Royal Red Cross
The Royal Red Cross is a military decoration awarded in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for exceptional services in military nursing. The award was established on 23 April 1883 by Queen Victoria, with a single class of Member and first awarded to the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale. A second and lower class, was added during World War I in November 1915; the award is made to a trained nurse of an recognised nursing service, military or civilian, who has shown exceptional devotion and competence in the performance of nursing duties, over a continuous and long period, or who has performed an exceptional act of bravery and devotion at her or his post of duty. It is conferred on members of the nursing services regardless of rank. Holders of the second class who receive a further award are promoted to the first class, although an initial award can be made in the first class. Holders of the first class who receive a further award are awarded a bar; the decoration was conferred on women until 1976, when men became eligible, with posthumous awards permitted from 1979.
Recipients of the Royal Red Cross are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "RRC" or "ARRC" for Members and Associates respectively. The badge for RRC is in the shape of a golden cross, 1.375 inches wide, the obverse enamelled red, with a circular medallion, bearing an effigy of the reigning monarch at its centre. The words "Faith", "Hope" and "Charity" are inscribed on the upper limbs of the cross, with the year "1883" in the lower limb; the reverse is plain except a circular medallion bearing the royal cypher of the reigning monarch. The badge for ARRC is in the shape of a silver cross, 1.375 inches wide, the obverse enamelled red, with broad silver edges around the enamel. The reverse has a circular medallion bearing the royal cypher of the reigning monarch, with the words "Faith", "Hope" and "Charity" inscribed on the upper three limbs of the cross, with the year "1883" in the lower limb; the ribbon for both grades is dark blue with crimson edge stripes. The decoration is worn by women from the ribbon in the form of a bow, although it can be worn by both sexes in military uniform on a straight ribbon alongside other medals.
To recognise further exceptional devotion and competency in the performance of nursing duties or exceptional act of bravery and devotion at her or his post of duty, a bar may be awarded to a recipient of the RRC. The bar is made of red enamel. A rosette is worn on the ribbon in undress to denote a bar to the RRC. Category:Members of the Royal Red Cross British and Commonwealth orders and decorations Search recommendations for the Royal Red Cross on The UK National Archives' website. Royal Red Cross Medal Manufacturer of The Royal Red Cross
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Arbor Day is a holiday in which individuals and groups are encouraged to plant trees. Today, many countries observe such a holiday. Though observed in the spring, the date varies, depending on climate and suitable planting season; the Spanish village of Mondoñedo held the first documented arbor plantation festival in the world organized by its mayor in 1594. The place remains as Alameda de los Remedios and it is still planted with lime and horse-chestnut trees. A humble granite marker and a bronze plate recall the event. Additionally, the small Spanish village of Villanueva de la Sierra held the first modern Arbor Day, an initiative launched in 1805 by the local priest with the enthusiastic support of the entire population. While Napoleon was ravaging Europe with his ambition in this village in the Sierra de Gata lived a priest, don Juan Abern Samtrés, according to the chronicles, "convinced of the importance of trees for health, decoration, nature and customs, decides to plant trees and give a festive air.
The festival began on Carnival Tuesday with the ringing of two bells of the church, the Middle and the Big. After the Mass, coated with church ornaments, don Juan, accompanied by clergies, teachers and a large number of neighbours, planted the first tree, a poplar, in the place known as Valley of the Ejido. Tree plantations continued by Fuente de la Mora. Afterwards, there was a feast, did not miss the dance; the party and plantations lasted three days. He drafted a manifesto in defence of the trees, sent to surrounding towns to spread the love and respect for nature, he advised to make tree plantations in their localities; the first American Arbor Day was originated in Nebraska by J. Sterling Morton. On April 10, 1872, an estimated one million trees were planted in Nebraska. Birdsey Northrop of Connecticut was responsible for globalizing the idea when he visited Japan in 1883 and delivered his Arbor Day and Village Improvement message. In that same year, the American Forestry Association made Northrop the Chairman of the committee to campaign for Arbor Day nationwide.
