Alfredo James Pacino is an American actor and filmmaker who has had a career spanning more than five decades. He has received numerous accolades and honors both competitive and honorary, among them an Academy Award, two Tony Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, a British Academy Film Award, four Golden Globe Awards, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award and the National Medal of Arts, he is one of few performers to have won a competitive Oscar, an Emmy and a Tony Award for acting, dubbed the "Triple Crown of Acting". A method actor and former student of the HB Studio and the Actors Studio in New York City, where he was taught by Charlie Laughton and Lee Strasberg, Pacino made his feature film debut with a minor role in Me, Natalie and gained favorable notice for his lead role as a heroin addict in The Panic in Needle Park, he achieved international acclaim and recognition for his breakthrough role as Michael Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather receiving his first Oscar nomination and would reprise the role in the successful sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III.
Pacino's performance as Michael Corleone in these films is regarded as one of the greatest screen performances in film history. Pacino received his first Best Actor Oscar nomination for Serpico, and Justice for All and won the award in 1993 for his performance as blind Lieutenant Colonel Slade in Scent of a Woman. For his performances in The Godfather, Dick Tracy and Glengarry Glen Ross, Pacino was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Other notable roles include Tony Montana in Scarface, Carlito Brigante in Carlito's Way, Lieutenant Vincent Hanna in Heat, Benjamin Ruggiero in Donnie Brasco, Lowell Bergman in The Insider and Detective Will Dormer in Insomnia. In television, Pacino has acted in several productions for HBO, including the miniseries Angels in America and the Jack Kevorkian biopic You Don't Know Jack. In addition to his work in film, Pacino has had an extensive career on stage, he is a two-time Tony Award winner, in 1969 and 1977, for his performances in Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? and The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, respectively.
A lifelong fan of Shakespeare, Pacino directed and starred in Looking for Richard, a documentary film about the play Richard III, a role which Pacino had earlier portrayed on stage in 1977. He has acted as Shylock in a 2004 feature film adaptation and a 2010 stage production of The Merchant of Venice. Having made his filmmaking debut with Looking for Richard, Pacino has directed and starred in the independent film Chinese Coffee and the films Wilde Salomé and Salomé, about the play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Since 1994, Pacino has been the joint president of the Actors Studio with Ellen Burstyn and Harvey Keitel. In 2016, he received the Kennedy Center Honor. Pacino was born in East Harlem, New York City, to Italian American parents Salvatore and Rose Pacino, his parents divorced. His mother took him to The Bronx where they lived with her parents and James Gerardi who were immigrants from Corleone, Sicily, his father, from San Fratello in the Province of Messina, moved to Covina, California to work as an insurance salesman and restaurateur.
In his teenage years, Pacino was known as "Sonny" to his friends. He had ambitions to become a baseball player and was nicknamed "The Actor". Pacino attended Herman Ridder Junior High School, but by secondary school he had dropped out of most of his classes except for English, he subsequently attended the High School of Performing Arts, after gaining admission by audition. His mother disagreed with his decision and, after an argument, he left home. To finance his acting studies, Pacino took low-paying jobs as messenger, busboy and postal clerk, once worked in the mailroom for Commentary magazine. Pacino began smoking and drinking at age nine, used marijuana casually at age 13, but he abstained from hard drugs, his two closest friends died from drug abuse at the ages of 19 and 30. Growing up in the Bronx, Pacino got into occasional fights and was considered somewhat of a troublemaker at school, he acted in basement plays in New York's theatrical underground but was rejected as a teenager by the Actors Studio.
Pacino joined the Herbert Berghof Studio, where he met acting teacher Charlie Laughton, who became his mentor and best friend. In this period, he was unemployed and homeless, sometimes slept on the street, in theaters, or at friends' houses. In 1962, his mother died at the age of 43; the following year, Pacino's grandfather James Gerardi died. Pacino recalled it as "the lowest point of my life". After four years at HB Studio, Pacino auditioned for the Actors Studio; the Actors Studio is a membership organization of professional actors, theatre directors, playwrights in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan. Pacino studied "method acting" under acting coach Lee Strasberg, who appeared with Pacino in the films The Godfather Part II and in... And Justice for All. During interviews he spoke about Strasberg and the Studio's effect on his career. "The Actors Studio meant so much to me in my life. Lee Strasberg hasn't been given the credit he deserves
Robert Selden Duvall is an American actor and filmmaker whose career spans more than six decades. He has been nominated for seven Academy Awards and seven Golden Globe Awards, has won a BAFTA, a Screen Actors Guild Award, an Emmy Award, he received the National Medal of Arts in 2005. Duvall has starred in numerous films and television series, including To Kill a Mockingbird, The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits, True Grit, MASH, THX 1138, Joe Kidd, The Godfather, The Godfather Part II, The Conversation, Apocalypse Now, The Great Santini, The Natural, Lonesome Dove, The Handmaid's Tale, Days of Thunder, Rambling Rose, Falling Down. Duvall began appearing in theatre during the late 1950s, moving into television and film roles during the early 1960s, playing Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird and appearing in Captain Newman, M. D.. and the lead role in THX 1138, as well as Horton Foote's adaptation of William Faulkner's Tomorrow, developed at The Actors Studio and is Duvall's personal favorite.
