Elizabethan Religious Settlement

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement is the name given to the religious and political arrangements made for England during the reign of Elizabeth I that brought the English Reformation to a conclusion. The Settlement shaped the theology and liturgy of the Church of England and was important to the development of Anglicanism as a distinct Christian tradition; when Elizabeth inherited the throne, England was bitterly divided between Catholics and Protestants as a result of various religious changes initiated by Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. Henry VIII had broken from the Roman Catholic Church and the authority of the Pope, becoming Supreme Head of the Church of England. During Edward's reign, the Church of England adopted liturgy. In Mary's reign, these religious policies were reversed, England was re-united with the Catholic Church and Protestantism was suppressed; the Elizabethan Settlement, sometimes called the Revolution of 1559, was an attempt to end this religious turmoil. The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, Parliament conferred on Elizabeth the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

The Act of Uniformity of 1559 re-introduced the Book of Common Prayer from Edward's reign, which contained the liturgical services of the church, but some modifications were made to appeal to Catholics and Lutherans. The modifications included giving individuals greater latitude concerning belief in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and permission to use traditional priestly vestments. In 1571, the Thirty-Nine Articles were adopted as a confessional statement for the church, a Book of Homilies was issued outlining the church's reformed theology in greater detail. Throughout the reigns of Elizabeth and James I, Calvinism was the predominant theology within the Church of England; the Settlement failed to end religious disputes. While most of the population conformed to the established church, a minority of recusants remained loyal Roman Catholics. Within the Church of England, Puritans pressed to remove what they considered papist abuses from the church's liturgy and to replace bishops with a presbyterian system of church government.

After Elizabeth's death, the Puritans were challenged by a high church, Arminian party that gained power during the reign of Charles I. The English Civil War and overthrow of the monarchy allowed the Puritans to pursue their reform agenda and the dismantling of the Elizabethan Settlement for a period. After the Restoration in 1660, the Settlement was restored, the Puritans were forced out of the Church of England. Anglicanism became defined by the via media or middle way between the religious extremes of Catholicism and Protestantism. Elizabeth I inherited a kingdom bitterly divided over matters of religion; this division began during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. After his wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to produce a male heir, Henry applied to the Pope for an annulment of his marriage; when his request was denied, Henry separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and claimed that he, rather than the Pope, was its Supreme Head on earth. Under Elizabeth's half-brother, Edward VI, the Church of England became more explicitly Protestant, projecting a "restrained" Calvinism, in the words of historian Christopher Haigh.

Justification by faith alone was a central teaching, in contrast to the Catholic teaching that the contrite person could cooperate with God towards their salvation by performing good works. The doctrines of purgatory, prayer for the dead and the intercession of saints were rejected; the Mass, the central act of Catholic worship, was condemned as idolatry and replaced with a Protestant communion service, a reminder of Christ's crucifixion. Christ's Real Presence in the Eucharist was no longer explained by the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation; the veneration of religious images and relics were suppressed, iconoclasm was sanctioned by the government. Mary I, Elizabeth's half-sister, became queen in 1553, she reversed the religious innovations introduced by her brother. Under Mary's rule, England recognised the Pope's authority. Mary died in November 1558 without a Catholic heir. Elizabeth's religious views were Protestant, though "peculiarly conservative", she kept many of her religious views private, which can make it difficult to determine what she believed.

She disliked married clergy, held Lutheran views on Eucharistic presence, there is evidence she preferred the more ceremonial 1549 Prayer Book. At certain times, the Queen made her religious preferences clear, such as on Christmas Day 1558, when before Mass she instructed Bishop Owen Oglethorpe not to elevate the host, he refused, so the Queen left the chapel before the consecration. In effect, Elizabeth was declaring. At Westminster Abbey—still a Benedictine monastery—the Queen disapproved of what she considered Catholic superstition, telling the monks bearing candles in procession, "Away with those torches, for we see well"; the Queen's principal secretary was a moderate Protestant. Her Privy Council was filled with former Edwardian politicians, only Protestants preached at Court. To avoid alarming foreign Catholic observers, Elizabeth maintained that nothing in religion had changed. A proclamation forbade any "breach, alteration, or change of any order or usage presently established within this our realm".

Protestants were emboldened to p

Inverted repeat-lacking clade

The inverted repeat-lacking clade is a monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae that includes the majority of agriculturally-cultivated legumes. It is characterized by the loss of one of the two 25-kb inverted repeats in the plastid genome that are found in most land plants, it is resolved in molecular phylogenies. The clade is predicted to have diverged from the other legume, it includes several large, temperate genera such as Astragalus L. Hedysarum L. Medicago L. Oxytropis DC. Swainsona Salisb. and Trifolium L.. This clade is composed of five traditional tribes and several genera of the traditional tribe Millettieae; the name of this clade is informal and is not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN or the ICPN. The clade is defined as:"The most inclusive crown clade exhibiting the structural mutation in the plastid genome homologous with that found in Galega officinalis L. 1753, Glycyrrhiza lepidota Nuttall 1813, Vicia faba L. where these taxa are extant species included in the crown clade defined by this name."

The IRLC at the Tree of Life

Daddy Nostalgie

Daddy Nostalgie, released as These Foolish Things in the UK and Daddy Nostalgia in the USA, is a 1990 French drama film directed by Bertrand Tavernier. It is Dirk Bogarde's last film. Odette Laure was nominated for the César Award for Best Supporting Actress; the film tells the story of a young woman who goes to help her parents during her father's last illness and how in that time father and daughter establish a tentative bond that had eluded them all their lives. The film is dedicated to Michael Powell. Caroline, a freelance scriptwriter in Paris, is called to the hospital where her father Tony, a retired businessman, has undergone surgery, she stays with her mother Miche in their home on the south coast and helps her when he comes back to convalesce. The three have never spent much time together and, despite the tension all are under, in moments of conversation or reverie do examine their relationship with each other. Miche is a woman of limited and conventional mind, whose only outside interests are bridge and her Catholic church.

Her assets were beauty, now gone, fidelity. Tony has no outside interests, being a shallow and selfish man, but his asset is charm, which has seen him through his life and now serves to conceal both his constant physical pain and his fear of imminent death. Caroline wants to love them but throughout her life has been neglected by them since she split up with the father of her child. In Tony's last weeks, Caroline begins to learn a lot about the father she hardly saw and to form a bond with him, strengthened by secret outings to bars for the alcohol he is forbidden, she has to go back to Paris while there learns of Tony's death. The trains are on strike and every flight is full, so she walks the streets of the city alone with her grief. Dirk Bogarde as Daddy Jane Birkin as Caroline Odette Laure as Miche Charlotte Kady as Barbara, the nurse Bertrand Tavernier as Narrator Daddy Nostalgie on IMDb Daddy Nostalgie at Box Office Mojo Daddy Nostalgie at Rotten Tomatoes