecumenical Women's Fellowship The Mar Thoma Church, The Diocese of NA and Europe – Mar Women's Ev
Cremation is the combustion and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone. Cremation may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite as an alternative to the interment of an intact dead body in a coffin or casket. Cremated remains, which do not constitute a health risk, may be buried or interred in memorial sites or cemeteries, or they may be retained by relatives and dispersed in various ways. Cremation is an alternative in other forms of disposal in funeral practices; some families prefer to have the deceased present at the funeral with cremation to follow. In many countries, cremation is done in a crematorium. However, in the Indian subcontinent, notably modern-day India and Nepal, different methods, such as open-air cremation, are preferred. Cremation dates from at least 42,000 years ago in the archaeological record, with the Mungo Lady, the remains of a cremated body found at Lake Mungo, Australia. Alternative death rituals emphasizing one method of disposal of a body—inhumation, cremation, or exposure—have gone through periods of preference throughout history.
In the Middle East and Europe, both burial and cremation are evident in the archaeological record in the Neolithic era. Cultural groups had their own prohibitions; the ancient Egyptians developed an intricate transmigration-of-soul theology, which prohibited cremation. This was widely adopted by Semitic peoples; the Babylonians, according to Herodotus, embalmed their dead. Early Persians practiced cremation. Phoenicians practiced both burial. From the Cycladic civilisation in 3000 BCE until the Sub-Mycenaean era in 1200–1100 BCE, Greeks practiced inhumation. Cremation appeared around the 12th century BCE, constituting a new practice of burial influenced by Anatolia; until the Christian era, when inhumation again became the only burial practice, both combustion and inhumation had been practiced, depending on the era and location. Romans practiced both, with cremation associated with military honors. In Europe, there are traces of cremation dating to the Early Bronze Age in the Pannonian Plain and along the middle Danube.
The custom became dominant throughout Bronze Age Europe with the Urnfield culture. In the Iron Age, inhumation again becomes more common, but cremation persisted in the Villanovan culture and elsewhere. Homer's account of Patroclus' burial describes cremation with subsequent burial in a tumulus, similar to Urnfield burials, qualifying as the earliest description of cremation rites; this may be an anachronism, as during Mycenaean times burial was preferred, Homer may have been reflecting the more common use of cremation at the time the Iliad was written, centuries later. Criticism of burial rites is a common form of aspersion by competing religions and cultures, including the association of cremation with fire sacrifice or human sacrifice. Hinduism and Jainism are notable for not only prescribing cremation. Cremation in India is first attested in the Cemetery H culture, considered the formative stage of Vedic civilization; the Rigveda contains a reference to the emerging practice, in RV 10.15.14, where the forefathers "both cremated and uncremated" are invoked.
Cremation remained common but not universal, in ancient Rome. According to Cicero, in Rome, inhumation was considered the more archaic rite, while the most honoured citizens were most cremated—especially upper classes and members of imperial families; the rise of Christianity saw an end to cremation, being influenced by its roots in Judaism, the belief in the resurrection of the body, following the example of Christ's burial. Anthropologists have been able to track the advance of Christianity throughout Europe with the appearance of cemeteries. By the 5th century, with the spread of Christianity, the practice of burning bodies disappeared from Europe. In early Roman Britain, cremation was usual but diminished by the 4th century, it reappeared in the 5th and 6th centuries during the migration era, when sacrificed animals were sometimes included with the human bodies on the pyre, the deceased were dressed in costume and with ornaments for the burning. That custom was very widespread among the Germanic peoples of the northern continental lands from which the Anglo-Saxon migrants are supposed to have been derived, during the same period.
These ashes were thereafter deposited in a vessel of clay or bronze in an "urn cemetery". The custom again died out with the Christian conversion of the Anglo-Saxons or Early English during the 7th century, when Christian burial became general. In parts of Europe, cremation was forbidden by law, punishable by death if combined with Heathen rites. Cremation was sometimes used by Catholic authorities as part of punishment for Protestant heretics, which included burning at the stake. For example, the body of John Wycliff was exhumed years after his death and burned to ashes, with the ashes thrown in a river, explicitly as a posthumous punishment for his denial of the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation; the first to advocate for the use of cremation was the physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1658. Honoretta Brooks Pratt became the first recorded cremated European individual in modern times when she died on 26 September 1769 and was illegally cremated at the burial ground on Hanover Square in London.