This was followed by a series of critically lauded performances in commercially successful films. Duvall has continued to act in both film and television with such productions as Tender Mercies, The Natural, the television miniseries Lonesome Dove, Newsies, The Man Who Captured Eichmann, Phenomenon, A Family Thing, The Apostle, A Civil Action, Deep Impact, Gone in 60 Seconds, Open Range and Generals, Secondhand Lions, Broken Trail, Get Low, Jack Reacher, A Night in Old Mexico, The Judge, Wild Horses. Duvall was born January 5, 1931, in San Diego, the son of Mildred Virginia, an amateur actress, William Howard Duvall, a Virginia-born U. S. Navy admiral, he has English, smaller amounts of Belgian, French Huguenot, Scottish, Swiss-German, Welsh ancestry. His mother was a relative of American Civil War General Robert E. Lee, a member of the Lee Family of Virginia, while his father was a descendant of settler Mareen Duvall. Duvall was raised in the Christian Science religion and has stated that, while it is his belief, he does not attend church.
He grew up in Annapolis, site of the United States Naval Academy. He recalled: "I was a Navy brat. My father started at the Academy when he was 16, made captain at 39 and retired as a rear admiral." He attended Severn School in Severna Park and The Principia in St. Louis, Missouri, he graduated, in 1953, from Principia College in Elsah, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Drama. Duvall served in the United States Army for a brief period shortly after the Korean War leaving the Army as private first class. "That's led to some confusion in the press," he explained in 1984, "Some stories have me shooting it out with the Commies from a foxhole over in Frozen Chosin. Pork Chop Hill stuff. Hell, I qualified with the M-1 rifle in basic training". While stationed at Camp Gordon in Georgia, Duvall acted in an amateur production of the comedy Room Service in nearby Augusta, Georgia. In the winter of 1955, Duvall began studies at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City, under Sanford Meisner, on the G.
I. Bill. During his two years there, Dustin Hoffman, Gene Hackman, James Caan were among his classmates. While studying acting, he worked as a Manhattan post office clerk. Duvall remains friends today with fellow California-born actors Hoffman and Hackman, who he knew during their years as struggling actors. In 1955, Duvall roomed with Hoffman in a New York City apartment while they were studying together at the Playhouse. Around this time, he roomed with Hackman, while working odd jobs such as clerking at Macy's, sorting mail at the post office, driving a truck; the three roommates have since earned, among themselves, 19 Academy Award nominations, with five wins. Duvall began his professional acting career with the Gateway Playhouse, an Equity summer theatre based in Bellport, Long Island, New York. Arguably his stage debut was in its 1952 season when he played the Pilot in Laughter In The Stars, an adaptation of The Little Prince, at what was the Gateway Theatre. After a year's absence when he was with the U.
S. Army, he returned to Gateway in its 1955 summer season, playing: Eddie Davis in Ronald Alexander's Time Out For Ginger, Hal Carter in William Inge's Picnic, Charles Wilder in John Willard's The Cat And The Canary, Paris in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, John the Witchboy in William Berney and Howard Richardson's Dark of the Moon; the playbill of Dark of the Moon indicated that he had portrayed the Witchboy before and that he will "repeat his famous portrayal" of this character for the 1955 season's revival of this play. For Gateway's 1956 season, he played the role of Max Halliday in Frederick Knott's Dial M for Murder, Virgil Blessing in Inge's Bus Stop, Clive Mortimer in John van Druten's I Am a Camera; the playbills for the 1956 season described him as "an audience favorite" in the last season and as having "appeared at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York and studied acting with Sandy Meisner this past winter". In its 1957 season, he appeared as Mr. Mayher in Agatha Christie's Witness For The
Golden Globe Award
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards; the eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year. The 76th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2018, were held on January 6, 2019; the 77th Golden Globe Awards will take place on January 5, 2020. In 1943, a group of writers banded together to form the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, and, by creating a generously distributed award called the Golden Globe Award, they now play a significant role in film marketing; the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, were held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at various venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel and the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish a special honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as an international figure within the entertainment industry, the first award was presented to director and producer, Cecil B. DeMille; the official name of the award thus became the Cecil B. DeMille Award. Beginning in 1963, the trophies commenced to be handed out by one or more persons referred to as "Miss Golden Globe", a title renamed on January 5, 2018 to "Golden Globe Ambassador"; the holders of the position were, the daughters or sometimes the sons of a celebrity, as a point of pride, these continued to be contested among celebrity parents. In 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned; the New York firm Society Awards collaborated for a year with the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to produce a statuette that included a unique marble and enhanced the statuette's quality and gold content.
