Robert Laurent was an American sculptor, known for his sensitive interpretations of the human form. Born in 1890, he died in Cape Neddick, Maine in 1970 at the age of 80. Laurent's son, was a prominent painter in Maine, known for his landscapes and seascapes. Laurent was born in Concarneau, Brittany France in 1890. There, at the age of 12 his artistic talents were recognized by art connoisseur Hamilton Easter Field who brought him to the United States when he was twenty years old. In 1908 he travelled to Rome with Field and there studied with Maurice Sterne as well as with wood carver Giuseppe Doratori at the British Academy. Laurent served in the Navy during the First World War, he met Mimi Caraes, who became his wife. He returned to Brooklyn in 1919.in 1922, when his mentor Hamilton Easter Field passed, he left Laurent his art collection and Brooklyn home. After inheriting this collection, Laurent established the Hamilton Easter Field Foundation with the aide of other New York artists. Before coming to Indiana University, Laurent taut at the Art Students League in New York City, the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington DC, Vassar College, Goucher College.
He was a Professor of Fine Arts at Indiana University from 1942 to 1960. Laurent once said; this is what gives it life and vibration." Laurent won the Audubon Sculpture Award in New York in 1945,several first prizes in Hoosier salons, in exhibits at the John Herron Museum, Indianapolis. He received high distinction in 1954 when was named sculptor in residence at the American Academy in Rome for a year. Laurent was one of 23 American sculptors whose works were selected for official exhibit of American art shown in Russia in 1959Laurent was a fellow of the National Sculpture Society, president of the Hamilton Easter Field Foundation, a member of the Sculptor's Guild - Indiana Artists, New England Sculptors' Association, the College Art Association. • Madame De Felt-tipped pen and ink on paper. Sheet: 16 x 10 5/8 in. Smithsonian American Art Museum • Mimi Smithsonian American Art Museum• Polynesian Smithsonian American Art Museum• Shipping. 1937. Plaster and burlap. 29 1/8 x 24 1/2 x 3 3/8 in. Smithsonian American Art Museum• Sleeping Dog, 1920.
Crayon and pencil on paper. Sheet: 17 x 22 1/8 in. Smithsonian American Art Museum• Two Boys Smithsonian American Art Museum• Mother and Child, 1924. Depicts his wife and young son on smoothly polished white marble. Alabaster relief in wood frame. 17 1/2 x 11 3/4 x 2 in. Smithsonian American Art Museum Currently on view.• Showalter Fountain, Indiana University Campus, Indiana • Salome, Indiana University Eskenazi Museum of Art, Indiana,• Veritas Filia Temporis, 1968. Depicts Father Time and his daughter Truth. Ballantine Hall, Indiana University, Indiana. Robert Laurent Memorial Exhibition, The Ogunquit Art Association - July, 1970 Robert Laurent in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
J. E. H. MacDonald
James Edward Hervey MacDonald was a Canadian artist and one of the founders of the Group of Seven who initiated the first major Canadian national art movement. He was the father of illustrator Thoreau MacDonald. MacDonald was born on May 12, 1873 in Durham, England to an English mother and Canadian father, a cabinetmaker. In 1887 at the age of 14, he immigrated with his family to Ontario; that year he began his first training as an artist at the Hamilton Art School, where he studied under John Ireland and Arthur Heming. In 1889, they moved again to Toronto, where he studied commercial art and became active in the Toronto Art Student League, he continued his training at the Central Ontario School of Art and Design, where he studied with George Agnew Reid and William Cruikshank. In 1895, MacDonald took a position as a commercial designer at Grip Ltd, an important commercial art firm, where he further developed his design skills. In the coming years, he encouraged his colleagues—including future artist Tom Thomson—to develop their skills as painters.
In 1899, MacDonald married Joan Lavis, two years they had a son, Thoreau. MacDonald worked as a designer at Grip Ltd until 1903 at Carlton Studio in London from 1903 to 1907, returned to Grip Ltd in 1907. Whilst at Carlton, he worked with Norman Mills Price, William Tracy Wallace and Albert Angus Turbayne. In 1911, MacDonald resigned his designer position at Grip Ltd and moved with his wife and child to Thornhill, Ontario to pursue a career as a landscape artist. To supplement his income, he worked as a freelance designer until 1921. After developing his own unique style to the genre, he organized a show of his work at the Arts and Letters Club of Toronto in November 1911. Fellow artist Lawren Harris—a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts—was so impressed with MacDonald's work that he asked if they could work together. Harris show his work whenever possible; the following year they organized their first joint exhibition. In 1912, MacDonald was recognized for his contributions to an exhibition at the Ontario Society of Artists.
