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Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth Woodville was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. At the time of her birth, her family was of middle rank in the English social hierarchy, her mother Jacquetta of Luxembourg had been an aunt by marriage to Henry VI. Elizabeth's first marriage was to a minor supporter of the House of Lancaster, Sir John Grey of Groby, he died at the Second Battle of St Albans. Her second marriage to Edward IV was a cause célèbre of the day, thanks to Elizabeth's great beauty and lack of great estates. Edward was the first king of England since the Norman Conquest to marry one of his subjects, Elizabeth was the first such consort to be crowned queen, her marriage enriched her siblings and children, but their advancement incurred the hostility of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick,'The Kingmaker', his various alliances with the most senior figures in the divided royal family. This hostility turned into open discord between King Edward and Warwick, leading to a battle of wills that resulted in Warwick switching allegiance to the Lancastrian cause, to the execution of Elizabeth's father Richard Woodville in 1469.

After the death of her husband in 1483, Elizabeth remained politically influential after her son proclaimed King Edward V of England, was deposed by her brother-in-law, Richard III. Edward and his younger brother Richard both disappeared soon afterward, are presumed to have been murdered. Elizabeth subsequently played an important role in securing the accession of Henry VII in 1485. Henry married her daughter Elizabeth of York, ended the Wars of the Roses, established the Tudor dynasty. Through her daughter, Elizabeth was a grandmother of the future Henry VIII. Elizabeth was forced to yield pre-eminence to Lady Margaret Beaufort. Elizabeth Woodville was born about 1437 in October, at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire, she was the first-born child of a unequal marriage between Sir Richard Woodville and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, which scandalised the English court. The Woodvilles, though an old and respectable family, were gentry rather than noble, a landed and wealthy family that had produced commissioners of the peace, MPs, rather than peers of the realm.

In about 1452, Elizabeth Woodville married Sir John Grey of Groby, the heir to the Barony Ferrers of Groby. He was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461; this would become a source of irony, since Elizabeth's future husband Edward IV was the Yorkist claimant to the throne. Elizabeth Woodville's two sons from this first marriage were Richard. Elizabeth Woodville was called "the most beautiful woman in the Island of Britain" with "heavy-lidded eyes like those of a dragon." Edward IV had many mistresses, the best known of them being Jane Shore, he did not have a reputation for fidelity. His marriage to the widowed Elizabeth Woodville took place secretly and, though the date is not known, it is traditionally said to have taken place at her family home in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464. Only the bride's mother and two ladies were in attendance. Edward married her just over three years after he had assumed the English throne in the wake of his overwhelming victory over the Lancastrians, at the Battle of Towton, which resulted in the displacement of King Henry VI.

Elizabeth Woodville was crowned queen on 26 the Sunday after Ascension Day. In the early years of his reign, Edward IV's governance of England was dependent upon a small circle of supporters, most notably his cousin, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. At around the time of Edward IV's secret marriage, Warwick was negotiating an alliance with France in an effort to thwart a similar arrangement being made by his sworn enemy Margaret of Anjou, wife of the deposed Henry VI; the plan was. When his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, both a commoner and from a family of Lancastrian supporters became public, Warwick was both embarrassed and offended, his relationship with Edward IV never recovered; the match was badly received by the Privy Council, who according to Jean de Waurin told Edward with great frankness that "he must know that she was no wife for a prince such as himself". With the arrival on the scene of the new queen came many relatives, some of whom married into the most notable families in England.

Three of her sisters married the sons of the earls of Kent and Pembroke. Another sister, Catherine Woodville, married the queen's 11-year-old ward Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who joined Edward IV's brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, in opposition to the Woodvilles after the death of Edward IV. Elizabeth's 20-year-old brother John married Katherine, Duchess of Norfolk; the Duchess had been widowed three times and was in her sixties, which created a scandal at court. Elizabeth's son from her first marriage, Thomas Grey, married Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington; when Elizabeth Woodville's relatives her brother Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, began to challenge Warwick's pre-eminence in English political society, Warwick conspired with his son-in-law George, Duke of Clarence, the king's younger brother. One of his followers accused Elizabeth Woodville's mother, Jacquetta of Luxembourg, of practising witchcraft, she was acquitted the following

Katsuya Matsumura

Katsuya Matsumura is a Japanese film director and screenwriter known for his violent thriller-horror film series All Night Long. Matsumura was born in Tokyo, Japan in 1963. After graduating college, he entered the film industry where he worked on documentary films and short documentaries, his documentary on continued pollution in the Doroku area won the grand prize in the Short Film category at the Mainichi Film Concours in 1988. He left documentary film making in 1991 and his first feature film All Night Long was released in 1992; the film earned him the Best New Director award at the 1993 Yokohama Film Festival. He followed up his first feature with the 1995 horror film Concrete-Encased High School Girl Murder Case, based on a true crime, the 1988 murder of Junko Furuta. Matsumura continued the "All Night Long" series with two more installments released directly to video in 1995 and 1996, followed by the 4th and 5th chapters in 2002 and 2003 on video. Matsumura returned to feature films with the 2004 horror movie Ki-re-i?, based on the novel by Kei Yuikawa, which combines cosmetic surgery and gore, in 2008 he directed Dark Love: Rape, an erotic psycho-thriller from the manga series Rape by Shūichi Sakabe.

