Michael Lee Aday, known professionally as Meat Loaf, is an American singer, record producer, actor. He is noted for theatrical live shows, his Bat Out of Hell trilogy of albums—Bat Out of Hell, Bat Out of Hell II: Back into Hell, Bat Out of Hell III: The Monster Is Loose—have sold more than 50 million albums worldwide. More than 40 years after its release, Bat Out of Hell still sells an estimated 200,000 copies annually and stayed on the charts for over nine years, making it one of the best selling albums in history. After the commercial success of Bat Out of Hell and Bat Out of Hell II: Back Into Hell and earning a Grammy Award for Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance for the song "I'd Do Anything for Love", Meat Loaf experienced some initial difficulty establishing a steady career within the United States. However, he has retained iconic status and popularity in Europe the United Kingdom, where he received the 1994 Brit Award for best-selling album and single, appeared in the 1997 film Spice World, ranks 23rd for the number of weeks spent on the UK charts as of 2006.
He ranked 96th on VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock". He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, with worldwide sales of more than 80 million records, he has appeared in over 50 movies and television shows, sometimes as himself or as characters resembling his stage persona. His most notable roles include Eddie in The Rocky Horror Picture Show, Robert "Bob" Paulson in Fight Club, "The Lizard" in The 51st State, he has appeared as a guest actor in television shows such as Monk, South Park and Tales from the Crypt. Marvin Lee Aday was born in Dallas, the only child of Wilma Artie, a school teacher and a member of the Vo-di-o-do Girls gospel quartet, Orvis Wesley Aday, a former police officer who went into business with his wife and one of their friends as the Griffin Grocery Company, selling a homemade cough remedy, his father was an alcoholic. Aday and his mother would drive around to all the bars in Dallas, looking for Orvis to take him home; as a result, Aday stayed with his grandmother, Charlsee Norrod.
Meat Loaf relates a story in his autobiography, To Hell and Back, about how he, a friend, his friend's father drove out to Love Field on November 22, 1963 to watch John F. Kennedy land. After watching him leave the airport, they went to Market Hall, on Kennedy's parade route. On the way, they heard that Kennedy had been shot, so they headed to Parkland Hospital, where they saw Jackie Kennedy get out of the car and Governor John Connally get pulled out, although they did not see the president taken out. In 1965, Aday graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School, having started his acting career via school productions such as Where's Charley? and The Music Man. After attending college at Lubbock Christian College, he transferred to North Texas State University. After he received his inheritance from his mother's death, he rented an apartment in Dallas and isolated himself for three and a half months. A friend found him. A short time Aday went to the airport and caught the next flight leaving; the plane took him to Los Angeles.
In Los Angeles, Aday formed his first band, "Meat Loaf Soul", after a nickname coined by his football coach because of his weight. During the recording of their first song, he hit a note so high that he managed to blow a fuse on the recording monitor, he was offered three recording contracts, which he turned down. Meat Loaf Soul's first gig was in Huntington Beach in 1968 at the Cave, opening for Van Morrison's band, Them. While performing their cover of the Howlin' Wolf song "Smokestack Lightning", the smoke machine they used made too much smoke and the club had to be cleared out; the band was the opening act at Cal State Northridge for Renaissance, Taj Mahal and Janis Joplin. The band underwent several changes of lead guitar, changing the name of the band each time; the new names included Floating Circus. As Floating Circus, they opened for the Who, the Fugs, the Stooges, MC5, Grateful Dead and the Grease Band, their regional success led them to release a single, "Once Upon a Time", backed with "Hello".
Meat Loaf joined the Los Angeles production of Hair. During an interview with New Zealand radio station ZM, Meat Loaf stated that the biggest life struggle he had to overcome was not being taken in the music industry, he compared his treatment to that of a "circus clown". With the publicity generated from Hair, Meat Loaf was invited to record with Motown, they suggested he do a duet with Shaun "Stoney" Murphy, who had performed with him in Hair, to which he agreed. The Motown production team in charge of the album wrote and selected the songs while Meat Loaf and Stoney came in only to lay down their vocals; the album, titled Stoney & Meatloaf, was completed in the summer of 1971 and released in September of that year. A single released in advance of the album, "What You See Is What You Get", reached number thirty-six on the Best Selling Soul Singles chart and seventy-one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. To support their album, Meat Loaf and Stoney toured with Jake Wade and the Soul Searchers, opening up for Richie Havens, the Who, the Stooges, Bob Seger, Alice Cooper and Rare Earth.
Meat Loaf left soon after Motown replaced his and Stoney's vocals from the one song he liked, "Who Is the Leader of the People?" with new
Night Court is an American television sitcom that aired on NBC from January 4, 1984, to May 31, 1992. The setting was the night shift of a Manhattan municipal court, Criminal Court Part 2, presided over by a young, unorthodox judge, Harold T. "Harry" Stone. The series was created by comedy writer Reinhold Weege, who had worked on Barney Miller in the 1970s and early 1980s; the following cast members appeared in the opening credits: The judge: Harry Anderson as Judge Harold "Harry" T. Stone, a young, baby-faced, good-humored jurist and amateur magician whose parents were former mental patients, he was young for a new judge, being only 34 when he took the bench at Criminal Court Part 2. He explained that he got his assignment because the outgoing mayor made a huge number of appointments on his last day, Harry was the only person on the judges' list, home and was able to receive the call and accept his nomination, he loved old movies, was vocal in his disdain for modern music, idolized actress Jean Harlow and crooner Mel Tormé, both of whose photographs adorned Stone's chambers.