In January 1913, MacDonald and Harris travelled to the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, where they attended an exhibit of Scandinavian Impressionist landscape paintings. The two artists felt that the uninhibited approach to the northern Scandinavian wilderness could be adopted by Canadian painters to create on canvas a unique Canadian form of landscape art; that year, commercial artists based in Toronto began to show interest in the potential of original Canadian expression. In the spring of 1913, MacDonald wrote to A. Y. Jackson, inviting him to come to Toronto, which he did in May. In March 1916, MacDonald exhibited The Tangled Garden at the Ottawa Society of Artists. Though derided by art critics of the day, it was a conventional post-impressionistic painting of sunflowers—one that has much in common with Van Gogh's treatment of the subject from nearly forty years before, but which Canadian critics rejected. Accustomed to the smooth blending and muted tones of Canadian academic art in the style of the Canadian Art Club, the critics were taken aback by the brightness and intensity of the colours.
The art critic for the Toronto Daily Star called it "an incoherent mass of color". Hostile art critics thereafter singled out MacDonald for attacks in the press. In the autumn of 1918, MacDonald and other artists interested in their new Canadian approach to painting travelled to the Algoma district north of Lake Superior in a specially outfitted Algoma Central Railway car that functioned as a mobile artist studio; the group would hitch their car to trains travelling through the area, when they found a scenic location, they would unhitch and spend time exploring and painting the wilderness. MacDonald would return to Algoma with his colleagues for the next several autumns; these trips would produce some of his most acclaimed paintings, including Mist Fantasy, Sand River and The Solemn Land. In 1920, MacDonald co-founded the Group of Seven, which dedicated itself to promoting a distinct Canadian art developed through direct contact with the Canadian landscape; the other founding members were Frederick Varley, A. Y.
Jackson, Lawren Harris, Frank Johnston, Arthur Lismer, Franklin Carmichael. MacDonald had worked with Lismer, Varley and Carmichael at the design firm Grip Ltd. in Toronto. Together they initiated the first major Canadian national art movement, producing paintings directly inspired by the Canadian landscape; every summer beginning in 1924, MacDonald travelled to the Canadian Rockies to paint the mountainous landscapes that dominated his work. By this time he had become somewhat alienated from the rest of the Group of Seven, as many of the younger members were beginning to paint in a more abstract manner. From 1928 until his death MacDonald served as the Principal of the Ontario College of Art, he painted with less frequency and less consistent success. Today, MacDonald is viewed with general admiration for his art, with one writer commenting, "no Canadian landscape painter possessed a richer command of colour and pigment than J. E. H. MacDonald... His brushwork is at once vigorous, his best on-the-spot sketches possess an intensity and freshness of execution not dissimilar from Van Gogh."
His former home and 4-acre garden in Vaughan, Ontario have been restored. Owned by the City of Vaughan, they are open to the public. MacDonald suffered a stroke in 1931, spent the following summer recovering in Barbados, he died in Toronto on November 26, 1932 at the age of 59. He was buried at Prospect Cemetery in Tor
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts raised; the technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point in stone. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English.
The full range includes high relief, where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, mid-relief, low-relief, shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato, where the plane is only slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is sunk relief, restricted to Ancient Egypt. However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, these two are the only terms used to discuss most work; the definition of these terms is somewhat variable, many works combine areas in more than one of them, sometimes sliding between them in a single figure. The opposite of relief sculpture is counter-relief, intaglio, or cavo-rilievo, where the form is cut into the field or background rather than rising from it. Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, though they are seen in "sunk relief" and are usual in "bas-relief" and "counter-relief". Works in the technique are described as "in relief", in monumental sculpture, the work itself is "a relief".
Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of smaller settings, a sequence of several panels or sections of relief may represent an extended narrative. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with many figures and active poses, such as battles, than free-standing "sculpture in the round". Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief; the subject of reliefs is for convenient reference assumed in this article to be figures, but sculpture in relief depicts decorative geometrical or foliage patterns, as in the arabesques of Islamic art, may be of any subject. Rock reliefs are those carved into solid rock in the open air; this type is found in many cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a single standing stone; the distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most "high reliefs" contain sections in low relief in the background.
From the Parthenon Frieze onwards, many single figures in large monumental sculpture have heads in high relief, but their lower legs are in low relief. The projecting figures created in this way work well in reliefs that are seen from below, reflect that the heads of figures are of more interest to both artist and viewer than the legs or feet; as unfinished examples from various periods show, raised reliefs, whether high or low, were "blocked out" by marking the outline of the figure and reducing the background areas to the new background level, work no doubt performed by apprentices. A low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is distorted, if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less, it is a technique which requires less work, is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required.