It was unveiled at a press conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. Revenues generated from the annual ceremony have enabled the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to donate millions of dollars to entertainment-related charities, as well as funding scholarships and other programs for future film and television professionals; the most prominent beneficiary is the Young Artist Awards, presented annually by the Young Artist Foundation, established in 1978 by Hollywood Foreign Press member Maureen Dragone, to recognize and award excellence of young Hollywood performers under the age of 21 and to provide scholarships for young artists who may be physically or financially challenged. The qualifying eligibility period for all nominations is the calendar year from January 1 through December 31. Voice-over performances and cameo appearances in which persons play themselves are disqualified from all of the film and TV acting categories. Films must be at least 70 minutes and released for at least a seven-day run in the Greater Los Angeles area, starting prior to midnight on December 31.
Films can be released on pay-per-view, or by digital delivery. For the Best Foreign Language Film category, films do not need to be released in the United States. At least 51 percent of the dialogue must be in a language other than English, they must first be released in their country of origin during a 14-month period from November 1 to December 31 prior to the Awards. However, if a film was not released in its country of origin due to censorship, it can still qualify if it had a one-week release in the United States during the qualifying calendar year. There is no limit to the number of submitted films from a given country. A TV program must air in the United States between the prime time hours of 11:00 p.m.. A show can air on basic or premium cable, or by digital delivery. A TV show must either be made in the United States or be a co-production financially and creatively between an American and a foreign production company. Furthermore and non-scripted shows are disqualified. For a television film, it cannot be entered in both the film and TV categories, instead should be entered based on its original release format.
If it was first aired on American television it can be entered into the TV categories. If it was released in theaters or on pay-per-view it should instead to be entered into the film categories. A film festival showing does not count towards disqualifying. Actors in a TV series must appear in at least six episodes during the qualifying calendar year. Actors in a TV film or miniseries must appear in at least five percent of the time in that TV film or miniseries. Active HFPA members need to be invited to an official screening of each eligible film directly by its respective distributor or publicist; the screening must take place in the Greater Los Angeles area, either before the film's release or up to one week afterwards. The screening can be a regular screening in a theater with a press screening; the screening must be cleared with the Motion Picture Association of America so there are not scheduling conflicts with other official screenings. For TV programs, they must be available to be seen by HFPA members in any common format, including the original TV broadcast.
Entry forms for films need to be received by the HFPA within ten days of the
Wild Bill (1995 film)
Wild Bill is a 1995 Western film about the last days of legendary lawman Wild Bill Hickok. It stars Ellen Barkin, John Hurt and Diane Lane; the film was distributed by United Artists. It was written and directed by Walter Hill, with writing credits going to Pete Dexter, author of the book Deadwood, Thomas Babe, author of the play Fathers and Sons. A well-known lawman and scout of the 19th Century's western frontier, Wild Bill Hickok has drifted to Deadwood, Dakota Territory. Jack McCall is a young man whose mother and family have been slighted by Bill in the past, is out for revenge. Troubled by his on-again, off-again relationship with a woman called Calamity Jane, haunted by the ghosts of his past, struggling with failing eyesight, Wild Bill faces with grave concern the arrival of this dangerous newcomer to town; the script was based on several sources. One of them was the play Fathers and Sons, on Broadway in 1978, directed by Joseph Papp, it was written by Thomas Babe, focused on Hickok's last days in Deadwood, placing the action in the saloon where he was killed.
