New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Quicksilver is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character first was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby; the character has since starred in two self-titled limited series, has been depicted as a regular team member in superhero title The Avengers. Quicksilver has the superhuman ability to move at great speeds. In most depictions, he is a human born with innate superhuman powers. In comic book stories beginning in 2015, he is the product of genetic experimentation by the High Evolutionary. Quicksilver most appears in fiction associated with the X-Men, having been introduced as an adversary for the superhero team. In stories, he became a superhero himself, he is the twin brother of the Scarlet Witch and, in most depictions, the son of Magneto and the half-brother of Polaris. Debuting in the Silver Age of comic books, Quicksilver has featured in several decades of Marvel continuity, starring in the self-titled series Quicksilver and as a regular team member in superhero title the Avengers.
The character has appeared in a range of movie and video game adaptations. Two separate live-action versions of the character have been adapted by two different film studios: Aaron Taylor-Johnson portrays the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe franchise, appearing in Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Avengers: Age of Ultron, while Evan Peters portrays Quicksilver in the 20th Century Fox films X-Men: Days of Future Past and X-Men: Apocalypse, he will return in the upcoming film Dark Phoenix. In 2006, IGN named Quicksilver #23 on their list of "The Top 25 X-Men Of All Time" commenting that "Quicksilver was the shining example of a villain turned good", as #44 on their list of the "Top 50 Avengers". Quicksilver first appears in X-Men #4 and was created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-writer Jack Kirby; the character appears as an antagonist to the X-Men, although before long he becomes a member of the Avengers and appears as a regular character in that title beginning with Avengers #16 in May 1965.
He has made numerous other appearances in that title, other related titles, sometimes as a member of the team, sometimes as an ally, sometimes as an antagonist. From 1991 to 1993 Quicksilver was a regular character in the first volume of X-Factor; the series emphasized the character's irritability and arrogance, which writer Peter David felt were a natural consequence of his powers, explaining: Have you stood in the post office behind a woman with 20 packages who wants to know every single way she can send them to Africa? It drives you nuts! You think to yourself, "Why do I have to put up with this? These people are so slow, they're costing me time, it's so damned irritating. I wish I didn't have to put up with this." Now—imagine that the entire world was like that... except for you.... to Quicksilver, as he said in an issue of Amazing Spider-Man many, many moons ago, the rest of the world is moving in slow motion. That must really get on your nerves. Quicksilver lives in a world filled with people who don't know how to use cash machines, want to know all the ways to send packages to Africa, can never get your order right in a Burger King unless you repeat it several times.
That would tend to make you feel superior to everyone and impatient with everyone. Quicksilver starred in Quicksilver, a regular ongoing eponymous series that began in November 1997 and ran for 13 issues; the character played a pivotal role in the House of M and Avengers: The Children's Crusade. Quicksilver appeared as a supporting character in Avengers Academy from issue #1 through its final issue #39, he appears as one of the members of All-New X-Factor, launched in 2014 as part of the second Marvel NOW! wave. Writer Peter David's handling of the character in that book earned the character a 2014 @ssie award from Ain't It Cool News. AICN's Matt Adler commented that David writes the character best, that the "arrogant, impatient speedster" made the title worth following. Pietro and his twin sister, were raised by Django and Marya Maximoff, a Roma couple; as adolescents Pietro Django Maximoff and his sister Wanda discovered that they had peculiar talents. When Django began to steal food to feed his starving family, enraged villagers attacked the Roma camp.
Using his phenomenal speed, Pietro fled from the camp with his sister. Over the next few years and Pietro wandered Central Europe, living off the land; the character first appears with Wanda, now called the Scarlet Witch, as a part of the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants. The siblings were presented as mutants, with Pietro possessing superhuman speed and Wanda able to control probability; the pair are recruited by Magneto after he saves Wanda from a mob after she accidentally causes a house to burst into flame. Quicksilver stays with her to protect her. After several confrontations with the X-Men, they depart when Magneto and his lackey the Toad are abducted by the cosmic entity the Stranger, they travel back to Europe. Pietro and his sister reform and are recruited by Iron Man to the superhero team the Avengers, after they discover they are advertising for new members and want to get support for themselves. Together with leader Captain America and former villain Hawkeye, the four become the second generation of Avengers, are dubbed "Cap's Kooky Quartet".
