Mary Frances "Debbie" Reynolds was an American actress and businesswoman. Her career spanned 70 years, she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer for her portrayal of Helen Kane in the 1950 film Three Little Words, her breakout role was her first leading role, as Kathy Selden in Singin' in the Rain. Other successes include The Affairs of Dobie Gillis, Susan Slept Here, Bundle of Joy, The Catered Affair, Tammy and the Bachelor, in which her performance of the song "Tammy" reached number one on the Billboard music charts. In 1959, she released her first pop music album, titled Debbie, she starred in How the West Was Won, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, a biographical film about the famously boisterous Molly Brown. Her performance as Brown earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress, her other films include The Singing Nun, Divorce American Style, What's the Matter with Helen?, Charlotte's Web, In & Out. Reynolds was a cabaret performer. In 1979, she founded the Debbie Reynolds Dance Studio in North Hollywood, which still operates today.
In 1969, she starred on television in The Debbie Reynolds Show, for which she received a Golden Globe nomination. In 1973, Reynolds starred in a Broadway revival of the musical Irene and was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Musical, she was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance in A Gift of Love and an Emmy Award for playing Grace's mother Bobbi on Will & Grace. At the turn of the millennium, Reynolds reached a new younger generation with her role as Aggie Cromwell in Disney's Halloweentown series. In 1988, she released her autobiography, titled Debbie: My Life. In 2013, she released Unsinkable: A Memoir. Reynolds had several business ventures, including ownership of a dance studio and a Las Vegas hotel and casino, she was an avid collector of film memorabilia, beginning with items purchased at the landmark 1970 MGM auction, she served as president of an organization dedicated to mental health causes. Reynolds continued to perform on stage and film into her eighties.
In January 2015, Reynolds received the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. In 2016, she received the Academy Awards Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award. In the same year, a documentary about her life was released titled Bright Lights: Starring Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds, which turned out to be her final film appearance. On December 28, 2016, Reynolds was hospitalized at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center after she experienced a medical emergency, which her son Todd Fisher described as a "severe stroke", she died from the stroke that afternoon, one day after the death of Carrie Fisher. Reynolds was born on April 1, 1932, in El Paso, Texas, to Maxene "Minnie" and Raymond Francis "Ray" Reynolds, a carpenter who worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad, she was raised in a strict Nazarene church. She had a brother two years her senior. Reynolds was a Girl Scout, once saying that she wanted to die as the world's oldest living Girl Scout. Reynolds was a member of The International Order of Job's Daughters, now called Job's Daughters International.
Her mother took in laundry for income. "We may have been poor," she said in a 1963 interview, "but we always had something to eat if Dad had to go out on the desert and shoot jackrabbits." Her family moved to Burbank, California in 1939. When Reynolds was a sixteen-year-old student at Burbank High School in 1948, she won the Miss Burbank beauty contest. Soon after, she had a contract with Warner Bros and acquired the nickname "Debbie" via Jack L. Warner. One of her closest high school friends said that she dated during her teenage years in Burbank. Reynolds agreed, saying that "when I started, I didn't know how to dress. I wore a shirt. I had no money, no taste and no training." Her friend adds: Reynolds was first discovered by talent scouts from Warner Bros. and MGM who were at the 1948 Miss Burbank contest. Both companies wanted her to sign up with their studio and had to flip a coin to see which one got her. Warner won the coin toss, she was with the studio for two years; when Warner Brothers stopped producing musicals, she moved to MGM.
With MGM, Reynolds appeared in movie musicals during the 1950s and had several hit records during the period. Her song "Aba Daba Honeymoon" was the first soundtrack recording to become a top-of-the-chart gold record, reaching number three on the Billboard charts, her performance in the film impressed the studio, which gave her a co-starring role in what would become her highest-profile film, Singin' in the Rain, a satire on movie making in Hollywood during the transition from silent to sound pictures. It co-starred Gene Kelly, whom she called a "great dancer and cinematic genius," adding, "He made me a star. I was 18 and he taught me how to dance and how to work hard and be dedicated." In 1956, she appeared in Bundle of Joy with Eddie Fisher. Her starring role in The Unsinkable Molly Brown led to a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Reynolds noted that she had issues with its director, Charles Walters. "He didn't want me," she said. "He wanted Shirley MacLaine," who at the tim
Elopement, colloquially speaking, is used to refer to a marriage conducted in sudden and secretive fashion involving a hurried flight away from one's place of residence together with one's beloved with the intention of getting married. Elopements, in which a couple runs away together and seeks the consent of their parents may be referred to as non-consensual and consensual abductions respectively. To elope, most means to run away and to not come back to the point of origin. Today the term "elopement" is colloquially used for any marriage performed in haste, with a limited public engagement period or without a public engagement period; some couples elope because they wish to avoid objections from religious obligations. In addition, the term elopement is used in psychiatric hospitals to refer to a patient leaving the psychiatric unit without authorization. In some modern cases, the couple collude together to elope under the guise of a bride kidnapping, presenting their parents with a fait accompli.