Babe says he made up the character of McCall, who he turned into Hickok's illegitimate son. Babe's play was seen in Los Angeles in 1980 by Walter Hill, considering a film on Hickok. Hill optioned the play along with a screenplay about Hickok by Ned Wynn. Meanwhile, the team of Richard and Lili Zanuck had optioned a 1986 novel about Hickock called Deadwood, they had hired the author to write the script for the movie Rush. The Zanucks said they were interested in the project because it explored the nature of celebrity in a Western context. "Figures like Wild Bill were like rock stars," said Lili Zanuck. "They had sex appeal." Dexter wrote a script based on his novel, sent to Barry Levinson and Sydney Pollack before going to Hill."He's a gutsy director," Zanuck said about Hill. "He's kind of a male-oriented director, he has great knowledge of the West and all of the folklore and all of the heroes."Hill wrote a script based on the play, the novel, Ned Wynn's screenplay. Hill says he took details of the town from the novel but the relationship between McCall and Hickok was from the play.
Hill took material from Dexter's novel for the atmosphere of the town and relied on Babe's play for the third act, the last hours of Hickok. Hill said; because I think it's not so much the fights, it's his sense of humor about himself. He seemed to understand his own legend, he both fueled it and was a prisoner of it, that it was his raison d'etre, at the same time he felt himself constrained by it."The Zanucks and Walter Hill took the script to John Calley, president of United Artists, the film was green-lighted at the end of January 1995. Jeff Bridges and Ellen Barkin signed to star. Westerns revived in popularity in the early 90s with Dances with Unforgiven; however some other Westerns had been box office disappointments including Wyatt Earp and Hill's own Geronimo. Producer Richard Zanuck said, "If you make a good picture and have a compelling story to tell, it's going to work. I don't believe, it just has to be fed with good product." Hill said that Jeff Bridges was "an actor I love... a nice man, hard working, got along well, no problems" but that there "was always a kind of tension between Jeff and myself" because "Jeff does a lot of takes, I don't.
My focus is intense, but when it gets to be you just doing it again and again I lose it and I find an awful lot of performers go stale. He would always have an idea he thought he could make something better." The film received mixed reviews, with a 39% rating on Rotten Tomatoes and a 5.9 on the Internet Movie Database. Roger Ebert gave the film two stars out of four, criticizing its plot, he recognized the film's ambition, aiming for "elegy" and "poetry" in its final act, but described it as flawed, writing, "We can see where it's headed, although it doesn't get there." In a positive review, Bruce Fretts of Entertainment Weekly wrote that the movie "succeeds as a character study of a man whose idiosyncratic code of justice catches up with him", complimented Jeff Bridges' acting as vital to the film's success. Variety, while praising Jeff Bridges' performance, took a critical stance, observing that the film "comes to a near dead-stop in the final stretch". Wild Bill bombed at the box office. Produced on a budget of $30 million, it took in just over $2 million in the United States alone.
Hill was unhappy with the way. "I believe in the old adage that when you see the trailer for your movie and it's different from the movie you've made you can assume the studio wanted something else," Hill said. However he did add that "I don't think any other company would have made this film, so I'm indebted to them for letting me do it." Wild Bill on IMDb Wild Bill at Rotten Tomatoes Wild Bill at the TCM Movie Database Wild Bill at AllMovie Wild Bill at Box Office Mojo
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie
The Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie is an award presented annually by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role on a television limited series or television movie for the primetime network season; the award was first presented at the 7th Primetime Emmy Awards on March 7, 1955 to Judith Anderson for her performance as Lady Macbeth on the Hallmark Hall of Fame episode "Macbeth". It has undergone several name changes, with the category split into two categories at the 25th Primetime Emmy Awards—Outstanding Lead Actress in a Special Program – Drama or Comedy and Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series. By the 31st Primetime Emmy Awards, the categories were merged into one, has since undergone several name changes, leading to its current title. Since its inception, the award has been given to 54 actresses. Regina King is the current recipient of the award for her portrayal of Latrice Butler on Seven Seconds.
