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Elizabeth Taylor

Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was a British-American actress and humanitarian. She began her career as a child actress in the early 1940s, was one of the most popular stars of classical Hollywood cinema in the 1950s, she continued her career into the 1960s, remained a well-known public figure for the rest of her life. In 1999, the American Film Institute named her the seventh-greatest female screen legend. Born in London to prominent American parents, Taylor moved with her family to Los Angeles in 1939, she made her acting debut in a minor role in the Universal Pictures film There's One Born Every Minute but the studio ended her contract after a year. She was signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, became a popular teen star after appearing in National Velvet, she transitioned to more mature roles in the 1950s, when she starred in the comedy Father of the Bride and received critical acclaim for her performance in the drama A Place in the Sun. Despite being one of MGM's most bankable stars, Taylor wished to end her career in the early 1950s.

She disliked many of the films to which she was assigned. She began receiving roles she enjoyed more in the mid-1950s, beginning with the epic drama Giant, starred in several critically and commercially successful films in the following years; these included two film adaptations of plays by Tennessee Williams: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Suddenly, Last Summer. Although she disliked her role as a call girl in BUtterfield 8, her last film for MGM, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance. Taylor was paid a then-record-breaking $1 million to play the title role in the historical epic Cleopatra, the most expensive film made up to that point. During the filming, Taylor and co-star Richard Burton began an extramarital affair, which caused a scandal. Despite public disapproval and Burton continued their relationship and were married in 1964. Dubbed "Liz and Dick" by the media, they starred in 11 films together, including The V. I. P.s, The Sandpiper, The Taming of the Shrew, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?.

Taylor received the best reviews of her career for Woolf, winning her second Academy Award and several other awards for her performance. She and Burton divorced in 1974, but reconciled soon after, remarried in 1975; the second marriage ended in divorce in 1976. Taylor's acting career began to decline in the late 1960s, although she continued starring in films until the mid-1970s, after which she focused on supporting the career of her sixth husband, United States Senator John Warner. In the 1980s, she acted in her first substantial stage roles and in several television films and series, she became the first celebrity to launch a perfume brand. Taylor was one of the first celebrities to take part in HIV/AIDS activism, she co-founded the American Foundation for AIDS Research in 1985, the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation in 1991. From the early 1990s until her death, she dedicated her time to philanthropy, for which she received several accolades, including the Presidential Citizens Medal. Throughout her career, Taylor's personal life was the subject of constant media attention.

She was married eight times to seven men, endured several serious illnesses, led a jet set lifestyle, including assembling one of the most expensive private collections of jewelry in the world. After many years of ill health, Taylor died from congestive heart failure in 2011, at the age of 79. Taylor was born on February 27, 1932, at Heathwood, her family's home on 8 Wildwood Road in Hampstead Garden Suburb, London, she received dual British-American citizenship at birth, as her parents, art dealer Francis Lenn Taylor and retired stage actress Sara Sothern, were United States citizens, both from Arkansas City, Kansas. They moved to London in 1929, opened an art gallery on Bond Street; the family lived in London during Taylor's childhood. Their social circle included artists such as Augustus John and Laura Knight, politicians such as Colonel Victor Cazalet. Cazalet was Taylor's unofficial godfather, an important influence in her early life, she was enrolled in Byron House, a Montessori school in Highgate, was raised according to the teachings of Christian Science, the religion of her mother and Cazalet.

In early 1939, the Taylors decided to return to the United States due to fear of impending war in Europe. United States ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy contacted her father, urging him to return to the US with his family. Sara and the children left first in April 1939 aboard the ocean liner SS Manhattan, moved in with Taylor's maternal grandfather in Pasadena, California. Francis stayed behind to close the London gallery, joined them in December. In early 1940, he opened a new gallery in Los Angeles. After living in Pacific Palisades with the Chapman family, the Taylor family settled in Beverly Hills, where the two children were enrolled in Hawthorne School. In California, Taylor's mother was told that her daughter should audition for films. Taylor's eyes in particular drew attention. Sara was opposed to Taylor appearing in films, but after the outbreak of war in Europe made return there unlikely, she began to view the film industry as a way of assimilating to American society. Francis Taylor's Beverly Hills gallery had gained clients from the film industry soon after ope

FSA debit card

A FSA Debit Card is a type of debit card issued in the United States. It can access tax-favored spending accounts such as flexible spending accounts and health reimbursement accounts, sometimes health savings accounts as well. All such cards to date bear the Visa, MasterCard, or Discover brand and operate through their main networks; this can create confusion at merchants such as Wal-Mart that attempt to "steer" debit cards to online debit. Though these cards can be issued with HRAs and HSAs as well as FSAs, the FSA is the oldest and most common of these accounts. Walgreens and drugstore.com have "FSA stores" designed for use with these cards, whether tied to medical FSAs, HRAs or HSAs. An Ecommerce vendor, called FSA Store, was created with FSA/HSA cards in mind and is an "FSA Store" in and of itself. Though a few FSA debit cards are issued for dependent care and transportation expenses, most are issued for medical expenses. Traditionally, to meet Internal Revenue Service substantiation requirements, FSAs were accessed only through claims for reimbursement after incurring an out-of-pocket expense after deductions were made from the employee's paycheck to fund the FSA.