In most cases, the men who resort to capturing a wife are of lower social status, because of poverty, poor character or criminality. They are sometimes deterred from legitimately seeking a wife because of the payment the woman's family expects, the bride price. In England, a legal prerequisite of religious marriage is the "reading of the banns"—for the three Sundays prior to the intended date of the ceremony, the names of every couple intending marriage has to be read aloud by the priest of their parish of residence, or the posting of a'Notice of Intent to Marry' in the registry office for civil ceremonies; the intention of this is to prevent bigamy or other unlawful marriages by giving fair warning to anybody who might have a legal right to object. In practice, however, it gives warning to the couples' parents, who sometimes objected on purely personal grounds. To work around this law, it is necessary to get a special licence from the Archbishop of Canterbury—or to flee somewhere the law did not apply, across the border to Gretna Green, for instance.
For civil marriages notices must be posted at the appropriate register office. In the Philippines, elopement is called "tanan". Tanan is a long-standing practice in Filipino culture when a woman leaves her home without her parents' permission to live a life with her partner, she will elope during the nighttime hours and is awaited by her lover nearby, who takes her away to a location not of her origin. The next morning, the distraught parents are clueless to the whereabouts of their daughter. Tanan occurs as a result of an impending arranged marriage or in defiance to parents' dislike of a preferred suitor. In Indonesia, an elopement is considered as "kawin lari" or in literal translation, marriage on a run; this happens if the bride didn't get the permission to get married with each other. As Indonesia is a religiously strict country, a couple couldn't get married without parent's consent, hence, it is practiced. Thus, most Indonesian couples who engage in elopement end up marrying without their marriage recognized/registered by the government.
In Assyrian society, elopement against parental request is disreputable, is practised. In the 19th and early 20th century, Assyrians had guarded their females from abduction and consensual elopement, when it came to their neighbours such as Kurds and Turks, who would abduct Assyrian women and marry them, in some cases forcefully, where they would convert them to Islam. Bride kidnapping Marriage law Fuitina
John N. Mitchell
John Newton Mitchell was the 67th Attorney General of the United States under President Richard Nixon. Prior to that, he had been a municipal bond lawyer, chairman of Nixon's 1968 presidential campaign, one of Nixon's closest personal friends. After his tenure as U. S. Attorney General, he served as chairman of Nixon's 1972 presidential campaign. Due to multiple crimes he committed in the Watergate affair, Mitchell was sentenced to prison in 1977 and served 19 months; as Attorney General, he was noted for personifying the "law-and-order" positions of the Nixon Administration, amid several high-profile anti-war demonstrations. Mitchell was born in Michigan, to Margaret and Joseph C. Mitchell, he grew up in the New York City borough of Queens. He earned his law degree from Fordham University School of Law and was admitted to the New York bar in 1938, he served for three years as a naval officer during World War II. Except for his period of military service, Mitchell practiced law in New York City from 1938 until 1969 and earned a reputation as a successful municipal bond lawyer.
Mitchell's second wife, Martha Beall Mitchell, became a controversial figure in her own right, gaining notoriety for her late-night phone calls to reporters in which she accused President Nixon of participating in the Watergate cover-up and alleged that Nixon and several of his aides were trying to make her husband the scapegoat for the whole affair. Mitchell devised a type of revenue bond called a "moral obligation bond" while serving as bond counsel to New York's governor Nelson Rockefeller in the 1960s. In an effort to get around the voter approval process for increasing state and municipal borrower limits, Mitchell attached language to the offerings, able to communicate the state's intent to meet the bond payments while not placing it under a legal obligation to do so. Mitchell did not dispute when asked in an interview if the intent of such language was to create a "form of political elitism that bypasses the voter's right to a referendum or an initiative." John Mitchell met Richard Nixon, former vice president to Dwight D. Eisenhower, when Nixon moved to New York after losing the 1962 California gubernatorial election.
