Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
California State Route 1
California State Route 1 is a major north–south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U. S. state of California. At a total of just over 659 miles, it is the longest state route in California. SR 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway, Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway, or Coast Highway, its southern terminus is at Interstate 5 near Dana Point in Orange County and its northern terminus is at U. S. Route 101 near Leggett in Mendocino County. SR 1 at times runs concurrently with US 101, most notably through a 54-mile stretch in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, across the Golden Gate Bridge; the highway is designated as an All-American Road. In addition to providing a scenic route to numerous attractions along the coast, the route serves as a major thoroughfare in the Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, several other coastal urban areas. SR 1 was built piecemeal in various stages, with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s.
However, portions of the route had several numbers over the years as more segments opened. It was not until the 1964 state highway renumbering that the entire route was designated as SR 1. Although SR 1 is a popular route for its scenic beauty, frequent landslides and erosion along the coast have caused several segments to be either closed for lengthy periods for repairs, or re-routed inland. SR 1 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, through the Los Angeles metro area, Santa Cruz, San Francisco metro area, Leggett is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 1 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System; the Big Sur section from San Luis Obispo to Carmel is an official National Scenic Byway. The entire route is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway to recognize those in the United States armed forces. In Southern California, the California State Legislature has designated the segment between Interstate 5 in Dana Point and US 101 near Oxnard as the Pacific Coast Highway.
Between US 101 at the Las Cruces junction and US 101 in Pismo Beach, between US 101 in San Luis Obispo and Interstate 280 in San Francisco, the legislature has designated SR 1 as the Cabrillo Highway, after the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo who sailed along the coast line. The legislature has designated the route as the Shoreline Highway between the Manzanita Junction near Marin City and Leggett. Smaller segments of the highway have been assigned several other names by the state and municipal governments; the legislature has relinquished state control of segments within Dana Point, Newport Beach, Santa Monica, Oxnard. In addition to connecting the coastal cities and communities along its path, SR 1 provides access to beaches and other attractions along the coast, making it a popular route for tourists; the route annually helps bring several billion dollars to the state's tourism industry. The route runs right besides the coastline, or close to it, for the most part, it turns several miles inland to avoid several federally controlled or protected areas such as Vandenberg Air Force Base, Diablo Canyon Power Plant and Point Reyes National Seashore.
Segments of SR 1 range from a rural two-lane road to an urban freeway. Because of the former, long distance thru traffic traveling between the coastal metropolitan areas are instead advised to use faster routes such as US 101 or I-5. At its southernmost end in Orange County, SR 1 terminates at I-5 in Capistrano Beach in Dana Point, it travels west into the city center. After leaving Dana Point, Pacific Coast Highway becomes "Coast Highway" while at the same time continues northwest along the coast through Laguna Beach and Crystal Cove State Park. SR 1 enters Newport Beach and passes through several affluent neighborhoods, including Newport Coast and Corona Del Mar, spans the entrance to the Upper Newport Bay, which marks the boundary between East Coast Highway and West Coast Highway, crosses California State Route 55 near its southern terminus. Upon entering Huntington Beach, SR 1 regains the Pacific Coast Highway designation, it passes Huntington State Beach and the southern terminus of California State Route 39 before reaching Bolsa Chica State Beach and the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve.
PCH continues along the coast into Seal Beach, the final city on its journey in Orange County. PCH enters the city of Long Beach after crossing the San Gabriel River. SR 1 continues northwest through the city to its junction with Lakewood Boulevard and Los Coyotes Diagonal at the Los Alamitos Circle, more than 2 miles from the coast. From the traffic circle, it continues inland west through Long Beach, including one mile adjacent to the southern boundary of Signal Hill. PCH is marked as such in Long Beach, but bore the name of Hathaway Avenue east of the traffic circle and State Street west of there. PCH passes through the Los Angeles districts of Wilmington and Harbor City. While bypassing the immediate coastline of Palos Verdes, SR 1 continues to head west
Castroville is a census-designated place in Monterey County, United States. At the time of the 2010 census the population was 6,481; the site of the community was part of Rancho Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo, a 30,901-acre Mexican land grant given in 1844 by Manuel Micheltorena, Governor of Alta California, to María Antonia Pico de Castro. After the 1848 cession of California to the United States following the Mexican–American War, Juan Bautista Castro, son of María Antonia Pico de Castro, founded Castroville in 1863. Castroville is known for its artichoke crop and for the annual Castroville Artichoke Festival, leading to its nickname as the "Artichoke Center of the World". Rancho Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo was a 30,901 acre Mexican land grant given in 1844 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena to Maria Antonia Pico de Castro The Rancho Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo is a combination of three land grants. "Rancho Moro Cojo," granted by Governor Luis Antonio Arguello in 1825. The second is "Rancho Bolsa Nueva," by Governnor Mariano Chico in 1836.