Quicksilver first thinks he should be leader, though he is captured by the Mole Man on the first mission. He is rescued by the Avengers, who defeat the Minotaur without him, would sometimes quarrel with the other members; the Sc
Bryan Lee Cranston is an American actor, producer and screenwriter. He is best known for his roles as Walter White on the AMC crime drama Breaking Bad, Hal on the Fox sitcom Malcolm in the Middle, Dr. Tim Whatley on the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. Cranston's performance as Walter White on Breaking Bad is regarded as one of the best performances in television history. For Breaking Bad, Cranston won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series four times, including three consecutive wins, the second time in television history after Bill Cosby in I Spy during the 1960s. After becoming one of the producers of Breaking Bad in 2011, he won the award for Outstanding Drama Series twice. Cranston was nominated three times for the Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series for his role in Malcolm in the Middle, his role in Breaking Bad earned him five Golden Globe nominations, with one win in 2014, nine Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, with four wins, six Satellite Award nominations, with four wins.
In June 2014, he won a Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play for his portrayal of Lyndon B. Johnson in the play All the Way on Broadway, a role he reprised in the television film of the same name, which debuted on HBO in May 2016. In April 2018, he won the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Howard Beale in Network at the National Theatre, London. For the film Trumbo, he received widespread acclaim and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Cranston has directed episodes of various television series, including seven episodes of Malcolm in the Middle, three episodes of Breaking Bad, two episodes of Modern Family, one episode of The Office, ten episodes of Sneaky Pete, he has appeared in several acclaimed films, such as Saving Private Ryan, Little Miss Sunshine, Drive and Godzilla. In 2015, together with David Shore, executive produced and wrote the story for the Amazon Studios original crime drama Sneaky Pete. Bryan Lee Cranston was born on March 7, 1956, in Hollywood, the second of three children born to radio actress Annalisa and actor and former amateur boxer Joseph Louis Cranston.
His father was of Austrian-Jewish and Irish descent, while his mother was the daughter of German immigrants. He has an older brother, a younger sister, Amy. Cranston was raised in California. Cranston's father held many jobs before deciding to become an actor, but did not secure enough roles to provide for his family, he walked out on the family when Cranston was 11 years old, they did not see each other again until a 22-year-old Cranston and his brother decided to track their father down. He maintained a relationship with his father until his father's death in 2014. Cranston has claimed that he based his portrayal of Walter White on his own father, who had a slumped posture "like the weight of the world was on his shoulders". After his father left, he was raised by his grandparents, living on their poultry farm in Yucaipa, California, he has called his parents "broken people" who were "incapacitated as far as parenting" and caused the family to lose their house in a foreclosure. In 1968, when he was 12 years old, he encountered a young Charles Manson while riding horses with his teenage cousin at the Spahn Ranch.
This happened about a year. Cranston graduated from Canoga Park High School, where he was a member of the school's chemistry club, earned an associate's degree in police science from Los Angeles Valley College in 1976. After college, Cranston began his acting career in local and regional theaters, getting his start at the Granada Theater in the San Fernando Valley, he had performed as a youth, but his show business parents had mixed feelings about their son being involved in the profession, so he did not continue until years later. Cranston was ordained as a minister by the Universal Life Church, performed weddings for $150 a service to help with his income, he worked as a waiter, night-shift security guard at the gates of a private LA community, truck loader, camera operator for a video dating service, CCTV security guard at a supermarket. He started working in the late 1980s doing minor roles and advertisements, he was an original cast member of the ABC soap opera Loving, where he played Douglas Donovan from 1983 to 1985.
