Angel tube station
Angel is a London Underground station in the Angel area of the London Borough of Islington. It is on the Bank branch of the Northern line, between Old Street and King's Cross St. Pancras stations, in Travelcard Zone 1; the station was built by the City & South London Railway and opened on 17 November 1901. The station served as a terminus until the line was extended to Euston on 12 May 1907; the station was rebuilt in 1992 to accommodate the large number of passengers using the station. As a result, it has an extra-wide southbound platform, surfaced over the original'Island' platform which had accessed both North and Southbound trains from a central landing, features the longest escalators on the Underground network, and the fourth-longest escalators in Western Europe. It is a candidate station on the proposed Crossrail 2 line from north Surrey and south-west London to south-east Hertfordshire. On Islington High Street, the station provides access to several nearby Off West End or Fringe theatre venues including the Old Red Lion Theatre, Sadler's Wells Theatre, the King's Head Theatre and the Almeida Theatre.
It is the nearest station to City University's main campus, Chapel Market, the antiques market and dealers of Camden Passage. Between Angel and Old Street is the disused City Road station. Angel station was built by the City & South London Railway, opened on 17 November 1901 as the northern terminus of a new extension from Moorgate; the station building was designed by Sydney Smith and was on the corner of City Road and Torrens Street. On 12 May 1907, the C&SLR opened a further extension from Angel to Euston and Angel became a through station; as with many of the C&SLR's stations, it was built with a single central island platform serving two tracks in a single tunnel – an arrangement still seen at Clapham North and Clapham Common. Access to the platforms from street level was via three Euston Anderson electric lifts before the rebuilding of the station; when the C&SLR line was closed for tunnel reconstruction in the early 1920s to accommodate larger trains, the station façade was reclad with tiling and the lifts were replaced by new ones from Otis.
For years since its opening, the station suffered from overcrowding and had a narrow island platform, which constituted a major safety issue and caused justified fear among passengers. The station was comprehensively rebuilt in the early 1990s. A new section of tunnel was excavated for a new northbound platform, the southbound platform was rebuilt to occupy the original 30-foot tunnel, leaving it wider than most deep-level platforms on the system; the lifts and the ground-level building were closed and a new station entrance around the corner in Islington High Street was opened on 10 August 1992, along with the new northbound platform. Because of the distance between the new entrance and the platforms, their depth, two flights of escalators were required, aligned at a right angle; the station's ticket hall has a sculpture of an Angel by Kevin Boys. Angel is one of the number of stations to have only escalator access to the platforms. With a vertical rise of 90 feet and a length of 200 feet, Angel station has the longest escalators on the Underground, the second longest in the United Kingdom.
The station was refurbished and work began on 2 January 2007. Additional CCTV cameras and Help Points were installed, bringing the total to 77 cameras in the station and nine Help Points, the latter upgraded with new induction loops to better aid hearing-impaired passengers. In addition, new communications equipment was introduced and damaged signs were replaced with new ones; when Angel was first opened, a long dead-end siding was provided for train stabling, converging from the left onto the northbound line just south of the station. This was retained over the years but it was closed on 23 January 1959 to simplify through running; the siding lay unused until the rebuilding scheme. Part of the siding was used as the northbound diversion tunnel, which branched off the existing northbound line, cut through into the end of the siding and continued along it until it branched off left to the new northbound platform. Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but operate every 3–6 minutes between 06:03 and 00:25 in both directions.
London Bus routes 4, 19, 30, 38, 43, 56, 73, 153, 205, 214, 274, 341, 394 and 476, night routes N19, N38, N41, N73 and N205 serve the station. Angel is a proposed station on the Crossrail 2 project, providing an interchange between Crossrail 2 and the Northern Line. Depending on the route constructed, it would be between King's Cross St. Pancras and Dalston Junction or Hackney Central, it was safeguarded as part of the route in 2007, although there had been proposals for a route for some time and safeguarding had been in place since 1991. The station's escalators and the southbound platform were featured in the Bollywood hit film Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge; the station was the subject of a 1989 edition of the 40 Minutes BBC documentary series titled'Heart of the Angel'. Rose, Douglas; the London Underground, A Diagrammatic History. Douglas Rose/Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-219-4. Connor, J. E.. London's Disused Underground Stations. Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-250-X. Dwyer, Rachel. Bollywood's India: Hindi Cinema as a Guide to Contemporary India.