The third was granted by Governor Juan Alvarado to Simeon Castro in 1837. Lake Merritt and the sloughs were popular for hunting; the area around Castroville was crisscrossed by a network of swamps. In the 1840s, mapmaker Duflot de Mofras, wrote, "A few leagues before reaching the "Pajaro River", an area measuring a few hundred meters where the round trembles under the horses feet, although the earth is hard and covered by turf, is encountered; the land is formed by a solid crust superimposed on a vast miry base." Lots were divided into 50 by 130 feet, an alley ran through each block. A lottery was established and 100 lots were given away to any person who would clear land and build homes. In 1870 Manuel R. Merritt, the editor of the newspaper Castroville Argus announced, “We will give alternate lots, on any part of the town site we still own… to any person who will build as practicable, a good comfortable dwelling house on his lot. Juan Bautista Castro would run for county supervisor for the district.
Castro, Merritt and others traveled to the oldest settlement of Sotoville in Salinas, where the Indians and Paisanos lived. They packed their belongings, it was said Castro packed the tortilla cast iron pans, personal items and moved the people to Juan Pomber's hotel for ninety days, they became ready to vote. They were not able to read in English, so the ballots were translated for them. Juan Bautista Castro won the office of supervisor of his district. Juan Pomber became Road- Master of the district; the county supplied low income housing was built on the donated lots. Castroville now had a community. In 1875 Castroville had 900 residents. There were two hotels, five stores, three saloons, flour mill, two blacksmith shops, post office, telegraph office, drug store, tailor shop, shoe-maker, two churches, a school house, tin shop, a brewery; the Southern Pacific Railroad began extending the line south from Gilroy. Juan Bautista Castro had ambitions of Castroville becoming the new Station Freight Depot.
Castroville's asking price for the land was high. Salinas offered the land for free, was selected over Castroville. Castroville was still considered an important stop, serving as the "point of juncture of the road from Monterey, from Soledad to San Francisco." The first roundhouse was built here in Castroville. Established in July 17, 1869; the publishers were Joseph R. Merritt. Editors were Manuel R. Merritt and S. F. Geil; the office was in the Hicks Building on the corner of Poole Streets. It was a weekly paper and a new edition was available every Saturday. Joseph Merritt was born April 19, 1851, he was publisher for the Castroville Argus. In 1882 he was editor of the San Jose Mercury. 1884 he was on the editorial staff of the San Jose Daily Herald. He married Annie Phillips in 1872, he died at the age of 36. Manuel R. Merritt was born June 8, 1855, he was the editor of the Castroville Argus, Castroville Gazette, the Monterey County Herald. 1878 he was in the mercantile business, elected supervisor of Monterey County from the First District.
Four times was a Delegate to the Democratic State Convention. He served as Secretary for the Democratic County Committee as well as serving as chairmen, he became Justice of the Peace. Real estate and insurance business, he died at the age of 48 from an accidental gunshot wound. "In 1860 the Chinese contractors had established a presence here in Castroville. They were instrumental in clearing the slough and marshes in the northern section of the Rancho Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo; the land was ready to grow crops. In 1878 Manteufel moved the Chinese businesses that were on Merritt Street to the corner of McDougall and Speegle Street. In 1883 a fire destroyed the entire Chinatown. Chinatown was rebuilt and once again filled the sections of McDougall between Sanchez St. and Speegle St. "The new gold rush, applying to agriculture was termed, "Sugar Beet Rush." With additional farms and more people, local businesses were successful. The Monterey County Assessor listed fifteen Chinese companies farming sugar beets in the area of Castroville.