Nixon joined the municipal bond law firm where Mitchell worked, Rose, Alexander & Ferndon, the two men became friends. For the period during which Nixon was a senior partner, the firm was renamed to Nixon, Rose, Alexander & Mitchell. In 1968, with considerable trepidation, John Mitchell agreed to become Nixon's presidential campaign manager. During his successful 1968 campaign, Nixon turned over the details of the day-to-day operations to Mitchell. Mitchell played a central role in covert attempts to sabotage the 1968 Paris Peace Accords which could have ended the Vietnam War. After he became president in January 1969, Nixon appointed Mitchell as Attorney General of the United States while making an unprecedented direct appeal to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover that the usual background investigation not be conducted. Mitchell remained in office from 1969 until he resigned in 1972 to manage President Nixon's reelection campaign. Mitchell believed that the government's need for "law and order" justified restrictions on civil liberties.
He advocated the use of wiretaps in national security cases without obtaining a court order and the right of police to employ the preventive detention of criminal suspects. He brought conspiracy charges against critics of the Vietnam War, likening them to brown shirts of the Nazi era in Germany. Mitchell expressed a reluctance to involve the Justice Department in some civil rights issues. "The Department of Justice is a law enforcement agency," he told reporters. "It is not the place to carry on a program aimed at curing the ills of society." However, he told activists, "You will be better advised to watch what we do, not what we say."Near the beginning of his administration, Nixon had ordered Mitchell to go slow on desegregation of schools in the South as part of Nixon's "Southern Strategy," which focused on gaining support from Southern voters. After being instructed by the federal courts that segregation was unconstitutional and that the executive branch was required to enforce the rulings of the courts, Mitchell began to comply, threatening to withhold federal funds from those school systems that were still segregated and threatening legal action against them.
School segregation had been struck down as unconstitutional by a unanimous Supreme Court decision in 1954, but in 1955, the Court ruled that desegregation needed to be accomplished only with "all deliberate speed," which many Southern states interpreted as an invitation to delay. It was not until 1969 that the Supreme Court renounced the "all deliberate speed" rule and declared that further delay in accomplishing desegregation was no longer permissible; as a result, some 70% of black children were still attending segregated schools in 1968. By 1972, this percentage had decreased to 8%. Enrollment of black children in desegregated schools rose from 186,000 in 1969 to 3 million in 1970. From the outset, Mitchell strove to suppress what many Americans saw as major threats to their safety: urban crime, black unrest, war resistance, he called for the use of "no-knock" warrants for police to enter homes, frisking suspects without a warrant, preventive detention, the use of federal troops to repress crime in the capital, a restructured Supreme Court, a slowdown in school desegregation.
"This country is going so far to the right you won't recognize it," he told a reporter. There had been
Lightning is a violent and sudden electrostatic discharge where two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves during a thunderstorm. Lightning creates a wide range of electromagnetic radiations from the hot plasma created by the electron flow, including visible light in the form of black-body radiation. Thunder is the sound formed by the shock wave formed as gaseous molecules experience a rapid pressure increase; the three main kinds of lightning are: created either inside one thundercloud, or between two clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. The 15 recognized observational variants include "heat lightning", seen but not heard, dry lightning, which causes many forest fires, ball lightning, observed scientifically. Humans have deified lightning for millennia, lightning inspired expressions like "Bolt from the blue", "Lightning never strikes twice", "blitzkrieg" are common. In some languages, "Love at first sight" translates as "lightning strike"; the details of the charging process are still being studied by scientists, but there is general agreement on some of the basic concepts of thunderstorm electrification.