Reaktion Books, London. ISBN 978-1-78023-304-8. Day, John
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was an English physician and suffragist. She was the first woman to qualify in Britain as a surgeon, she was the co-founder of the first hospital staffed by women, the first dean of a British medical school, the first woman in Britain to be elected to a school board and, as Mayor of Aldeburgh, the first female mayor and magistrate in Britain. Garrett was born in Whitechapel, the second of eleven children of Newson Garrett, from Leiston and his wife, from London; the Garrett ancestors had been ironworkers in East Suffolk since the early seventeenth century. Newson was the youngest of three sons and not academically inclined, although he possessed the family's entrepreneurial spirit; when he finished school, the town of Leiston offered little to Newson, so he left for London to make his fortune. There, he fell in love with his brother's sister-in-law, Louisa Dunnell, the daughter of an innkeeper of Suffolk origin. After their wedding, the couple went to live in a pawnbroker's shop at 1 Commercial Road, Whitechapel.
The Garretts had their first three children in quick succession: Louie and their brother who died at the age of six months. While Louisa grieved the loss of her third child, it was not easy to raise their two daughters in the city of London at that time; when Garrett was three years old, the family moved to 142 Long Acre, where they lived for two years, whilst one more child was born and her father moved up in the world, becoming not only the manager of a larger pawnbroker's shop, but a silversmith. Garrett's grandfather, owner of the family engineering works, Richard Garrett & Sons, had died in 1837, leaving the business to his eldest son, Garrett's uncle. Despite his lack of capital, Newson was determined to be successful and in 1841, at the age of 29, he moved his family to Suffolk, where he bought a barley and coal merchants business in Snape, constructing Snape Maltings, a fine range of buildings for malting barley; the Garretts lived in a square Georgian house opposite the church in Aldeburgh until 1852.
Newson's malting business expanded and more children were born, Alice, Millicent, to become a leader in the constitutional campaign for women's suffrage, Sam and George. By 1850, Newson was a prosperous businessman and was able to build Alde House, a mansion on a hill behind Aldeburgh. A "by-product of the industrial revolution", Garrett grew up in an atmosphere of "triumphant economic pioneering" and the Garrett children were to grow up to become achievers in the professional classes of late-Victorian England. Garrett was encouraged to take an interest in local politics and, contrary to practices at the time, was allowed the freedom to explore the town with its nearby salt-marshes and the small port of Slaughden with its boatbuilders' yards and sailmakers' lofts. There was no school in Aldeburgh; when she was 10 years old, a governess, Miss Edgeworth, a poor gentlewoman, was employed to educate Garrett and her sister. Mornings were spent in the schoolroom. Garrett sought to outwit the teacher in the classroom.
When Garrett was 13 and her sister 15, they were sent to a private school, the Boarding School for Ladies in Blackheath, run by the step aunts of the poet Robert Browning. There, English literature, French and German as well as deportment, were taught. In life, Garrett recalled the stupidity of her teachers there, though her schooling there did help establish a love of reading, her main complaint about the school was the lack of mathematics instruction. Her reading matter included Tennyson, Milton, Trollope and George Eliot. Elizabeth and Louie were known as "the bathing Garretts", as their father had insisted they be allowed a hot bath once a week. However, they made; when they finished in 1851, they were sent on a short tour abroad, ending with a memorable visit to the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, London. After this formal education, Garrett spent the next nine years tending to domestic duties, but she continued to study Latin and arithmetic in the mornings and read widely, her sister Millicent recalled Garrett's weekly lectures, "Talks on Things in General", when her younger siblings would gather while she discussed politics and current affairs from Garibaldi to Macaulay's History of England.
