Elko County, Nevada

Elko County is a county in the northeastern corner of the U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,818, its county seat is Elko. The county was established on March 1869, from Lander County; the Elko County Commissioners approved Proclamation 2019-02 celebrating the 150th Birthday of Elko County on March 6, 2019. Elko County is the fourth-largest county by area in the contiguous United States, ranking lower when the boroughs of Alaska are included, it is one of only 10 counties in the U. S. with more than 10,000 square miles of area. Elko County is part of NV Micropolitan Statistical Area, it contains 49.8 percent of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation, set up in the late 19th century for the Shoshone-Paiute peoples. Although more than 50% of the reservation is across the border in Owyhee County, the majority of tribal members live on the Nevada side; the reservation's land area is 450.391 square miles. This area was long inhabited by Native American tribes of the Plateau the Western Shoshone, Northern Paiute, Bannock peoples.

Their traditional ways were disrupted after European-American settlement, as the two cultures competed for resources and had differing conceptions of land use and property. Elko County was established in 1869 from Lander County. In 1877 what became known as the Duck Valley Indian Reservation was established by presidential executive order for the Western Shoshone in this area, after they signed treaties with the United States; the Paiute became involved in the Bannock War, but after they were allowed to return from exile in Washington State, in 1886 another executive order was used to expand the reservation to accommodate them. The federally recognized tribe of the two peoples together conducts farming and ranching in this high desert territory; the population of the county increased markedly in the late 20th century. On March 14, 2014, the Bureau of Land Management sold 29 oil and gas leases for $1.27 million to a collection of six companies that included Noble Energy. The transaction was the first such in Nevada.

According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 17,203 square miles, of which 17,170 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water. Not counting Alaska's boroughs, it is the fourth-largest county in area in the United States; the elevation ranges from about 4,300 feet at the edge of the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert, to 11,387 feet on the summit of Ruby Dome in the Ruby Mountains. The most topographically prominent mountain in Elko County is Pilot Peak; the county has 4 watersheds. Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge Except for West Wendover, in the Mountain Time Zone, the county is in the Pacific Time Zone, though other communities such as Owyhee, Mountain City and Jackpot unofficially observe Mountain Time as well due to their proximity to, economic connections with, neighboring areas of Idaho; as of the census of 2000, there were 45,291 people, 15,638 households, 11,493 families living in the county. The population density was 3/sq mi.

There were 18,456 housing units at an average density of 1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 82.04% White, 0.59% Black or African American, 5.30% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 8.50% from other races, 2.78% from two or more races. 19.73 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 15,638 households out of which 43.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.30% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 20.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.33. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.50% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 5.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $48,383, the median income for a family was $52,206. Males had a median income of $41,322 versus $24,653 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,482. About 7.00% of families and 8.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.50% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 48,818 people, 17,442 households, 12,441 families living in the county; the population density was 2.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 19,566 housing units at an average density of 1.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 79.4% white, 5.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.8% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 10.3% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 22.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 17,442 households, 39.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families

Consorts of Ganesha

The marital status of Ganesha varies in mythological stories and the issue has been the subject of considerable scholarly review. Several patterns of associations with different consorts are identifiable. One pattern of myths identifies Ganesha as an unmarried brahmacārin with no consorts. Another mainstream pattern associates him with the concepts of Buddhi and Riddhi. Another pattern connects Ganesha with the arts, Sarasvati. In the Bengal region he is linked with Kala Bo. Ganesha's consort is portrayed as his shakti, a personification of his creative energy, he may be shown with a single consort or a nameless servant. Some of the differences between these patterns can be understood by looking at regional variations across India, the time periods in which the patterns are found, the traditions in which the beliefs are held; some differences pertain to the preferred meditation form used by the devotee, with many different traditional forms ranging from Ganesha as a young boy to Ganesha as a Tantric deity.

The Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana contain descriptions of Ganesha flanked by Siddhi and Buddhi. In these two Puranas they appear as an intrinsic part of Ganapati and according to Thapan do not require any special rituals associated with shakti worship. In Chapter I.18.24–39 of the Ganesha Purana, Brahmā performs worship in honor of Ganesha, during it Ganesha himself causes Buddhi and Siddhi to appear so that Brahmā can offer them back to Ganesha. Ganesha accepts them as offerings. In Ganesha Purana I.65.10–12 there is a variant of this incident, in which various gods are giving presents to Ganesha, but in this case Siddhi and Buddhi are born from Brahmā's mind and are given by Brahmā to Ganesha. The Ganesha Temple at Morgaon is the central shrine for the regional aṣṭavināyaka complex; the most sacred area within the Moragaon temple is the sanctum, a small enclosure containing an image of Ganesha. To the right and left sides of the image stand Buddhi. In northern India the two female figures are said to be Riddhi.

There is no Purāṇic evidence for the pair, but the pairing parallels those of Buddhi and Siddhi in Shiva Purana and Riddhi and Buddhi from Matsya Purana. The Śiva Purāṇa has a story in which Ganesha and his brother Skanda compete for the right to marry the two desirable daughters of Prajāpati and Buddhi, Ganesha wins through a clever approach; this story adds that after some time Ganesha begat two sons: Kshema, born to Siddhi, Lābha born to Buddhi. In Northern Indian variants of this story the sons are said to be Śubha and Lābha. In discussing the Shiva Purana version, Courtright comments that while Ganesha is sometimes depicted as sitting between these two feminine deities, "these women are more like feminine emanations of his androgynous nature, Shaktis rather than spouses having their own characters and spouses."Ludo Rocher says that "descriptions of Gaṇeśa as siddhi-buddhi-samanvita'accompanied by, followed by siddhi and buddhi.' Often seem to mean no more than that, when Gaṇeśa is present, siddhi'success' and buddhi'wisdom' are not far behind.

Such may well have been the original conception, of which the marriage was a development." In verse 49a of the Ganesha Purana version of the Ganesha Sahasranama, one of Ganesha's names is Ŗddhisiddhipravardhana. The Matsya Purana identifies Gaṇesha as the "owner" of Buddhi. In discussing the northern Indian sources, Cohen remarks: "They are depersonalized figures and given their frequent depiction fanning Gaṇeśa are referred to as dasīs — servants, their names represent the benefits accrued by the worshipper of Gaṇeśa, thus Gaṇeśa is said to be the owner of Ṛddhi and Siddhi. Though in Varanasi the paired figures were called Ṛddhi and Siddhi, Gaṇeśa's relationship to them was vague, he was their owner. In the Ajitāgama, a Tantric form of Ganesha called Haridra Ganapati is described as turmeric-colored and flanked by two unnamed wives; the word "wives" is used. These wives are distinct from shaktis. According to one tradition, Ganesha was a brahmacārin, unmarried; this pattern is popular in southern India.

This tradition was linked to the south indian concepts of the relationship between bachelorhood and spiritual progress. Bhaskaraya alludes to the tradition in which Ganesha was considered to be a lifelong bachelor in his commentary on the Ganesha Purana version of the Ganesha Sahasranama, which includes the name Abhīru. In his commentary on this verse Bhaskaraya says the name Abhīru means "without a woman," but the term can mean "not fearful." Ganesha's relationship with the Ashtasiddhi — the eight spiritual attaintments obtained by the practice of yoga — is of this depersonalized type. In iconography, these eight marvellous powers are represented by a group of young women who surround Ganesha. Raja Ravi Varma's painting illustrates a recent example of this iconographic form; the painting includes fans. In cosmopolitan Śākta worship of Ganesha, the Aṣṭa Siddhi are addressed as


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