Cranston starred in the short-lived series Raising Miranda in 1988. Cranston's voice acting includes English dubbing of Japanese anime, including Macross Plus and Armitage III: Poly-Matrix, most notably, Street Fighter II: The Animated Movie as Fei-Long, the children's series Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. Cranston did voice work for the 1993-94 first season of that series, playing characters such as Twin Man and Snizzard, for which he was paid about $50 an hour for two or three hours of daily work; the Blue Power Ranger, Billy Cranston, was named for him. In 1994, Cranston got the recurring role of Jerry's dentist, on Seinfeld, he played the role until 1997. In 1996, he played his second astronaut when he portrayed Gus Grissom in the film That Thing You Do! In 1997, he played a supporting role in the Michael Dudikoff action vehicle, the air hijack picture Strategic Command, with alongside Richard Norton, Paul Winfield, Stephen Quadros; that year he had a small role in Babylon 5 as Ericsson, a starship captain who sacrifices himself to save humanity.
In 1998, Cranston appeared in an episode of The X-Files written by Vince Gilligan. That same year, he portrayed astronaut Buzz Aldrin in the HBO min
Captain America: Civil War
Captain America: Civil War is a 2016 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Captain America, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2011's Captain America: The First Avenger and 2014's Captain America: The Winter Soldier, the thirteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the film is directed by Anthony and Joe Russo, with a screenplay by the writing team of Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely, stars Chris Evans as Steve Rogers / Captain America, alongside an ensemble cast including Robert Downey Jr. Scarlett Johansson, Sebastian Stan, Anthony Mackie, Don Cheadle, Jeremy Renner, Chadwick Boseman, Paul Bettany, Elizabeth Olsen, Paul Rudd, Emily VanCamp, Tom Holland, Frank Grillo, William Hurt, Daniel Brühl. In Captain America: Civil War, disagreement over international oversight of the Avengers fractures them into opposing factions—one led by Steve Rogers and the other by Tony Stark. Development of Civil War began in late 2013 when Markus and McFeely began writing the screenplay, which borrows concepts from the 2006 comic book storyline "Civil War", while focusing on story and character elements from the previous Captain America films to conclude the trilogy.
Following positive reactions to test screenings of The Winter Soldier, the Russo brothers were brought back to direct in early 2014. The film's title and premise were revealed in October 2014, along with Downey's casting. Principal photography began in April 2015 at Pinewood Atlanta Studios in Fayette County and continued in the Metro Atlanta area before concluding in Germany in August 2015, with the film being the first to use IMAX's digital 2D cameras. Visual effects were provided by nearly 20 different studios during the post-production process. Captain America: Civil War held its world premiere in Los Angeles on April 12, 2016, was released in the United States on May 6, 2016, in 3D and IMAX 3D; the film was a critical and commercial success, grossing over $1.1 billion worldwide, garnering praise for the performances, action and themes. It became the twelfth-highest-grossing film of all time. In 1991, the brainwashed super-soldier James "Bucky" Barnes is dispatched from a Hydra base in Siberia to intercept an automobile carrying a case of super-soldier serum.
In the present day one year after Ultron's defeat in the nation of Sokovia at the hands of the Avengers, Steve Rogers, Natasha Romanoff, Sam Wilson, Wanda Maximoff stop Brock Rumlow from stealing a biological weapon from a lab in Lagos. Rumlow blows himself up. Maximoff telekinetically contains the explosion and throws it upward, damaging a nearby building and accidentally killing several Wakandan humanitarian workers. U. S. Secretary of State Thaddeus Ross informs the Avengers that the United Nations is preparing to pass the Sokovia Accords, which will establish a UN panel to oversee and control the team; the Avengers are divided: Tony Stark supports oversight because of his role in Ultron's creation and Sokovia's devastation, while Rogers has more faith in his own judgment than that of a government. Meanwhile, Helmut Zemo tracks down and kills Barnes' old Hydra handler, stealing a book containing the trigger words that activate Barnes' brainwashing. At a conference in Vienna where the Accords are to be ratified, a bomb kills King T'Chaka of Wakanda.