In 1854, when she was eighteen and her sister went on a long visit to their school friends and Anne Crow, in Gateshead where she met Emily Davies, the early feminist and future co-founder of Girton College, Cambridge. Davies was to be a lifelong friend and confidante, always ready to give sound advice during the important decisions of Garrett's career, it may have been in the English Woman's Journal, first issued in 1858, that Garrett first read of Elizabeth Blackwell, who had become the first female doctor in the United States in 1849. When Blackwell visited London in 1859, Garrett travelled to the capital. By her sister Louie was married and living in London. Garrett joined the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women, which organised Blackwell's lectures on "Medicine as a Profession for Ladies" and set up a private meeting between Garrett and the doctor, it is said that during a visit to Alde House around 1860, one evening while sitting by the fireside and Davies selected careers f
First Lady of the United States
The First Lady of the United States is the title held by the hostess of the White House the wife of the President of the United States, concurrent with the President's term in office. Although the First Lady's role has never been codified or defined, she figures prominently in the political and social life of the nation. Since the early 20th century, the First Lady has been assisted by official staff, now known as the Office of the First Lady and headquartered in the East Wing of the White House. Melania Trump is the current First Lady of the United States, as wife of 45th president, Donald Trump. While the title was not in general use until much Martha Washington, the wife of George Washington, the first U. S. President, is considered to be the inaugural First Lady of the United States. During her lifetime, she was referred to as "Lady Washington". Since the 1790s, the role of First Lady has changed considerably, it has come to include involvement in political campaigns, management of the White House, championship of social causes, representation of the president at official and ceremonial occasions.
Because first ladies now publish their memoirs, which are viewed as potential sources of additional information about their husbands' administrations, because the public is interested in these independent women in their own right, first ladies remain a focus of attention long after their husbands' terms of office have ended. Additionally, over the years individual first ladies have held influence in a range of sectors, from fashion to public opinion on policy. Should a president be unmarried, or a widower, the president asks a relative or friend to act as White House hostess. There are four living former first ladies: wife of Jimmy Carter; as of 2019, the only former First Lady who has run for or held public office is Hillary Clinton. The use of the title First Lady to describe the spouse or hostess of an executive began in the United States. In the early days of the republic, there was not a accepted title for the wife of the president. Many early first ladies expressed their own preference for how they were addressed, including the use of such titles as "Lady", "Mrs. President" and "Mrs. Presidentress".
One of the earliest uses of the term "First Lady" was applied to her in an 1838 newspaper article that appeared in the St. Johnsbury Caledonian, the author, "Mrs. Sigourney", discussing how Martha Washington had not changed after her husband George became president, she wrote. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, after breakfast, retired to her chamber for an hour for the study of the scriptures and devotion". Dolley Madison was referred to as "First Lady" in 1849 at her funeral in a eulogy delivered by President Zachary Taylor. Sometime after 1849, the title began being used in Washington, D. C. social circles. One of the earliest known written examples comes from November 3, 1863, diary entry of William Howard Russell, in which he referred to gossip about "the First Lady in the Land", referring to Mary Todd Lincoln; the title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when newspaper journalist Mary C. Ames referred to Lucy Webb Hayes as "the First Lady of the Land" while reporting on the inauguration of Rutherford B.
Hayes. The frequent reporting on Lucy Hayes' activities helped spread use of the title outside Washington. A popular 1911 comedic play about Dolley Madison by playwright Charles Nirdlinger, titled The First Lady in the Land, popularized the title further. By the 1930s, it was in wide use. Use of the title spread from the United States to other nations; when Edith Wilson took control of her husband's schedule in 1919 after he had a debilitating stroke, one Republican senator labeled her "the Presidentress who had fulfilled the dream of the suffragettes by changing her title from First Lady to Acting First Man."The wife of the Vice President of the United States is sometimes referred to as the Second Lady of the United States, but this title is much less common. Several women who were not presidents' wives have served as First Lady, as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the First Lady herself. In these cases, the position has been filled by a female relative or friend of the president, such as Jefferson's daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph, Jackson's daughter-in-law Sarah Yorke Jackson and his wife's niece Emily Donelson, Taylor's daughter Mary Elizabeth Bliss, Benjamin Harrison's daughter Mary Harrison McKee, Buchanan's niece Harriet Lane, Cleveland's sister Rose Cleveland.