The sugar beets farms continued to grow towards Salinas. The Chinese population in Castroville continue to grow as well. In 1891 Sam Kee and Jim Lee purchased a lot in Castroville; the "Quong Chung Company" purchased another lot. "This was the first time any Chin
Elkhorn Slough is a 7-mile-long tidal slough and estuary on Monterey Bay in Monterey County, California. The community of Moss Landing and the Moss Landing Power Plant are located at the mouth of the slough on the bay. Elkhorn Slough harbors the largest tract of tidal salt marsh in California outside the San Francisco Bay and provides much-needed habitat for hundreds of species of plants and animals, including more than 340 species of birds, it has been designated as a protected Ramsar site since 2018. The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has issued a safe advisory for any fish caught in Elkhorn Slough due to elevated levels of mercury and PCBs. In addition, there is a notice of "DO NOT EAT" for Leopard Sharks and Bat Ray for Women 18-45 Years and Children 1-17 Years. Carneros Creek is the primary source of freshwater flowing into Elkhorn Slough. McClusky Slough to the north and Moro Cojo Slough to the south provide freshwater inputs. More than 8,000 acres of the watershed's 45,000 acres are protected under a mosaic of private and public ownership.
The nonprofit Elkhorn Slough Foundation is the single largest land owner in the watershed, with nearly 3,600 acres. The nonprofit Nature Conservancy was the first to buy Elkhorn Slough property with the goal to protect the area's habitat and wildlife; the Nature Conservancy started with only 60 acres in 1971 and through gifts and purchases of disjointed parcels, gained over 800 acres by September 2012, when it transferred 750 acres to the Elkhorn Slough Foundation. The Foundation managed conservation on these parcels; the Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve covers 1.48 square miles. The SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries, it is managed by the California Department of Fish & Wildlife in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited, it includes the waters below mean high tide within Elkhorn Slough lying: east of longitude 121° 46.40’ W. and south of latitude 36° 50.50’ N. The Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area covers 0.09 square miles.
It includes the waters below mean high tide within Elkhorn Slough: east of the Highway 1 Bridge and west of longitude 121° 46.40’ W. The SMR and the SMCA were both established in September 2007 by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, it was one of 29 marine protected areas adopted during the first phase of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative, a collaborative public process to create a statewide network of marine protected areas along the California coastline. The Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve is one of 28 National Estuarine Research Reserves established nationwide as field laboratories for scientific research and estuarine education. Additional land protected by the Moss Landing Harbor District and the Monterey County Parks Department The Moss Landing Wildlife Area protects the land north and west of the Slough; the Moro Cojo Slough State Marine Reserve just south of Elkhorn protects a similar wetland area. Elkhorn Slough, one of the largest estuaries in California, provides essential habitat for over 700 species, including aquatic mammals, fish, invertebrates and plants.
The slough area is home to California's greatest concentration of sea otters, as well as populations of endangered Santa Cruz long-toed salamander and the threatened California red-legged frog. The population of sea otter living in Elkhorn Slough reflect that the species is well-adapted for estuarine habitat, may be a model for the historical sea otter populations now extinct in San Francisco Bay. Elkhorn Slough hosts year-round residents associated with estuaries, such as pickleweed, oysters, gaper clams, longjaw mudsuckers, as well as important seasonal visitors such as migratory shorebirds, sea otters, sharks and rays. Habitat types include tidal creeks and channels. Other vegetative species include such wildflowers as yellow mariposa lily, Calochortus luteus. In addition to preventing direct damage to the ecosystem by harvest of resources and conversion of land, conservation groups have worked to remedy indirect harm from human activity in the region. A steel weir was built in 2010 at the mouth of a fork of the Elkhorn.
The weir or "sill" is intended to reduce the excess erosion of the marsh caused by the dredging of the Moss Landing Harbor and the redirection of the Salinas River. Primary funding came from a $3.9 million federal stimulus grant. The project was a collaboration among the California Coastal Conservancy and Lucile Packard Foundation, DFG, Ducks Unlimited, Elkhorn Slough Foundation, NOAA, URS Corporation, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Along with hiking and bird watching and stand-up paddle boarding are popular activities on the slough. Watching sea otters, sea lions, brown pelicans, American avocets, egrets, terns and a host of other wildlife from the water is an experience that provides a unique perspective of how the slough is used by the native inhabitants. People are encouraged to keep at least 100 feet of wildlife on the slough; the Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve and Elkhorn Slough Foundation provide on-site management and stewardship and offer public access via 5 miles of trails, as well as a Visitor Center and volunteer opportunities.