This, along with the so-called "use it or lose it" rule, has long been seen as one of the problems minimizing utilization of FSAs. The FSA debit card was developed to avoid this problem by allowing users to access their FSA directly without reimbursement, to provide methods for automating the IRS substantiation requirements which require substantial paperwork and manpower. Substantiating an FSA debit card transaction without paperwork is known as "auto-adjudication". HRAs, which were introduced not by employee funds. Unlike FSAs and HRAs, HSAs do not require substantiation prior to withdrawal. However, since most HSA providers came from FSA and HRA backgrounds, most offer substantiation services for HSAs that are similar to those for FSAs and HRAs. Though many HSA providers offer unrestricted debit cards and credit cards with their accounts, some voluntarily choose to issue HSA debit cards and impose the same restrictions on their use as those required by the IRS for FSAs and HRAs. Flexible Spending Accounts referred to as “Section 125” plans or “Cafeteria” plans, were developed as part of Internal Revenue Code Section 125 to provide employees with tax relief for their un-reimbursed medical and dependent day-care costs.

FSAs enable employees to utilize pre-tax dollars and save Federal, FICA, and, in most cases, state taxes when paying for eligible expenses not covered by traditional insurance plans. Unlike other debit cards, the IRS does not allow FSA debit cards to be used at every merchant that accepts Visa or MasterCard. Rather, only the following types of merchants may accept an FSA debit card enforced using "merchant category codes" or "merchant type codes" assigned by Visa and MasterCard: Medical providers such as doctors and hospitals. Amazon.com Merchants with an inventory information approval system. In an IIAS, a merchant flags "FSA-eligible" items in its point of sale database so they can be separated from all other items by its scanner or shopping cart; until December 31, 2007, all grocers and online pharmacies. These merchants must install an IIAS to accept the card after this date; until December 31, 2008, all "true pharmacies". They must install an IIAS after this date, unless 90% or more of their sales are of FSA-eligible items.

Under IRS Revenue Ruling 2003-43, every transaction on an FSA debit card must be either substantiated or recouped from the employee. Substantiation can be through paper receipts submitted by the user; the process of obtaining receipts or recoupment when auto-adjudication is not possible is known as "pay and chase", a term the IRS used in its most recent ruling. The most common method of auto-adjudication is known as "copay matching". Under Ruling 2003-43 as amplified by Notice 2006-69, the FSA or HRA provider must obtain from the employee's health plan the standard copayment amounts for that plan. If the charge is equal to between one and five of those copayment amounts, it may be auto-adjudicated and approved without receipts. If the health plan has different copayment amounts for a particular type of charge, any valid combination of copayment amounts may be approved, up to five times the highest possible copayment amount. Charges may be auto-adjudicated if they are accompanied by electronic information substantiating that the charge is for medical purposes.

This may be done through such means as including details of the transaction with the charge or forwarding the health plan's explanation of benefits to the FSA or HRA provider for further processi

Teora

Teora is a small town and comune in the province of Avellino, in the Campania region of southern Italy. Teora is bordered by the towns of Caposele, Conza della Campania and Morra De Sanctis; the origin of the village was recorded by the Greek historian Dionysius of Alicarnassus and by the Roman historian Marcus Terentius Varro. It was reported that the tribuno della plebe Milo died there during the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey in the Roman era. In a privilege of 1200, granted by Pope Innocent III to Pantaleone, archbishop of Conza, Teora is referred to using the name Tugurium Biarium for the first time. In the late Middle Ages and modern era it was a fief hold by several local noble families. Three earthquakes have occurred in Teora, in 1694, 1732, 1980 respectively. Fountain of Monte called the fountain of the dead men, has its origins in the 12th century, when the Church of Conza was designated by pope Callixtus II as a necropolis. Church of Saint Nicholas Corona flour mill Fountain of Piano Stone of the civil weddings Squaqqualacchiun' is a typical masque related to the day of Saint Anthony, January 17, on which the first day of the carnival is held.

This event is featured in the Museum of Popular Traditions at Caserta. Donatello, Filomena. Teora nei documenti e nei monumenti. Avellino: IRB Redi Editore. Official website