He brought his enthusiasm for Arbor Day to Australia and Europe. Beginning in 1906, Pennsylvania conservationist Major Israel McCreight of DuBois, argued that President Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation speeches were limited to businessmen in the lumber industry and recommended a campaign of youth education and a national policy on conservation education. McCreight urged Roosevelt to make a public statement to school children about trees and the destruction of American forests. Conservationist Gifford Pinchot, Chief of the United States Forest Service, embraced McCreight’s recommendations and asked the President to speak to the public school children of the United States about conservation. On April 15, 1907, Roosevelt issued an "Arbor Day Proclamation to the School Children of the United States" about the importance of trees and that forestry deserves to be taught in U. S. schools. Pinchot wrote McCreight, "we shall all be indebted to you for having made the suggestion." Arbor Day has been observed in Australia since 20 June 1889.
National Schools Tree Day is held on the last Friday of July for schools and National Tree Day the last Sunday in July throughout Australia. Many states have Arbor Day, although Victoria has an Arbor Week, suggested by Premier Rupert Hamer in the 1980s. International Day of Treeplanting is celebrated in Flanders on or around 21 March as a theme-day/educational-day/observance, not as a public holiday. Tree planting is sometimes combined with awareness campaigns of the fight against cancer: Kom Op Tegen Kanker; the Arbor Day is celebrated on September 21. It is not a national holiday. However, schools nationwide celebrate this day with environment-related activities, namely tree planting. Arbour Day is celebrated on November 22, it is sponsored by the National Parks Trust of the Virgin Islands. Activities include an annual national Arbour Day Poetry Competition and tree planting ceremonies throughout the territory. Cambodia celebrates Arbor Day on July 9 with a tree planting ceremony attended by the king.
The day was founded by Sir George W. Ross the Premier of Ontario, when he was Minister of Education in Ontario. According to the Ontario Teachers' Manuals "History of Education", Ross established both Arbour Day and Empire Day - "the former to give the school children an interest in making and keeping the school grounds attractive, the latter to inspire the children with a spirit of patriotism"; this predates the claimed founding of the day by Don Clark of Schomberg, Ontario for his wife Margret Clark in 1906. In Canada, National Forest Week is the last full week of September, National Tree Day falls on the Wednesday of that week. Ontario celebrates Arbour Week from the last Friday in April to the first Sunday in May. Prince Edward Island celebrates Arbour Day on the third Friday in May during Arbour Week. Arbour Day is the longest running civic greening project in Calgary and is celebrated on the first Thursday in May. On this day, each grade 1 student in Calgary's schools receives a tree seedling to be taken home to be planted on private property.
National Tree Planting Day is on July 20. The Arbor Day in China was founded by the famous forestry scientist Ling Dao-yang in 1915. From 1916 to 1928, Arbor Day was celebrated on the Chinese Qingming Festival, on the first day of the fifth solar term of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar. In 1929, the date for Arbor Day was changed to March 12 to commemorate Sun Yat-sen. In 1979, the fourth session of the Fifth Nation
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society, founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity. The RHS promotes horticulture through flower shows including the Chelsea Flower Show, Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, Tatton Park Flower Show and Cardiff Flower Show, it supports training for professional and amateur gardeners. The current president is Sir Nicholas Bacon, 14th Baronet and the current director general is Sue Biggs CBE; the creation of a British horticultural society was suggested by John Wedgwood in 1800. His aims were modest: he wanted to hold regular meetings, allowing the society's members the opportunity to present papers on their horticultural activities and discoveries, to encourage discussion of them, to publish the results; the society would award prizes for gardening achievements. Wedgwood discussed the idea with his friends, but it was four years before the first meeting, of seven men, took place, on 7 March 1804 at Hatchards bookshop in Piccadilly, London.
Wedgwood was chairman. Banks proposed his friend Thomas Andrew Knight for membership; the proposal was accepted, despite Knight's ongoing feud with Forsyth over a plaster for healing tree wounds which Forsyth was developing. Knight was president of the society from 1811–1838, developed the society's aims and objectives to include a programme of practical research into fruit-breeding. In 2009, more than 363,000 people were members of the society, the number increased to more than 414,000 in 2013. Membership and fellowship of the society were decided by election, but are now by financial contribution. Fellowship may be secured through a "suggested" £5,000 donation each year. Members and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MRHS and FRHS, respectively; the Royal Horticultural Society's four major gardens in England are: Wisley Garden, near Wisley in Surrey. The society's first garden was in Kensington, from 1818–1822. In 1820 the society leased some of Hugh Ronalds' nursery ground at Little Ealing to set up an experimental garden, but the next year part of the Duke of Devonshire's estate at Chiswick was obtained.