In the art of Ancient Egypt, Assyrian palace reliefs, other ancient Near Eastern and Asian cultures, Meso-America, a consistent low relief was used for the whole composition. These images would be painted after carving, which helped define the forms; the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now in Berlin, has low reliefs of large animals formed from moulded bricks, glazed in colour. Plaster, which made the technique far easier, was used in Egypt and the Near East from antiquity into Islamic times and Europe from at least the Renaissance, as well as elsewhere. However, it needs good co
Florence Wyle was an American-Canadian sculptor and poet. She practiced chiefly in Toronto and working with her partner Frances Loring. In 1928, she co-founded and was a former president of the Sculptors' Society of Canada with Loring, Alfred Laliberté, Elizabeth Wyn Wood, Emanuel Hahn and Henri Hébert, was the first woman sculptor to become a full member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Throughout her career, alongside Loring, she was a persistent and convincing advocate for policy, tax benefits and living wages for artist's work. Wyle was born in Trenton, Illinois and in 1900 enrolled at the University of Illinois as a pre-med student where anatomy classes awakened in her a wonder and revererance for human anatomy. Three years she transferred to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago where she began studying clay modeling with Lorado Taft, she studied sculptural design in the USA under Frances Loring. Wyle moved to Toronto in 1913 to join Loring. Wyle worked as a sculptor in clay, plasticine and wood until her death in 1968.
Most of her carvings were executed by herself. Wyle was a member of the Ontario Society of Artists, Sculptors Society of Canada Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and the Canadian Guild of Potters. Wyle preferred architectural projects that were large in scale compared to her partner Frances Loring, she was made a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Her work was exhibited by the Women's Art Association of Canada. Small figurines in wood which were part of the Dominion Drama Festival trophy set were among her commissions the year she was 80; the Ontario Veterinary College has one of her pieces, a bas-relief panel 13' high depicting farm animal. The late Pearl McCarthy, art critic for The Globe and Mail, once said that large or small, cats or heroes, the sculpture of Frances Wyle had a lyrical as well as classical quality. 1926 - St. Stephen War Memorial 1957 - Mother and Children, Canadian National Exhibition In 2000 the Canadian Portrait Academy made Wyle an Honorary Academician naming her one of the Top 100 Artists of the 20th Century.
Wyle, Florence. Poems. Toronto: Ryerson Press. Wyle, Florence; the shadow of the year: poems. Toronto: Aliquando Press. Sisler, Rebecca. "Wyle, Florence - The Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2011-02-06. Florence Wyle archival papers at the Art Gallery of Ontario research library and archives "Loring and Wyle collection". University of Waterloo Library. Special Collections & Archives. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2018
Art Students League of New York
The Art Students League of New York is an art school located on West 57th Street in Manhattan, New York City, New York. The League has been known for its broad appeal to both amateurs and professional artists and for over 130 years has maintained a tradition of offering reasonably priced classes on a flexible schedule to accommodate students from all walks of life. Although artists may study full-time, there have never been any degree programs or grades, this informal attitude pervades the culture of the school. From the 19th century to the present, the League has counted among its attendees and instructors many important artists, contributed to numerous influential schools and movements in the art world; the League maintains a significant permanent collection of student and faculty work, publishes an online journal of writing on art-related topics, entitled LINEA. The journal's name refers to the school's motto Nulla Dies Sine Linea or "No Day Without a Line," traditionally attributed to the famous Greek painter Apelles by the historian Pliny the Elder, who recorded that Apelles would not let a day pass without at least drawing a line to practice his art.
Founded in 1875, the League's creation came about in response to both an anticipated gap in the program of the National Academy of Design's program of classes for that year, longer-term desires for more variety and flexibility in education for artists. The breakaway group of students included many women, was housed in rented rooms at 16th Street and Fifth Avenue; when the Academy resumed a more typical, but liberalized, program, in 1877, there was some sentiment that the League had served its purpose, but its students voted to continue its program, it was incorporated in 1878. Influential board members from this formative period included painter Thomas Eakins and sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Membership continued to increase, forcing the League to relocate to larger spaces. In 1889, the League participated in the founding of the American Fine Arts Society, together with the Society of American Artists and the Architectural League, among others; the American Fine Arts Building at 215 West 57th Street, constructed as their joint headquarters, has continued to house the League since 1892.
Designed in the French Renaissance style by one of the founders of the AFAS, architect Henry Hardenbergh, the building is a designated New York City Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In the late 1890s and early 1900s an increasing number of women artists came to study and work at the League many of them taking on key roles. Among them was a young Miss Wilhelmina Weber Furlong and her husband Thomas Furlong; the avant-garde couple served the league in executive and administrative roles and as student members throughout the American modernism movement. Alice Van Vechten Brown, who would develop some of the first art programs in American higher education studied with the league until prolonged family illness sent her home; the painter Edith Dimock, a student from 1895 to 1899, described her classes at the Art Students League: In a room innocent of ventilation, the job was to draw Venus and her colleagues. We were not allowed to hitch bodies to the heads——yet; the dead white plaster of Paris was a perfect inducer of eye-strain, was called "The Antique."