The nearby Moss Landing Wildlife Area protects 728 acres of salt marsh. Limited recreation is permitted within the Wildlife Area. Harvest of finfish and clams are allowed within the conservation area only. Clams may only be taken on the north shore o
Prunedale is a census-designated place in Monterey County, United States. Prunedale is located 8 miles north at an elevation of 92 feet; the population was 17,560 residents at the time of the 2010 census, up from 16,432 at the 2000 census. Plum trees were grown in Prunedale in the early days of its founding but the trees died soon after due to poor irrigation and fertilizer. One of the area's earliest settlers was Charles Langley, a Watsonville banker, who operated the Prunedale post office; the Prunedale post office opened in 1894, closed in 1908, re-opened in 1953. Langley helped establish the Watsonville post office mail service in Prunedale. Langley Canyon Road in Prunedale is named after the Langley family, it was around the time of Prunedale's founding that the plum orchard failed due to a lack of irrigation and fertilizer, yet the name Prunedale was retained. The unincorporated area maintains a rural feel in most areas. A major development in the area's history occurred when U. S. Route 101 was rerouted through Prunedale between 1931 and 1932.
Highway 101 had routed directly from Salinas to San Juan Bautista. That old route is now known as San Juan Grade Road. In 1946, Highway 101 was widened to 4 lanes; as Prunedale has grown, increased traffic congestion made Route 101 through Prunedale a Traffic Safety Corridor and a double traffic fine zone in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with reduced speed limits to 55. Detailed plans to build a 101 bypass of Prunedale did not develop. After Caltrans purchased the land for the bypass, it was resolved to improve the highway through Prunedale by adding a San Miguel Canyon overpass, improving the Highway 101 and Highway 156 interchange, making more turn and merge lanes, making several other improvements on the roadway; these improvements were completed in the early 2000s. In the last few years, with a decline in traffic fatalities, the speed limit was increased to 60 miles per hour via state traffic formulas. One of the original businesses to inhabit Prunedale was Glenn's. In the 1980s, the Prunedale Shopping Center was built, the Prunedale Senior Citizen's Center was built with grant funds secured by Monterey County Supervisor Marc Del Piero.
Meals for seniors and public assistance programs, including a bi-weekly prune giveaway, continue to be operated from that facility. The prune giveaways have sparked controversy in recent years, with many residents claiming that more satisfying fruits, such as plums, should be offered instead of prunes. In the 1990s, the Prunetree Shopping Center opened for business. People are times confused about prunes because dried plums are called prunes. Confusion has been found overseas, as plum in french translates to prune while prune translates to prune; the fruit of a prune tree is smaller than a plum, pinkish purple, shipped as fresh fruit from Washington and Idaho states. The most common type of prune is the "Santa Rosa" prune. A plum is larger and more satisfying than a prune. Prunedale is located at 36°46′33″N 121°40′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 46.2 square miles, of which, 46.1 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Langley Creek flows by Highway 101 through Prunedale, is visible at the intersection of Highway 101 and Tustin Road, again at the intersection of Prunedale South Road and Blackie Road.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Prunedale had a population of 17,560. The population density was 380.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Prunedale was 11,771 White, 177 African American, 199 Native American, 672 Asian, 58 Pacific Islander, 3,639 from other races, 1,044 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7,322 persons; the Census reported that 17,552 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 6 were institutionalized. There were 5,703 households, out of which 2,130 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,607 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 513 had a female householder with no husband present, 323 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 340 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 54 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 923 households were made up of individuals and 367 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.08. There were 4,443 families.