The position of the First Lady carries only ceremonial duties. Nonetheless, first ladies have held a visible position in American society; the role of the First Lady has evolved over the centuries. She is, the hostess of the White House, she organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president. Lisa Burns identifies four successive main themes of the first ladyship: as public woman. Martha Washington hosted many affairs of state at the national capital. This
Risinghill School was an early comprehensive school opened in 1960 in Islington, under the headmastership of Michael Duane. The school's methods prompted criticism in the disputes with the London County Council; the school closed in 1965. The school buildings in Risinghill Street, London N1, were subsequently utilised by Starcross School, renamed Elizabeth Garrett Anderson School. Pupils received religious education through Saint Silas Church, part of Risinghill. Lessons included technical and craft skills, taught through multi-purpose creative methods. 3. Http://www.leilaberg.com/her-books/books-for-grown-ups/risinghill-death-of-a-comprehensive/ Risinghill Home Page
Whitehall Park School
Whitehall Park School is a two-form entry primary free school in Islington, United Kingdom. Opened in September 2014, the government-backed primary school will serve 420 children when at full capacity. Built on the site of the old Ashmount Primary School, the school was designed by Keppie Design, it is distinctive as one of only seven primary free schools in London and the South East operated by Bellevue Place Education Trust. BPET delegated the school governance to a Local Governing Body, made up of five BPET appointed community governors, two staff governors and two parent governors; the school's Head teacher is Laura Birkett. The Chair of Governors is Paul Domjan. School website
A comprehensive school is a school type, principally in the United Kingdom. The term is used in relation to England and Wales, where comprehensive schools were introduced as state schools on an experimental basis in the 1940s and became more widespread from 1965. With the Blair educational reforms from 2003, they may be part of a local education authority or be a self governing academy or part of a multi-academy trust. About 90% of British secondary school pupils now attend comprehensive schools or the small number of grammar schools), they correspond broadly to the public high school in the United States and Canada and to the Gesamtschule in Germany. Comprehensive schools provide an entitlement curriculum to all children, without selection whether due to financial considerations or attainment. A consequence of, a wider ranging curriculum, including practical subjects such as design and technology and vocational learning, which were less common or non-existent in grammar schools. Providing post-16 education cost-effectively becomes more challenging for smaller comprehensive schools, because of the number of courses needed to cover a broader curriculum with comparatively fewer students.
This is why schools have tended to get larger and why many local authorities have organised secondary education into 11–16 schools, with the post-16 provision provided by sixth form colleges and further education colleges. Comprehensive schools do not select their intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, but there are demographic reasons why the attainment profiles of different schools vary considerably. In addition, government initiatives such as the City Technology Colleges and Specialist schools programmes have made the comprehensive ideal less certain. In these schools children could be selected on the basis of curriculum aptitude related to the school's specialism though the schools do take quotas from each quartile of the attainment range to ensure they were not selective by attainment. A problem with this is whether the quotas should be taken from a normal distribution or from the specific distribution of attainment in the immediate catchment area. In the selective school system, which survives in several parts of the United Kingdom, admission is dependent on selection criteria, most a cognitive test or tests.
Although comprehensive schools were introduced to England and Wales in 1965, there are 164 selective grammar schools that are still in operation.. Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children between the ages of 11 to 16, but in a few areas there are comprehensive middle schools, in some places the secondary level is divided into two, for students aged 11 to 14 and those aged 14 to 18 corresponding to the US middle school and high school, respectively. With the advent of key stages in the National Curriculum some local authorities reverted from the Middle School system to 11–16 and 11–18 schools so that the transition between schools corresponds to the end of one key stage and the start of another. In principle, comprehensive schools were conceived as "neighbourhood" schools for all students in a specified catchment area; the first comprehensives were set up after the Second World War. In 1946, for example, Walworth School was one of five'experimental' comprehensive schools set up by the London County Council Another early comprehensive school was Holyhead County School in Anglesey in 1949.