Helen Mirren has won the most awards in this category, with four, has received the most nominated for the award on ten occasions, the most within the category. Listed below are the winners of the award for each year, as well as the other nominees. Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role TCA Award for Individual Achievement in Drama Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Actress in a Movie/Miniseries Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie
Drop Dead Gorgeous (film)
Drop Dead Gorgeous is a 1999 American black comedy film directed by Michael Patrick Jann and starring Kirsten Dunst, Ellen Barkin, Brittany Murphy, Allison Janney, Denise Richards, Kirstie Alley, Amy Adams in her film debut. Shot in a mockumentary format, it follows the contestants in a beauty pageant called the Sarah Rose Cosmetics Mount Rose American Teen Princess Pageant, held in the small fictional town of Mount Rose, Minnesota, in which various contestants die in suspicious ways. In 1995, Mount Rose is preparing for its annual beauty pageant. Amber Atkins is an optimistic teenager who signs up to compete in the pageant so she can follow in the footsteps of her idols, television news reporter Diane Sawyer, Amber's mother, a former contestant. Amber works after school applying makeup to corpses at the mortuary, lives with her mother, Annette Atkins, in a small trailer near their friend Loretta; this is in stark contrast to fellow contestant Rebecca Leeman, the daughter of the richest man in town and his wife, Gladys Leeman, the head of the pageant organizing committee and a former winner.
Various business connections between the Leeman Furniture Store and the judges of the pageant cause many to speculate that the contest will be rigged or fixed. Many odd events occur around town during the run-up to the pageant, including the death of a contestant, the athletic and competitive Tammy Curry, killed when her tractor explodes, the death of a boy who Becky liked, but who showed himself partial to Amber. Amber decides to pull out of the pageant after her mother is injured in an explosion at their mobile home, but reconsiders and decides to compete to follow her dreams and make her mother proud. At the dress rehearsal, fellow contestant Jenelle Betz swaps numbers with Amber. Midway through Janelle's rehearsal performance, a stage light falls and hits her in the head, knocking her unconscious and rendering her deaf. Luckily, Jenelle is a master of sign language so she claims that despite dropping out of the pageant, she has never been happier. At the pageant, Amber's dance costume mysteriously goes missing.
Amber blames Becky and the two get into a catfight. Gladys Leeman's right-hand woman Isis Clark and Amber's best friend and fellow contestant Lisa Swenson pull them apart. Pageant choreography Chloris Klinghagen gives Amber a new costume to perform in, however Amber is told by both Isis and Gladys that she can't perform due to her new costume not being approved weeks in advance. Lisa finds Amber crying as the fellow contestants try to console her. After learning about the costume situation, Lisa drops out of the pageant in order to give her own approved costume to Amber. Amber performs her tap-dance number to a standing ovation. Rebecca sings a cringe-worthy rendition of "Can't Take My Eyes Off Of You" as she dances with a life-size Jesus doll on a crucifix, both amusing and horrifying the audience. During judging, the previous year's winner Mary Johanson reprises her talent act while being pushed around the stage in her hospital wheelchair in a re-enactment of her dance movements; when the new winner is announced, Amber is named first runner-up to Rebecca.
During the victory parade the next day, Rebecca is killed in a freak accident when the elaborate float on which she is riding explodes. The grief-stricken Gladys flies into a blind rage and admits to having killed Tammy and to being responsible for all the attempts against Amber in the run-up to the pageant, is arrested. Rebecca's tragic death and Gladys's antics leave Amber as the new pageant winner. At the State Competition, Amber wins the Minnesota American Teen Princess title by default after all the other contestants fall ill with seafood-related food poisoning, Amber gets an all-expenses-paid trip to the national Sarah Rose American Teen Princess Pageant. Upon arrival there and the other state winners are devastated to find that the cosmetics company has been shut down by the IRS for tax evasion; this sends all the contestants except Amber on a rampage and destroying the property. A few years Gladys escapes from prison and is sniping from the top of the Mount Rose supermarket, declaring her intent to take revenge on Amber.
During the six-hour police standoff, a television reporter doing a live report at the scene is hit by a stray bullet. Amber picks up the reporter's microphone and takes over reporting the story, impressing the news station with her poise and confidence; the film closes with a scene showing Amber as co-anchor of the evening news for Minneapolis–St. Paul television station WAZB-TV, thus living her dream of becoming the next Diane Sawyer; the movie is set in the fictional town of Mount Rose, Minnesota. The town may have been based on Rosemount; the accents portrayed in the movie are that of the North Central American dialect found in the Midwest, notably Minnesota. The film was shot throughout the Carver County area in Waconia, although names of real Minnesota communities were shown on the sashes of contestants in the movie. News reporter Diane Sawyer is mentioned throughout the film as Kirsten Dunst's character Amber Atkins's idol as Sawyer was a former beauty pageant winner. Amber's other idol includes her beauty pageant mother who raised her alone in a trailer park and the previous year's winner, hospitalized for anorexia.
Competing in the beauty pageant for a scholarship is juxtaposed against the opportunities that boys have in leaving "Mount Rose" such as hockey scholarships
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m