One was supposed to work from "The Antique" for two years. The advantage of "The Antique" was that all these gods and athletes were such excellent models: there never was the twitch of an iron-bound muscle. Venus never batted her hard-boiled egg eye, the Discus-thrower never wearied, they were cheap models and did not have to be paid union rates. In his official biography, My Adventures as an Illustrator, Norman Rockwell recounts his time studying at the school as a young man, providing insight into its operation in the early 1900s; the League's popularity persisted into the 1920s and 1930s under the hand of instructors like painter Thomas Hart Benton, who counted among his students there the young Jackson Pollock and other avant-garde artists who would rise to prominence in the 1940s. In the years after World War II, the G. I. Bill played an important role in the continuing history of the League by enabling returning veterans to attend classes; the League continued to be a formative influence on innovative artists, being an early stop in the careers of Abstract expressionists, Pop Artists and scores of others including Lee Bontecou, Helen Frankenthaler, Al Held, Eva Hesse, Roy Lichtenstein, Donald Judd, Knox Martin, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, Cy Twombly and many others vitally active in the art world.
The League's unique importance in the larger art world dwindled somewhat during the 1960s because of higher academia's emergence as an important presence in contemporary art education, due to a shift in the art world towards minimalism, conceptual art, a more impersonal and indirect approach to art making. As of 2010, the League remains an important part of New York City art life; the League continues to attract a wide variety of young artists. From 1906 until 1922, again after the end of World War II from 1947 until 1979, the League operated a summer school of painting at Woodstock, New York. In 1995, the League's facilities expanded to include the Vytlacil campus in Sparkill, New York, named after and based upon a gift of the prop
In ice hockey, the goaltender or goalie or goalkeeper is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease. Goaltenders tend to stay beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles and hybrid; because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time. Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater, but the defensive disadvantage this poses means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty.
The goaltender is known as the goalie, goalkeeper, net minder, tender by those involved in the hockey community. In the early days of the sport, the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender; the art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches called the goalie coach who specialize in working with goaltenders. The variation goalie is used for items associated with the position, such as goalie stick and goalie pads. Goaltending is a specialized position in ice hockey. At minor levels and recreational games, goaltenders do switch with others players that have been taught goaltending. A typical ice hockey team may have three goaltenders on its roster. Most teams have a starting goaltender who plays the majority of the regular season games and all of the playoffs, with the backup goaltender only stepping in if the starter is pulled or injured, or in cases where the schedule is too heavy for one goaltender to play every game; the NHL requires. The list provides goaltender options for visiting teams.
These goaltenders are to be called to a game if a team does not have two goaltenders to start the game. An "emergency" goaltender may be called if both roster goaltenders are injured in the same game; some teams have used a goaltender tandem where two goaltenders split the regular season playing duties, though one of them is considered the number one goaltender who gets the start in the playoffs. An example is the 1982-83 New York Islanders with Roland Melanson. Another instance is Grant Fuhr. In an unusual case the 1996-97 Philadelphia Flyers' Ron Hextall and Garth Snow alternated in the playoffs; the goaltender has training that other players do not. He wears special goaltending equipment, different from that worn by other players and is subject to specific regulations. Goaltenders may use any part of their bodies to block shots; the goaltender may hold the puck with his hands to cause a stoppage of play. If a player from the other team hits the goaltender without making an attempt to get out of his way, the offending player may be penalized.
In some leagues, if a goaltender's stick breaks, he can continue playing with a broken stick until the play is stopped, unlike other players who must drop any broken sticks immediately. Additionally, if a goaltender acts in such a way that would cause a normal player to be given a penalty, such as slashing or tripping another player, the goaltender cannot be sent to the penalty box. Instead, one of the goaltender's teammates, on the ice at the time of the infraction is sent to the penalty box in his place. However, the goaltender does receive the penalty minutes on the scoresheet. If the goaltender receives a Game Misconduct or Match penalty, he is removed from the ice and a replacement goaltender is played; the goaltender plays in or near the goal crease the entire game, unlike the other positions where players are on ice for shifts and make line changes. However, goaltenders are pulled if they have allowed several goals in a short period of time, whether they were at fault for the surrendered goals or not, a substituted goaltender does not return for the rest of the game.
In 1995, Patrick Roy was famously kept in net by the head coach as "humiliation" despite allowing nine goals