In 1823 it employed Joseph Paxton there. From 1827 the society held fêtes at the Chiswick garden, from 1833, shows with competitive classes for flowers and vegetables. In 1861 the RHS developed a new garden at South Kensington on land leased from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, but it was closed in 1882; the Chiswick garden was maintained until 1903–1904, by which time Sir Thomas Hanbury had bought the garden at Wisley and presented it to the RHS. RHS Garden Wisley is thus the society's oldest garden. Rosemoor came next, presented by Lady Anne Berry in 1988. Hyde Hall was given to the RHS in 1993 by its owners Helen Robinson. Dick Robinson was the owner of the Harry Smith Collection, based at Hyde Hall; the most recent addition is Harlow Carr, acquired by the merger of the Northern Horticultural Society with the RHS in 2001. It had been the Northern Horticultural Society's trial ground and display garden since they bought it in 1949. In 2013, more than 1.63 million people visited the four gardens.
In 2015, the RHS announced plans for a fifth garden at Worsley New Hall, Greater Manchester, under the name RHS Garden Bridgewater. The RHS is well known for its annual flower shows which take place across the UK; the most famous of these shows is the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, visited by people from across world. This is followed by the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show and RHS Tatton Park Flower Show in Cheshire; the most recent addition to the RHS shows line-up is the RHS Show Cardiff, held at Cardiff Castle since 2005. The society is closely involved with the spring and autumn shows at Malvern and with BBC Gardeners' World Live held annually at the Birmingham National Exhibition Centre; the RHS is custodian of the Lindley Library, housed within its headquarters at 80 Vincent Square, in branches at each of its four gardens. The library is based upon the book collection of John Lindley; the RHS Herbarium has its own image library consisting of more than 3,300 original watercolours 30,000 colour slides and a increasing number of digital images.
Although most of the images have been supplied by photographers commissioned by the RHS, the archive includes a substantial number of slides from the Harry Smith Collection and Plant Heritage National Plant Collection holders. The reference library at Wisley Garden is open to visitors to the Garden. In 2002, the RHS took over the administration of the Britain in Bloom competition from the Tidy Britain Group. In 2010, The society launched'It's your neighbourhood', a campaign to encourage people to get involved in horticulture for the benefit of their community. In 2014, the'Britain in Bloom' celebrates its 50th anniversary; the RHS runs formal courses for professional and amateur gardeners and horticulturalists and validates qualifications gained elsewhere. The RHS Level 1 Award in
Prime Minister of New Zealand
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017; the Prime Minister ranks as the most senior government minister. She or he is responsible for chairing meetings of Cabinet, she or he has ministerial responsibility for the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The office exists by a long-established convention, which originated in New Zealand's former colonial power, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the convention stipulates that the governor-general must select as prime minister the person most to command the support, or confidence, of the House of Representatives. This individual is the parliamentary leader of the political party that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber; the prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their actions to the governor-general, to the House of Representatives, to their political party, to the national electorate.
The head of government was titled "colonial secretary" or "first minister". This was changed in 1869 to "premier"; that title remained in use for more than 30 years, until Richard Seddon informally changed it to "prime minister" in 1901 during his tenure in the office. Following the declaration of New Zealand as a Dominion in 1907, the title of Prime Minister has been used in English. In Māori, the title pirimia, meaning "premier", continues to be used. New Zealand prime ministers are styled as "The Right Honourable", a privilege; the post of prime minister is, like other ministerial positions, an appointment by the governor-general on behalf of the monarch. By the conventions of responsible government, the governor-general will call to form a government the individual most to receive the support, or confidence, of a majority of the elected members of parliament. In making this appointment, convention requires the governor-general to act on the outcome of the electoral process and subsequent discussions between political parties.
In practice, the position falls to the parliamentary leader of the largest political party among those forming the government. The prime minister may lead a coalition government and/or a minority government dependent on support from smaller parties during confidence and supply votes. Once appointed and sworn in by the governor-general, the prime minister remains in the post until dismissal, resignation, or death in office; the prime minister, like other ministers, holds office "during the pleasure of the Governor-General", so theoretically, the governor-general can dismiss the prime minister at any time. The governor-general might exercise reserve power to dismiss the prime minister in circumstances pertaining to a non-confidence motion against the government in parliament; the office is not defined by codified laws, but by unwritten customs known as constitutional conventions which developed in Britain and were replicated in New Zealand. These conventions are for the most part founded on the underlying principle that the prime minister and fellow ministers must not lose the confidence of the democratically elected component of parliament, the House of Representatives.