The organized movement to reinstate cremation as a viable meth
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
An airplane or aeroplane is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft, propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes and wing configurations; the broad spectrum of uses for airplanes includes recreation, transportation of goods and people and research. Worldwide, commercial aviation transports more than four billion passengers annually on airliners and transports more than 200 billion tonne-kilometres of cargo annually, less than 1% of the world's cargo movement. Most airplanes are flown by a pilot on board the aircraft, but some are designed to be remotely or computer-controlled; the Wright brothers invented and flew the first airplane in 1903, recognized as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". They built on the works of George Cayley dating from 1799, when he set forth the concept of the modern airplane. Between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal studied heavier-than-air flight.
Following its limited use in World War I, aircraft technology continued to develop. Airplanes had a presence in all the major battles of World War II; the first jet aircraft was the German Heinkel He 178 in 1939. The first jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952; the Boeing 707, the first successful commercial jet, was in commercial service for more than 50 years, from 1958 to at least 2013. First attested in English in the late 19th century, the word airplane, like aeroplane, derives from the French aéroplane, which comes from the Greek ἀήρ, "air" and either Latin planus, "level", or Greek πλάνος, "wandering". "Aéroplane" referred just to the wing, as it is a plane moving through the air. In an example of synecdoche, the word for the wing came to refer to the entire aircraft. In the United States and Canada, the term "airplane" is used for powered fixed-wing aircraft. In the United Kingdom and most of the Commonwealth, the term "aeroplane" is applied to these aircraft. Many stories from antiquity involve flight, such as the Greek legend of Icarus and Daedalus, the Vimana in ancient Indian epics.
Around 400 BC in Greece, Archytas was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was steam, said to have flown some 200 m. This machine may have been suspended for its flight; some of the earliest recorded attempts with gliders were those by the 9th-century poet Abbas ibn Firnas and the 11th-century monk Eilmer of Malmesbury. Leonardo da Vinci researched the wing design of birds and designed a man-powered aircraft in his Codex on the Flight of Birds. In 1799, George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Cayley was building and flying models of fixed-wing aircraft as early as 1803, he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. Alexander F. Mozhaisky made some innovative designs.
In 1883, the American John J. Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider. Other aviators who made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher, Octave Chanute. Sir Hiram Maxim built a craft that weighed 3.5 tons, with a 110-foot wingspan, powered by two 360-horsepower steam engines driving two propellers. In 1894, his machine was tested with overhead rails to prevent it from rising; the test showed. The craft was uncontrollable, which Maxim, it is presumed, because he subsequently abandoned work on it. In the 1890s, Lawrence Hargrave conducted research on wing structures and developed a box kite that lifted the weight of a man, his box kite designs were adopted. Although he developed a type of rotary aircraft engine, he did not create and fly a powered fixed-wing aircraft. Between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal developed heavier-than-air flight, he was the first person to make well-documented, successful gliding flights. Clement Ader constructed his first of three flying machines in the Éole.
It was a bat-like design run by a lightweight steam engine of his own invention, with four cylinders developing 20 horsepower, driving a four-blade propeller. The engine weighed no more than 4 kg/kW; the wings had a span of 14 m. All-up weight was 300 kg. On 9 October 1890, Ader attempted to fly the Éole. Aviation historians give credit to this effort as a powered take-off and uncontrolled hop of 50 m at a height of 20 cm. Ader's two subsequent machines were not documented to have achieved flight; the Wright brothers flights in 1903 are recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". By 1905, the Wright Flyer III was capable of controllable, stable flight for substantial periods; the Wright brothers credited Otto Lilienthal as a major inspiration for their decision to pursue manned flight. In 1906, Alberto Santos-Dumont made what was claimed to be the first airplane flight unassisted by catapult and set the first world record recognized by the Aéro-Club de France by flying 220 meters in less than 22 seconds.
This flight was certified by the FAI. An ear