The main charging area in a thunderstorm occurs in the central part of the storm where air is moving upward and temperatures range from −15 to −25 °C, see figure to the right. At that place, the combination of temperature and rapid upward air movement produces a mixture of super-cooled cloud droplets, small ice crystals, graupel; the updraft carries the super-cooled cloud droplets and small ice crystals upward. At the same time, the graupel, larger and denser, tends to fall or be suspended in the rising air; the differences in the movement of the precipitation cause collisions to occur. When the rising ice crystals collide with graupel, the ice crystals become positively charged and the graupel becomes negatively charged. See figure to the left; the updraft carries. The larger and denser graupel is either suspended in the middle of the thunderstorm cloud or falls toward the lower part of the storm; the result is that the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes positively charged while the middle to lower part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes negatively charged.
The upward motions within the storm and winds at higher levels in the atmosphere tend to cause the small ice crystals in the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud to spread out horizontally some distance from thunderstorm cloud base. This part of the thunderstorm cloud is called the anvil. While this is the main charging process for the thunderstorm cloud, some of these charges can be redistributed by air movements within the storm. In addition, there is a small but important positive charge buildup near the bottom of the thunderstorm cloud due to the precipitation and warmer temperatures. A typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash culminates in the formation of an electrically conducting plasma channel through the air in excess of 5 km tall, from within the cloud to the ground's surface; the actual discharge is the final stage of a complex process. At its peak, a typical thunderstorm produces three or more strikes to the Earth per minute. Lightning occurs when warm air is mixed with colder air masses, resulting in atmospheric disturbances necessary for polarizing the atmosphere.
However, it can occur during dust storms, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, in the cold of winter, where the lightning is known as thundersnow. Hurricanes generate some lightning in the rainbands as much as 160 km from the center; the science of lightning is called fulminology, the fear of lightning is called astraphobia. Lightning is not distributed evenly around the planet. On Earth, the lightning frequency is 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year and the average duration is 0.2 seconds made up from a number of much shorter flashes of around 60 to 70 microseconds. Many factors affect the frequency, distribution and physical properties of a typical lightning flash in a particular region of the world; these factors include ground elevation, prevailing wind currents, relative humidity, proximity to warm and cold bodies of water, etc. To a certain degree, the ratio between IC, CC and CG lightning may vary by season in middle latitudes; because human beings are terrestrial and most of their possessions are on the Earth where lightning can damage or destroy them, CG lightning is the most studied and best understood of the three types though IC and CC are more common types of lightning.
Lightning's relative unpredictability limits a complete explanation of how or why it occurs after hundreds of years of scientific investigation. About 70 % of lightning occurs over land in the tropics; this occurs from both the mixture of warmer and colder air masses, as well as differences in moisture concentrations, it happens at the boundaries between them. The flow of warm ocean currents past drier land masses, such as the Gulf Stream explains the elevated frequency of lightning in the Southeast United States; because the influence of small or absent land masses in the vast stretches of the world's oceans limits the differences between these variants in the atmosphere, lightning is notably less frequent there than over larger landforms. The North and South Poles are limited in their coverage of thunderstorms and theref
Pan Am Flight 214
Pan Am Flight 214 was a scheduled flight of Pan American World Airways from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Baltimore and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On December 8, 1963, the Boeing 707 serving the flight crashed near Elkton, while on route from Baltimore to Philadelphia, after being hit by lightning, killing all 81 on board; the accident is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the "Worst Lightning Strike Death Toll." At 4:10 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on December 8, 1963, Pan American Flight 214, a Boeing 707-121 jet airliner, registration N709PA, nicknamed Clipper Tradewind, departed Isla Verde International Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico, it landed as scheduled at Baltimore's Friendship Airport, 69 passengers disembarked. At 8:24 p.m. Flight 214 departed for Philadelphia with eight crew members on board; because of high winds in the area, the crew chose to wait in a holding pattern with five other airplanes, rather than attempt to land in Philadelphia. At 8:58 p.m. while in the holding pattern, the aircraft exploded.
The crew managed to transmit a final message – "Mayday, mayday... Clipper 214 out of control... here we go" – before crashing near Elkton, Maryland. All 81 people on board were killed; the aircraft was mere seconds away from crossing the Maryland-Delaware border. The Civil Aeronautics Board investigated the accident and issued the following Probable Cause statement on March 3, 1965: Probable Cause: Lightning-induced ignition of the fuel/air mixture in the no. 1 reserve fuel tank with resultant explosive disintegration of the left outer wing and loss of control. In response to the CAB's findings, the Federal Aviation Administration asked operators to install lightning discharge wicks on all commercial jets flying in US airspace. On December 17, 1963, nine days after the crash of flight 214, Leon H. Tanguay, director of the CAB Bureau of Safety, sent a letter to the FAA recommending several safety modifications as part of future aircraft design. One modification related to volatile fuel vapors that can form inside empty fuel tanks, which may be ignited by various potential ignition sources and cause an explosion.