The prime minister is leader of the Cabinet, takes a coordinating role. The Cabinet Manual 2008 provides an outline of the prime minister's responsibilities. By constitutional convention, the prime minister holds formal power to advise the sovereign; this means that as long as the prime minister has the confidence of parliament, they alone may advise the monarch on: Appointment or recall of the governor-general. Amendments to the letters patent constituting the office of governor-general, which most occurred in 2006; the conferment of New Zealand honours. As head of government, the prime minister alone has the right to advise the governor-general to: Appoint, dismiss, or accept the resignation of ministers. Call general elections by advising the governor-general to dissolve parliament; the governor-general may reject the advice to dissolve parliament if the prime minister has lost a vote of confidence, but so far none have done so. The prime minister is regarded by convention as "first among equals".
They do hold the most senior post in government, but are required to adhere to any decisions taken by Cabinet, as per the convention of collective ministerial responsibility. The actual ability of a prime minister to give direct orders is limited; the ability to appoint and dismiss ministers, allocate portfolios. The influence a prime minister is to have as leader of the dominant party; these powers may give more direct control over subordinates than is attached to the prime minister's role. The power gained from being central to most significant decision-making, from being able to comment on and criticise any decisions taken by other ministers. Since the introduction of the MMP electoral system, there has been an increased need for the prime minist
Old St Paul's, Wellington
You may be looking for Old St. Paul's Cathedral, a destroyed cathedral in the City of London. Or for Old Saint Paul's, Edinburgh, of the Scottish Episcopal Church. Old St Paul's is an historic site, a city landmark and a popular wedding- and event-venue in the heart of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand; the building served as the pro-cathedral of the Diocese of Wellington of the Anglican Church between 1866 and 1964. It exemplifies 19th-century Gothic Revival architecture adapted to colonial conditions and materials, stands at 34 Mulgrave Street, close to the parliament precinct. George Selwyn, the first Bishop of New Zealand, purchased part of the site of the church in 1845 and Governor George Grey added to it in 1853, at which time the land stood on a prominent cliff-top overlooking Wellington harbour. Agreement to build the church was reached by 1861 and the Reverend Frederick Thatcher vicar of St Paul's, was engaged as the architect; the foundation stone was laid by Governor Grey on 21 August 1865.
The building work was executed by John McLaggan and a team of eight carpenters, the church was consecrated by Bishop Abraham on 6 June 1866. Soon after the church opened, it became apparent that it was unstable in high winds, so the south transept, designed by Christian Julius Toxward, was added in 1868. Additions included the north transept and north-aisle extension by Toxward, in 1874. Thatcher’s original wooden shingle roof was replaced with corrugated iron in 1895, subsequently with Welsh slates in 1924. In 1964 the Diocese of Wellington moved to the new St Paul's Cathedral nearby. After a significant battle to prevent its demolition, Old St Paul's was purchased by the New Zealand Government in 1967, subsequently restored by the Ministry of Works under the guidance of Peter Sheppard. Old St Paul's is built in a Gothic style, albeit with a subdued effect due to the limited resources available, it is constructed with stunning stained-glass windows. The interior has been likened to the upturned hull of an Elizabethan galleon, with exposed curving rimu trusses and kauri roof sarking.
Old St Paul's is now managed by Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga. While no longer used as a parish church, it remains consecrated, is a popular venue for weddings and other services; the flags displayed in the nave include the ensigns of the Royal Navy, the New Zealand Merchant Navy and the United States Marine Corps, stationed in Wellington during World War II. The church retains close links with the New Zealand Defence Force; some of the walls and columns of Old St Paul's are decorated with memorial plaques, including many dedicated to those who fought and died in World War I. There is a plaque in memory of Wellington historian John Beaglehole, most famous for his biography of explorer James Cook, but who played a significant role in the fight to save Old St Paul's from demolition. Media related to Old Saint Paul's at Wikimedia Commons A selection of © photos taken during the architectural Restoration Historical website about the church