The population was spread out with 4,348 people under the age of 18, 1,575 people aged 18 to 24, 3,933 people aged 25 to 44, 5,647 people aged 45 to 64, 2,057 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.2 males. There were 6,047 housing units at an average density of 130.9 per square mile, of which 4,352 were owner-occupied, 1,351 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.9%. 13,101 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 4,451 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,432 people, 5,440 households, 4,292 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 356.3 people per square mile. There were 5,591 housing units at an average density of 121.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 76.97% White, 1.27% African American, 1.03% Native American, 3.60
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. The party is headquartered in Sacramento, is led by acting-Chair Alex Gallardo-Rooker. With 43.5% of the state's registered voters as of 2018, the Democratic Party has the highest number of registrants of any political party in California. Democrats enjoy supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature, holding 61 out of 80 seats in the California State Assembly and 29 out of 40 in the California State Senate. Democrats hold all 8 statewide executive branch offices, 46 of the state's 53 seats in the House of Representatives, both of California's seats in the United States Senate. Since the beginning of the 1850s, issues regarding slavery had split the California Democratic Party. By the 1853 general election campaign, large majorities of pro-slavery Democrats from Southern California, calling themselves the Chivalry, threatened to divide the state in half, should the state not accept slavery.
John Bigler, along with former State Senator and Lieutenant Governor David C. Broderick from the previous McDougall Administration, formed the Free Soil Democratic faction, modeled after the federal Free Soil Party that argued against the spread of slavery; the Democrats split into two camps, with both the Chivalry and Free Soilers nominating their own candidates for the 1853 election. By 1857, the party had split into the Anti-Lecompton factions. Lecompton members supported the Kansas Lecompton Constitution, a document explicitly allowing slavery into the territory, while Anti-Lecompton faction members were in opposition to slavery's expansion; the violence between supporting and opposition forces led to the period known as Bleeding Kansas. Splits in the Democratic Party, as well as the power vacuum created by the collapse of the Whig Party, helped facilitate the rise of the American Party both in state and federal politics. In particular, state voters voted Know-Nothings into the California State Legislature, elected J. Neely Johnson as governor in the 1855 general elections.
During the 1859 general elections, Lecompton Democrats voted for Milton Latham, who had lived in the American South, as their nominee for Governor. Anti-Lecomptons in turn selected John Currey as their nominee; the infant Republican Party, running in its first gubernatorial election, selected businessman Leland Stanford as its nominee. To make matters more complicated, during the campaign, Senator David C. Broderick, an Anti-Lecompton Democrat, was killed in a duel by slavery supporter and former state Supreme Court Justice David Terry on September 13; until the early 1880s the Republican Party held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti freedom of attainment position. In 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry; the party began working with the state's railroad commission to create fair rates for passengers and to eliminate monopolies the railroad companies held over the state.
The main effort focused on making railroads public avenues of transportation similar to streets and roads. This measure passed and was a great victory for the Democrats. Budd was to be the last Democratic governor for thirty years; the struggle between the anti-monopolists and the railroad companies was, however, a key and defining issue for the Democratic Party for some time. Despite their relative lack of power during this period, the Democrats in California were still active in pursuing reform; the party crusaded for tariff reform. The party supported the large scale railroad strikes that sprung up statewide; the corruption of the time in both the railroad companies and the government led to a change in political dynamic. The people of the state moved away from both of the main parties and the Progressive Movement began. While the Progressives were successful in creating positive reform and chasing out corruption, the movement drained away many of the Democratic Party's members; as their movement ended, the Republicans won the governorship, but the Democratic Party had a distinct voter advantage.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president and the Power balance between the Republicans and the Democrats in California equalized. However, as Roosevelt's New Deal policies began to raise the nation out of the depression, Democratic strength mounted. Culbert Olson was elected to the governorship, but his term was rocky and both parties organized against him. Shortly thereafter, Earl Warren and the Republicans seized power again; the California Democratic Party needed a new strategy to regain power in the state. A strategy of reorganization and popular mobilization emerged and resulted in the creation of the California Democratic Council; the CDC as it became known was a way for members of the party from all levels of government to come together and as such the party became more unified. A new network of politically minded civilians and elected officials emerged and the party was stronger for it. Despite the fact that the council struggled in the cold war era, due to Republican strength and issues such as the Vietnam War, it still exists today.