Security footage indicates the bomber is Barnes, whom T'Challa, vows to kill. Informed by Sharon Carter of Barnes' whereabouts and the authorities' intentions to kill him, Rogers decides to try to bring in Barnes—his childhood friend and war comrade—himself. Rogers and Wilson track Barnes to Bucharest and attempt to protect him from T'Challa and the authorities, but all four, including T'Challa, are apprehended. Impersonating a psychiatrist sent to interview Barnes, Zemo recites the words to make Barnes obey him, he questions Barnes sends him on a rampage to cover his own escape. Rogers sneaks him away; when Barnes regains his senses, he explains that Zemo is the real Vienna bomber and wanted the location of the Siberian Hydra base, where other brainwashed "Winter Soldiers" are kept in cryogenic stasis. Unwilling to wait for authorization to apprehend Zemo and Wilson go rogue, recruit Maximoff, Clint Barton, Scott Lang to their cause. With Ross's permission, Stark assembles a team composed of Romanoff, T'Challa, James Rhodes and Peter Parker to capture the renegades.
Stark's team intercepts Rogers' group at Leipzig/Halle Airport, where they fight until Romanoff allows Rogers and Barnes to escape. The rest of Rogers' team is captured and detained at the Raft prison, while Rhodes is paralyzed after being inadvertently shot down by Vision, Romanoff goes into exile. Stark discovers evidence that Barnes was framed by Zemo and convinces Wilson to give him Rogers' destination. Without informing Ross, Stark goes to the Siberian Hydra facility and strikes a truce with Rogers and Barnes, unaware that they were secretly followed by T'Challa, they find that the other super-soldiers have been killed by Zemo, who shows them footage that reveals that the automobile Barnes had intercepted in 1991 contained Stark's parents, whom Barnes subsequently killed. Enraged that Rogers kept this from him, Stark turns on them both, leading to an intense fight, in which Stark destroys Barnes' robotic arm, Rogers disables Stark's armor, he departs with Barnes. Satisfied that he has avenged his family's deaths in Sokovia from the Avengers' actions by fracturing them, Zem
Oldboy (2003 film)
Oldboy is a 2003 South Korean neo-noir action thriller film co-written and directed by Park Chan-wook. It is based on the Japanese manga of the same name written by Garon Tsuchiya. Oldboy is the second installment of The Vengeance Trilogy, preceded by Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance and followed by Lady Vengeance; the film follows the story of Oh Dae-su, imprisoned in a cell which resembles a hotel room for 15 years without knowing the identity of his captor or his captor's motives. When he is released, Dae-su finds himself still trapped in a web of conspiracy and violence, his own quest for vengeance becomes tied in with romance when he falls in love with an attractive young sushi chef. The film won the Grand Prix at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival and high praise from the President of the Jury, director Quentin Tarantino; the film has been well received by critics in the United States, with an 80% "Certified Fresh" rating at Rotten Tomatoes. Film critic Roger Ebert stated that Oldboy is a "powerful film not because of what it depicts, but because of the depths of the human heart which it strips bare".
It has been listed among the best films of the 2000s in several publications. An American remake with the same title was released in 2013, it was directed by Spike Lee. In 1988, a businessman named Oh Dae-su is arrested for drunkenness, missing his daughter's fourth birthday. After his friend Joo-hwan picks him up from the police station, they go to a phone booth for Dae-su to call home. While Joo-hwan is talking to Dae-su's wife, Dae-su is kidnapped and wakes up in a sealed hotel room, where food is delivered through a trap-door. Watching the television, Dae-su learns that he's the prime suspect. Dae-su passes the time planning revenge and attempting to dig a tunnel to escape. 2003, 15 years have passed. Just before digging himself to freedom, Dae-su is sedated and wakes up on a rooftop dressed in a suit. After telling everything that has happened so far to another man on the rooftop who commits suicide, Dae-Su tests his fighting skills on a group of young thugs. Afterward, a mysterious beggar gives him a cell phone.