Coventry opened two Comprehensive School in 1954 by combining Grammar Schools and Secondary Modern Schools. These were Woodlands. Another early example was Tividale Comprehensive School in Tipton; the first, purpose-built comprehensive in the North of England was Colne Valley High School near Huddersfield in 1956. The largest expansion of comprehensive schools resulted from a policy decision taken in 1965 by Anthony Crosland, Secretary of State for Education in the 1964–1970 Labour government; the policy decision was implemented by Circular 10/65, an instruction to local education authorities to plan for conversion. Students sat the 11+ examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to one of a secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar school depending on their perceived ability. Secondary technical schools were never implemented and for 20 years there was a virtual bipartite system which saw fierce competition for the available grammar school places, which varied between 15% and 25% of total secondary places, depending on location.
In 1970 Margaret Thatcher, the Secretary of State for Education in the new Conservative government, ended the compulsion on local authorities to convert, many local authorities were so far down the path that it would have been prohibitively expensive to attempt to reverse the process, more comprehensive schools were established under Thatcher than any other education secretary. By 1975 the majority of local authorities in England and Wales had abandoned the 11-Plus examination and moved to a comprehensive system. Over that 10-year period many secondary modern schools and grammar schools were amalgamated to form large neighbourhood comprehensives, whilst a number of new schools were built to accommodate a growing school population. By the mid-1970s the system had been fully implemented, with no secondary modern schools remaining. Many grammar schools were either changed to comprehensive status; some local authorities, including S
Islington London Borough Council
Islington London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Islington in Greater London, England. The council was created by the London Government Act 1963 and replaced two local authorities: Finsbury Metropolitan Borough Council and Islington Metropolitan Borough Council, it is one of 32 in the United Kingdom capital of London. Islington is divided into each electing three councillors. Following the May 2018 election, Islington Council comprises 47 Labour Party councillors and 1 Green Party councillor. Of these 48 councillors, the Leader of the Council is Councillor Richard Watts, while the Mayor is Councillor Una O'Halloran. There have been a number of local authorities responsible for the Islington area; the current local authority was first elected in 1964, a year before formally coming into its powers and prior to the creation of the London Borough of Islington on 1 April 1965. The present Islington Borough Council replaced Finsbury Metropolitan Borough Council and Islington Metropolitan Borough Council.
Both were created in Islington the borough council replaced the parish vestry. Finsbury had a more convoluted history with the metropolitan borough council replacing the Vestry of the Parish of St Luke, the Vestry of the Parish of Clerkenwell and the Holborn District Board of Works, it was envisaged through the London Government Act 1963 that Islington as a London local authority would share power with the Greater London Council. The split of powers and functions meant that the Greater London Council was responsible for "wide area" services such as fire, flood prevention, refuse disposal; this arrangement lasted until 1986 when Islington Council gained responsibility for some services, provided by the Greater London Council, such as waste disposal. Islington became an education authority in 1990. Since 2000 the Greater London Authority has taken some responsibility for highways and planning control from the council, but within the English local government system the council remains a "most purpose" authority in terms of the available range of powers and functions.
Islington Council is elected every four years, with 48 councillors being elected from 16 wards. From 1964 to 1998, Labour controlled the council, apart from a 3-year period of Conservative control from 1968 to 1971, a brief period of SDP control between 1981 and 1982, following the defection of Labour councillors; the Liberal Democrats had a majority from 1999 to the 2006 election, but continued to run the council as a minority administration until 2010 when Labour won a majority. In 2013, Labour won a seat from the Liberal Democrats in a by-election, one Liberal Democrat councillor resigned the whip to sit as an independent, leaving the political composition of the Council as 36 Labour, 11 Liberal Democrat, 1 Independent; as of the 2018 election the council is composed of the following councillors: In October 2013 Richard Watts was elected Leader of the Council, replacing Catherine West. London Capital Credit Union Islington Council – Official website