The film was produced and distributed by the adult video studio KM Produce and featured one of their former actresses Hitomi Hayasaka. In 2009, Matsumura brought out All Night Long 6, produced by Takashi Shimizu, famous for his Ju-on films, with special makeup effects by Yoshihiro Nishimura; the film was shown February 2009 at the Yubari International Fantastic Film Festival. Sources: All Night Long, 1992 Concrete-Encased High School Girl Murder Case, 1995 All Night Long 2, 1995 All Night Long 3: The Final Chapter, 1996 All Night Long R, 2002 All Night Long: Initial O, 2003 Ki-re-i?, 2004 Dark Love: Rape, 2008 All Night Long: Anyone Would Have Done, 2009 "Katsuya Matsumura at IMdB". "Katsuya Matsumura at JMDB". "Katsuya Matsumura at All Cinema". "Review of All Night Long". "Review of All Night Long 2". "Review of Kirei?"

William Byron Rumford

William Byron Rumford was an American pharmacist and politician. He was the first African American elected to a state public office in Northern California. Rumford was born in Courtland, Arizona, a now-defunct mining town, the second of Chauncey G. Rumford and Margaret Lee Johnson's two sons, his father, who had left the family when Rumford was young, lived in Los Angeles, where his family had moved in about 1910 from Iowa by way of Colorado Springs. Rumford's mother's side were some of the first American settlers of Arizona, his maternal grandmother ran a boarding house in Tombstone and fought to keep the Tucson public schools desegregated. When Whites established separate schools, she relocated to Los Angeles, having decided that "she was not going to bring those kids up in a segregated environment." Rumford remained with his mother in Tucson. His older brother Chauncey moved to Los Angeles to live with his father and paternal grandmother, Rumford and his mother soon moved to Phoenix, where she married a barber, Elmer J. Williams.

They joined the rest of the family in Los Angeles in 1915, living for a time in a large house on Burlington Avenue. There, his paternal grandmother's sister, a songwriter and painter, helped Delilah L. Beasley write her 1916 history The Negro Trail Blazers of California, his stepfather, did not take to Los Angeles well, returned the family to Phoenix. His mother and stepfather had children of their own, Williams paid little attention to the Rumford brothers, who had to work to survive. Rumford graduated from Carver High School, a segregated high school in Phoenix in 1926, he was inspired to attend the University of California, Berkeley, by his high school teachers Ellis Knox, a Berkeley alumnus who became the first African American to receive a doctorate on the West Coast. At the age of 18, he moved to San Francisco and worked for a year before enrolling in Sacramento Junior College, he was accepted to the school of pharmacy at the University of California, San Francisco, worked as a parking valet and a doorman at night.

He graduated in 1931. Rumford was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. In 1933, Rumford passed the examination for employment with the State of California at a time when few blacks worked for the state, he took the examination for investigator on the California Board of Pharmacy, passing the written portion twice, but failing the oral portion two times. "I think. I took the examination for food and drug investigator and I flunked the oral after they asked me about Joe Louis, and I came back, took it again, I flunked it again." According to Rumford, the board was "asking silly questions to get rid of blacks."He took the examination for state VD investigator and passed, but failed the state examination a third time. He visited the member of the personnel board. Christenson, the board member, appealed the board's decision to fail Rumford on the grounds that he was asked irrelevant questions. Rumford appealed on the grounds that the board had publicized the statistic that African Americans suffered from sexually transmitted diseases at a greater rate than other ethnic groups, but had not taken the opportunity to do something about it.

He was granted state certification. He became the first African American hired at Highland Hospital in Oakland, where he was assistant pharmacist. There he worked under Dr. Benjamin Black, a former army doctor, "outstanding authorit in hospital administration", "a prejudiced person." Black was hesitant to hire Rumford, suspecting him of wanting to "make trouble", was reluctant to raise his salary. But with the help of influential friends, including Thomas E. Caldecott and county Supervisor Harry Bartell, he received a raise at the beginning of World War II. However, he left the job due to the low pay, was appointed VD investigator. For about a year, he worked at army bases, such as Camp Knight, where his main responsibility was apprehending carriers of STDs; when not on base, he worked in city clinics. In 1942, while still working for the state, he purchased a pharmacy in Berkeley, he tried to work both jobs, but devoted his energies to the business. In 1942, Berkeley Mayor Laurance L. Cross appointed Rumford to the Emergency Housing Committee, which sought to find housing for wartime laborers.

In his capacity as committee member, he was able to push for more integrated housing. He helped organize the Berkeley Interracial Committee, a citizen's committee whose purpose was to "placate and to welcome some of the people and to ameliorate some of the problems that did arise as a result of the influx" of Southerners; the Berkeley Interracial Committee welcomed the Southerners to the community and helped them when they ran into problems. It worked with the Committee on Fair Play to fight the Japanese American internment, helped the City establish a Human Relations Commission. In 1944, Governor Earl Warren appointed Rumford to the Rent Control Board, a state agency, part of a federal wartime program to keep wages and rents down. In 1948, he made his first attempt for a seat in the Assembly, he had been involved with the Appomattox Club, "perhaps one of the first" African American political organizations in the Bay Area, since 1932, when it supported the policies of the Roosevelt administration.

In the primary, he was supported by the club, as well as by a community caucus, a group of African American ministers. The CIO withheld support, he won the primary, but lost the election to Edgar Hurley, who had filed as both a Re