Dae-su enters a sushi restaurant where he meets the restaurant's young chef. Dae-su receives a taunting phone call from his captor, who refuses to explain the reason for Dae-su's imprisonment, he is taken in by Mi-do. After he recovers, Dae-su tries to find the location of his prison. Discovering that his daughter was adopted by a Swedish couple, he gives up trying to contact her. Dae-su locates the Chinese restaurant that made food for his prison and finds the prison by following a delivery man. It's a private prison. Dae-su enters the prison and tortures the warden, Mr. Park, who doesn't know the identity of Dae-su's captor but reveals that Dae-su was imprisoned for "talking too much". While leaving the prison, Dae-su is attacked by a large number of guards and stabbed in the back with a knife but manages to defeat them all. Dae-su's captor, a wealthy man named Lee Woo-jin, contacts Dae-su again and gives him an ultimatum: if Dae-su discovers the motive for his imprisonment within five days, Woo-jin will kill himself by stopping the pacemaker in his chest.
Otherwise, he will kill Mi-do. As Dae-su and Mi-do become intimate, they have sex. Meanwhile, Joo-hwan tries to contact Dae-su with some important information about Woo-jin's sister but is murdered by Woo-jin, secretly following him after Dae-su removed all of Woo-jin's electronic bugs. Dae-su recalls that he and Woo-jin had gone to the same high school, he had witnessed Woo-jin committing incest with his own sister. Dae-su told Joo-hwan what he had seen before leaving the school, which leads to his classmates learning about the event. Rumors about Woo-jin's sister started to spread and she committed suicide, leading a grief-stricken Woo-jin to seek revenge. Back in the present day, Woo-jin cuts off Mr. Park's hand, fulfilling an earlier threat by Dae-su, causing Mr. Park and his gang to join forces with Dae-su. Dae-su sets out to face Woo-jin. At Woo-jin's penthouse, Woo-jin reveals. Woo-jin had orchestrated everything by using hypnosis to guide Dae-su to the sushi restaurant, arranging for them to meet and fall in love so that Dae-su will experience the same pain of incest that Woo-jin did.
Dae-su is beaten badly by Woo-jin's bodyguard. Using scissors as a weapon, Dae-su manages to stab the bodyguard in the ear; the deafened bodyguard, now hurt and enraged, attempts to kill Dae-su. Woo-jin, unable to call him off and coldly shoots his bodyguard in the head wit a Derringer pistol. Woo-jin reveals that Mr. Park is still working for him and threatens to tell the truth to Mi-do, being held in Mr. Park's new prison. Dae-su apologizes for his involvement in the death of Woo-jin's sister and humiliates himself by imitating a dog, begging Woo-jin not to tell Mi-do; when Woo-jin laughs unimpressed, Dae-su cuts out his own tongue as a sign of penance. Woo-jin accepts Dae-su's apology and tells Mr. Park to hide the truth from Mi-do. After entering the elevator, Woo-jin recalls his sister's suicide and shoots himself in the head with the Derringer. In the epilogue, Dae-su finds the hypnotist from the prison to erase his knowledge of Mi-do being his daughter, so that they can stay happy together.
While persuading to the hypnotist, Dae-Su repeats a sentence that he heard the man on the rooftop say, so she begins a hypnosis to erase his memories. Afterwards, Mi-do finds Dae-su lying in snow and c
Jack Kerouac was an American novelist and poet of French-Canadian descent. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his method of spontaneous prose. Thematically, his work covers topics such as Catholic spirituality, promiscuity, drugs and travel, he became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the hippie movement, although he remained antagonistic toward some of its politically radical elements. In 1969, at age 47, Kerouac died from an abdominal hemorrhage caused by a lifetime of heavy drinking. Since his death, Kerouac's literary prestige has grown, several unseen works have been published. All of his books are in print today, including The Town and the City, On the Road, Doctor Sax, The Dharma Bums, Mexico City Blues, The Subterraneans, Desolation Angels, Visions of Cody, The Sea Is My Brother, Big Sur. Jack Kerouac was born on March 12, 1922 in Lowell, Massachusetts to French Canadian parents, Léo-Alcide Kéroack and Gabrielle-Ange Lévesque.