Tanguay's letter suggested reducing the volatility of the fuel/air gas mixture by introducing an inert gas, or by using air circulation. Thirty-three years a similar recommendation was issued by the NTSB after the TWA Flight 800 Boeing 747 crash on July 17, 1996, with 230 fatalities, deemed to have been caused by the explosion of a volatile mixture inside a fuel tank. After that accident, new requirements were developed for aircraft to prevent future fuel tank explosions. Aviation safety List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft LANSA Flight 508 - another accident caused by a lightning strike Notes Citations Civil Aeronautics Board reports. A Pan American promotional film that features Clipper Tradewind A picture of the aircraft involved in the accident Another picture of the accident aircraft Another picture of the ill-fated 707
Cecil County, Maryland
Cecil County is a county located in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,108; the county seat is Elkton. The county was named for Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, the first Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, it is the only Maryland county, part of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cecil County has existed since the late 1600s, though it continued to grow in population and town size; the area now known as Cecil County was an important trading center long before the county's official organization in 1674 by proclamation of Lord Baltimore. It had been a northeastern part of a much larger Baltimore County, in the northeastern portion of the Province; this had included present-day Baltimore City and county, Carroll, eastern Frederick, portions of Howard and Anne Arundel counties. At the time of its founding, Cecil County included modern Kent County and the border on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay went as far south as the Chester River, until its formation in 1706.
The Piscataway traded with the Susquehannocks near Conowingo, with Lenape of the Delaware valley and their Nanticoke allies near the Elk River and Elk Neck Peninsula. A southern tribe sometimes called the Shawnace moved into what became North East, Maryland. Captain John Smith visited the area in 1608. William Claiborne, a Puritan trader based in Virginia, earlier established a trading post at what is now known as Garrett island at the mouth of the Susquehanna River near what became Perryville. Bohemian immigrant Augustine Herman lobbied for Cecil County's creation, drew the 1674 maps, in exchange for which Herman received extensive land grants, including one developed as Bohemia Manor, where he died. Another early developer was George Talbot, appointed Surveyor-General of Maryland in 1683, who came from Ballyconnell, County Cavan, Ireland; until the American Revolution, Cecil County was an important shipping center, both within the colonies and abroad. It exported not only its own agricultural products but animal skins from the west and tobacco from the south.
St. Francis Xavier Church begun as a Jesuit mission in 1704 and rebuilt in 1792, is one of Maryland's oldest churches, though now a museum. St. Mary Anne's Episcopal Church, rebuilt in 1742 is another. West Nottingham Academy founded by Presbyterian Rev. Samuel Finley in 1744, educated Benjamin Rush and Richard Stockton, both of whom signed the Declaration of Independence, still operates today; the Principio Furnace, founded in 1719, became an important exporter of pig iron. During the American Revolution both British and colonial troops traveled through Cecil County, although no major battles occurred within its borders; the Battle of Cooch's Bridge occurred in nearby Delaware, both General Howe and General George Washington stopped in Elkton during the summer of 1777. Robert Alexander, the area's delegate to the Continental Congress of 1776, spoke with both sides but decided to go into exile in England without his wife, she remained a loyal Marylander and received a life estate in some of Elkton property that Maryland confiscated.
The War of 1812 caused Cecil County considerable damage. Not only did British Admiral George Cockburn blockade the upper Chesapeake bay, in response to musket fire from colonials at Welch Point, his troops destroyed a trading post known as Frenchtown, they tried to sail further up the Elk River to the county seat at Elkton, but turned back under fire from Fort Defiance hindered by a cable across the navigation channel. British troops destroyed most of Havre de Grace in nearby Harford County, Maryland. Cockburn's ships traveled up the Sassafras River, meeting resistance, destroyed Georgetown and Fredericktown, Maryland. Avoiding Port Deposit which rumors called defended, the British destroyed the Principio Iron Works, an important military target. Port Deposit boomed after the Susquehanna Canal opened in 1812. Engineer James Rumsey, who grew up in Bohemia Manor before moving to Bath, invented a steamboat which he demonstrated to George Washington, before traveling to London to secure patents against competition from John Finch.