By 1992, California was hurting more than most states from a national recession which had started in 1990, causing incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush's approval rating to tank within the state, giving an opening for the Democratic party to break through and become the largest party. Starting with the double digit victory of Bill Clinton, this became the f
Salinas is the county seat and largest municipality of Monterey County, California. Salinas is an urban area located just outside the southern portion of the Greater Bay Area and 10 miles east-southeast of the mouth of the Salinas River; the population was 157,218 as of 2016. The city is located at the mouth of the Salinas Valley eight miles from the Pacific Ocean and has a climate more influenced by the ocean than the hot-summer interior; the majority of residents live in single-unit detached homes, built between 1950 and 2000, while one third of the housing stock has three or more units per structure. Salinas serves as the main business and industrial center of the region; the marine climate is ideal for the floral industry, grape vineyards, vegetable growers. Salinas is known for its vibrant and large agriculture industry and being "The Salad Bowl of the World" as the hometown of writer and Nobel Prize in Literature laureate John Steinbeck, who based several of his novels there; the land occupied by the city of Salinas is thought to have been settled by Native Americans known as the Esselen prior to 200 AD.
Between 200 and 500 AD, they were displaced by the Rumsen group of Ohlone speaking people. The Rumsen-Ohlone remained as the inhabitants of the area for another 1,200 years, in the 1700s, were the group of native inhabitants contacted and recorded by the first Spanish explorers of the Salinas area. Upon the arrival of the Spanish, large Spanish land grants were issued for the Catholic Missions and as bonuses to soldiers. On after Mexican independence, smaller land grants continued to be issued for ranchos where cattle were grazed. One of the many land grants was the Rancho Las Salinas land grant, part of which included the area of modern-day Salinas; as a result of the many new cattle ranches, a thriving trade developed in cattle hide shipments, shipping out of the Port of Monterey. In 1848 California became a part of the United States of America; this transition followed several years of battles in the Salinas area with John Fremont flying the American flag on the highest peak of the Gabilan Mountains and claiming California for the United States.
Before the transition to American administration, Monterey had been the capital of California. For a short while after the transition, California was ruled by martial law. On September 9, 1850, California was admitted to the Union and became a State, celebrated as California Admission Day. In the 1850s a junction of two main stage coach routes was located 18 miles east of Monterey and along the big bend of what is locally referred to as the Alisal Slough. In 1854, six years after becoming a part of the United States, a group of American settlers living in the vicinity of this route-junction opened a post office at the junction, naming their town "Salinas," a reference to the original "Rancho Las Salinas" name for the area, which in turn was named in Spanish for the salt marshes of the area around the central Salinas slough, drained. Soon thereafter, in 1856, a traveler's inn called the Halfway House was opened at that junction in Salinas.. The streets of Salinas were laid out in 1867, the town was incorporated in 1874.
The conversion of grazing land to crops and the coming of the rail road in 1868 to transport goods and people was a major turning point in the history and economic advancement of Salinas. Dry farming of wheat and other grains as well as potatoes and mustard seed was common in the 1800s. Chinese labor drained thousands of acres of swampland to become productive farmland, as much early farm labor was done by Chinese immigrants, Salinas boasted the second largest Chinatown in the state smaller than San Francisco. Irrigation changed farming in Salinas to row crops of root vegetables and sugar beets. Many major vegetable producers placed their headquarters in Salinas; the historic prevalence of row crops is documented by aerial photographic interpretation of Earth Metrics, Driven by the profitable agricultural industry, Salinas had the highest per capita income of any city in the United States in 1924. During World War II, the Salinas Rodeo Grounds was one of the locations used as a temporary detention camp for citizens and immigrant residents of Japanese ancestry, before they were relocated to more permanent and remote facilities.
One of seventeen such sites overseen by the Wartime Civilian Control Administration, the Salinas Assembly Center was built after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal and confinement of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast. The camp opened on April 27, 1942 and held a total of 3,608 people before closing two months on July 4. Following World War II major urban and suburban development converted much farmland to city; the city experienced two strong growth spurts in the 1950s and 1960s, again in the 1990s and early 2000s. Aerial photographic interpretation indicate such major conversion of cropland to urban uses over the time period 1956 to 1968, while the city annexed the adjacent communities of Alisal and Santa Rita during this time; the Harden Ranch and Williams Ranch neighborhoods constituting much of the city's North-East were built exclusively between 1990 and 2004. Salinas was the birthplace of writer and Nobel Prize laureate John Steinbeck; the historic downtown, known as Oldtown Salinas, features much fine Victorian architecture, is home to the National Steinbeck Center, the Steinbeck House and the John Steinbeck Libr