There is some confusion surrounding his name because of variations on the spelling of Kerouac, because of Kerouac's own statement of his name as Jean-Louis Lebris de Kerouac. His reason for that statement seems to be linked to an old family legend that the Kerouacs had descended from Baron François Louis Alexandre Lebris de Kerouac. Kerouac's baptism certificate lists his name as Jean Louis Kirouac, the most common spelling of the name in Quebec. Research has shown that Kerouac's roots were indeed in Brittany, he was descended from a middle-class merchant colonist, Urbain-François Le Bihan, Sieur de Kervoac, whose sons married French Canadians. Kerouac's father Leo had been born into a family of potato farmers in the village of Saint-Hubert-de-Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec. Jack had various stories on the etymology of his surname tracing it to Irish, Cornish or other Celtic roots. In one interview he claimed it was from the name of the Cornish language and that the Kerouacs had fled from Cornwall to Brittany.
Another version was that the Kerouacs had come to Cornwall from Ireland before the time of Christ and the name meant "language of the house". In still another interview he said it was an Irish word for "language of the water" and related to Kerwick. Kerouac, derived from Kervoach, is the name of a town in Brittany near Morlaix. Jack Kerouac referred to 34 Beaulieu Street as "sad Beaulieu"; the Kerouac family was living there in 1926 when Jack's older brother Gerard died of rheumatic fever, aged nine. This affected four-year-old Jack, who would say that Gerard followed him in life as a guardian angel; this is the Gerard of Kerouac's novel Visions of Gerard. He had an older sister named Caroline. Kerouac was referred to as Ti Jean or little John around the house during his childhood. Kerouac spoke French, he was a serious child, devoted to his mother, who played an important role in his life. She was a devout Catholic. Kerouac would say that his mother was the only woman he loved. After Gerard died, his mother sought solace in her faith, while his father abandoned it, wallowing in drinking and smoking.
Some of Kerouac's poetry was written in French, in letters written to friend Allen Ginsberg towards the end of his life, he expressed a desire to speak his parents' native tongue again. In 2016, a whole volume of unpublished works written in French by Kerouac was published as La vie est d'hommage, edited by Professor Jean-Christophe Cloutier. On May 17, 1928, while six years old, Kerouac had his first Confession. For penance, he was told to say a rosary, during which he heard God tell him that he had a good soul, that he would suffer in life and die in pain and horror, but would in the end receive salvation; this experience, along with his dying brother's vision of the Virgin Mary, combined with a study of Buddhism and an ongoing commitment to Christ, solidified the worldview which would inform Kerouac's work. Kerouac once told Ted Berrigan, in an interview for The Paris Review, of an incident in the 1940s in which his mother and father were walking together in a Jewish neighborhood on the Lower East Side of New York.
He recalled "a whole bunch of rabbis walking arm in arm... teedah- teedah – teedah... and they wouldn't part for this Christian man and his wife, so my father went POOM! and knocked a rabbi right in the gutter." Leo, after the death of his child treated a priest with similar contempt, angrily throwing him out of the house despite his invitation from Gabrielle. Kerouac's athletic skills as a running back in football for Lowell High School earned him scholarship offers from Boston College, Notre Dame, Columbia University, he entered Columbia University after spending a year at Horace Mann School, where he earned the requisite grades for entry to Columbia. Kerouac broke a leg playing football during his freshman season, during an abbreviated second year he argued with coach Lou Little, who kept him benched. While at Columbia, Kerouac wrote several sports articles for the student newspaper, the Columbia Daily Spectator, joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, he studied at The New School. When his football career at Columbia ended, Kerouac dropped out of the university.