Rumsey died there in 1792, but his lawyer brother Benjamin Rumsey moved south to Joppa and served as Maryland's Chief Justice for 25 years. Steamboats, using technology such as by Robert Fulton, came to dominate travel on the bay during the following decades; the Eagle, built in Philadelphia in 1813, transported travelers between Baltimore and Elkton, where they connected with stagecoaches to travel to Wilmington and other points north. An 1802 attempt to build a canal to connect the Elk River to Christiana, Delaware failed within two years. However, between 1824 and 1829, with financial support from the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, over 2600 workers built the 14 miles long Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which became for a while the busiest canal in the new nation; the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers still operates it today, Chesapeake City, Bohemia Manor until 1839, has a museum explaining the canal's importance. Railroads and bridges proved economically important to Cecil County and surrounding region.
The New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad began service in 1831. Railroads crisscrossed Cecil county within three decades, although they greatly reduced its importance as a trading center. Cities such
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records, known from its inception from 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver, the book was co-founded by brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street, London in August 1954; the book itself holds a world record, as the best-selling copyrighted book of all time. As of the 2019 edition, it is now in its 64th year of publication, published in 100 countries and 23 languages; the international franchise has extended beyond print to include museums. The popularity of the franchise has resulted in Guinness World Records becoming the primary international authority on the cataloguing and verification of a huge number of world records. On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver the managing director of the Guinness Breweries, went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford, Ireland.
After missing a shot at a golden plover, he became involved in an argument over, the fastest game bird in Europe, the golden plover or the red grouse. That evening at Castlebridge House, he realized that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird. Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records, he realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful. Beaver's idea became reality when Guinness employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, running a fact-finding agency in London; the twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness Book of Records in August 1954. A thousand copies were given away. After the founding of The Guinness Book of Records at 107 Fleet Street, the first 198-page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas.
The following year, it launched in the US, sold 70,000 copies. Since Guinness World Records has gone on to become a record breaker in its own right; because the book became a surprise hit, many further editions were printed settling into a pattern of one revision a year, published in September/October, in time for Christmas. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years. Both brothers had an encyclopedic memory. Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 1975. Following Ross' assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot. Guinness Superlatives Limited was formed in 1954 to publish the first book. Sterling Publishing owned the rights to the Guinness book in the US for decades; the group was owned by Guinness PLC and subsequently Diageo until 2001, when it was purchased by Gullane Entertainment. Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment in 2002. In 2006, Apax Partners purchased HiT and subsequently sold Guinness World Records in early 2008 to the Jim Pattison Group, the parent company of Ripley Entertainment, licensed to operate Guinness World Records' Attractions.
With offices in New York City and Tokyo, Guinness World Records' global headquarters remain in London, while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in Orlando, Florida, US. Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors. Competitions range from obvious ones such as Olympic weightlifting to the longest egg tossing distances, or for longest time spent playing Grand Theft Auto IV or the number of hot dogs that can be consumed in three minutes. Besides records about competitions, it contains such facts such as the heaviest tumour, the most poisonous fungus, the longest-running soap opera and the most valuable life-insurance policy, among others. Many records relate to the youngest people to have achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world; each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness World Records database, as well as select new records, with the criteria for inclusion changing from year to year. The retirement of Norris McWhirter from his consulting role in 1995 and the subsequent decision by Diageo Plc to sell The Guinness Book of Records brand have shifted the focus of the books from text-oriented to illustrated reference.
A selection of records are curated for the book from the full archive but all existing Guinness World Records titles can be accessed by creating a login on the company's website. Applications made by individuals for existing record categories are free of charge. There is an administration fee of $5 to propose a new record title. A number of spin-off books and television series have been produced. Guinness World Records bestowed the record of "Person with the most records" on Ashrita Furman of Queens, NY in April 2009. At that time, he held 100 records. In 2005, Guinness designated 9 November as International Guinness World Records Day to encourage breaking of world records. In 2006, an esti