He continued to live for a time in New York's Upper West Side wit
A classic is a book accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books, or through a reader's personal opinion. Although the term is associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of literature from all traditions, such as the Chinese classics or the Indian Vedas. What makes a book "classic" is a concern that has occurred to various authors ranging from Italo Calvino to Mark Twain and the related questions of "Why Read the Classics?" and "What Is a Classic?" have been essayed by authors from different genres and eras. The ability of a classic book to be reinterpreted, to be renewed in the interests of generations of readers succeeding its creation, is a theme, seen in the writings of literary critics including Michael Dirda, Ezra Pound, Sainte-Beuve; the terms "classic book" and "Western canon" are related concepts, but they are not synonymous. A "canon" refers to a list of books considered to be "essential" and is presented in a variety of ways.
It can be published as a collection, presented as a list with an academic’s imprimatur or be the official reading list of an institution of higher learning (such as "The Reading List" at St. John's College or Rutgers University. In the 1980s, Italo Calvino said in his essay "Why Read the Classics?" that "a classic is a book that has never finished saying what it has to say" and comes to the crux of personal choice in this matter when he says: "Your classic author is the one you cannot feel indifferent to, who helps you define yourself in relation to him in dispute with him." Consideration of what makes a literary work a classic is for Calvino a personal choice, constructing a universal definition of what constitutes a Classic Book seems to him to be an impossibility, since, as Calvino says "There is nothing for it but for all of us to invent our own ideal libraries of classics."What makes a work of literature a "classic book" is not just a consideration of extensively published authors. In 1920, Fannie M. Clark, a teacher at the Rozelle School in East Cleveland, predates Calvino's similar conclusions by 60 years when she essayed the question of what makes a book a "classic" in her article "Teaching Children to Choose" in The English Journal.
Over the course of her essay, Clark considers the question of what makes a piece of literature a classic and why the idea of "the classics" is important to society as a whole. Clark says that "teachers of English have been so long trained in the'classics' that these'classics' have become to them much like the Bible, for the safety of which the rise of modern science causes such unnecessary fears." She goes on to say that among the sources she consulted was a group of eighth-graders when she asked them the question: "What do you understand by the classics in literature?" Two of the answers Clark received were "Classics are books your fathers give you and you keep them to give to your children" and "Classics are those great pieces of literature considered worthy to be studied in English classes of high school or college". Calvino agrees with the Ohio educator when he states "Schools and universities ought to help us understand that no book that talks about a book says more than the book in question, but instead they do their level best to make us think the opposite."
Clark and Calvino come to a similar conclusion that when a literary work is analyzed for what makes it'classic', that in just the act of analysis or as Clark says "the anatomical dissection", the reader can end up destroying the unique pleasure that mere enjoyment a work of literature can hold. While blogging on the website guardian.co.uk in 2009, Chris Cox echoes Twain's "classic" sentiments of 1900 and Bennett's witticism about classic books when he opined on the Guardian. Co "Books Blog" that there are two kinds of "classic novels": The first are those we know we should have read, but have not; these are the books that make us burn with shame when they come up in conversation... The second kind, are those books that we've read five times, can quote from on any occasion, annoyingly push on to other people with the words: "You have to read this. It's a classic." In 1850, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve stated his answer to the question "What is a Classic?": The idea of a classic implies something that has continuance and consistence, which produces unity and tradition and transmits itself, endures….
A true classic, as I should like to hear it defined, is an author who has enriched the human mind, increased its treasure, caused it to advance a step. In this same essay, Sainte-Beuve quoted Goethe: "Ancient works are classical not because they are old, but because they are powerful and healthy."The concept of'the classic' was a theme of T. S. Eliot's literary criticism as well. In The Sacred Wood he thought that one of the reasons "Dante is a classic, Blake only a poet of genius was "because of "the concentration resultin