The public defenders: Gail Strickland as public defender Sheila Gardner. Paula Kelly as Liz Williams Ellen Foley as Billie Young, a public defender and potential romantic interest for Stone during Season 2. Markie Post as Christine Sullivan, her first appearance on the show was an early second-season episode. The character was somewhat naïve, she was the primary romantic interest for Stone and a regular target for Dan Fielding's lechery throughout the series' run. She had various Princess Diana memorabilia collections such as a set of porcelain thimbles; the prosecutor: John Larroquette as Reinhold Daniel Fielding Elmore, who used the name Daniel R. "Dan" Fielding, a sex-obsessed narcissistic prosecutor who would do anything to get a woman to sleep with him. It was hinted, he was the source of many witty and sometimes cruel remarks regarding every other character, although he showed compassion. When his homeless lackey Phil died, the ever-greedy Dan was excited to discover that Phil was in fact wealthy and expected to be the beneficiary of his millions, only to learn that Phil's will put Dan in charge of the Phil Foundation, tasked to give away Phil's entire fortune to worthy causes.
Dan revealed near the end of the third-season episode #22 "Hurricane" that his real first name was Reinhold, that he began using the name Dan out of embarrassment when he started school. The other characters did not discover Dan's true name until the fifth-season episode "Dan, The Walking Time Bomb", it was earlier discovered, in the second-season episode "Dan's Parents", from Dan's parents Daddy-Bob and Mucette, that he began using the last name Fielding when he went to college because he thought it sounded better for a lawyer and because he was embarrassed of his impoverished childhood. During the eighth season, it was revealed that he had a successful younger sister named Donna whose morals and life goals were similar to his own; the bailiffs: Richard Moll as Nostradamus "Bull" Shannon, a dim-witted hulk of a figure, patient and childlike. He was fiercely protective of Harry. Bull was known for his catchphrase, "Ooo-kay", clapping a hand loudly to his forehead when he realized he had made a mistake.
Moll had shaved his head for the role. The producers loved Moll kept his head shaven for the entire run of the series. Female bailiffs: Selma Diamond as Selma Hacker, a chain-smoking older bailiff. In one episode she admitted to having had as many as six husbands. Diamond died of cancer shortly after Season 2, the character's death was acknowledged on a subsequent episode. Florence Halop as Florence "Flo" Kleiner, Selma's replacement, she loved motorcycles and heavy metal music. Halop died shortly after season 3 of cancer like Diamond. In the opening episode of season 4, Harry Stone acknowledged that Florence Kleiner had died. Marsha Warfield as Rosalind "Roz" Russell, the third bailiff, a tall, tough, no-nonsense African-American woman, she projected a fearsome image. Sharp-tongued, in time she became close to her coworkers. Warfield stayed on the show for the rest of its run; the court clerks: Karen Austin as Lana Wagner. The original romantic interest for Harry Stone. Although Austin was asked to leave the show after ten episodes, she was seen in the opening credits of all 13 first-season episodes.
Charles Robinson as Macintosh "Mac" Robinson, a Vietnam War veteran. Easy-going and pragmatic, he was the most "normal" character, he had a good sense of humor having the last laugh at Dan, was a loyal friend to his coworkers. He always wore a cardigan, plaid shirt, knit tie. By the end of the series, he left his job to pursue his dream of going to film school and becoming a director. Mike Finneran as Art Fensterman, a bumbling "fix-it man" attached to the courthouse, his attempts to fix the courthouse disrupted Harry's proceedings in the courtroom
The Blockheads are an English rock band. Fronted by lead singer Ian Dury as Ian Dury and the Blockheads, the band has continued to perform since Dury's death in 2000. Current members include Derek "The Draw" Hussey, Chaz Jankel, Norman Watt-Roy, Mick Gallagher, John Turnbull and John Roberts. If Watt-Roy is unavailable, due to a conflict with Wilko Johnson dates his duties are covered by Nathan King. There is a rolling line-up of saxophonists that includes Gilad Atzmon, Terry Edwards or Dave Lewis and from time to time, the original sax player, Davey Payne; the band are best known for their hit singles, recorded with Dury, "What a Waste", "Hit Me with Your Rhythm Stick", "Reasons to be Cheerful, Part 3", "Sex & Drugs & Rock & Roll". In 1974, Radio Caroline's Ronan O'Rahilly set up the pop group The Loving Awareness Band, comprising John Turnbull and Mick Gallagher both of 1960s psychedelic rock band Skip Bifferty with the session musicians Norman Watt-Roy and Charlie Charles. In 1976, The Loving Awareness Band released their only album, Loving Awareness, on O'Rahilly's label More Love Records.
The album has appeared on CD more than once, although these reissues have been sourced from a mint vinyl pressing rather than from the original master tapes. The Loving Awareness Band broke up in 1977 and Watt-Roy and Charles joined a new band being formed by Ian Dury, who had begun writing songs with pianist and guitarist Chaz Jankel. With Jankel fashioning Dury's lyrics into number of songs, the two began recording with Charles, Watt-Roy, Gallagher and former Kilburn and the High Roads saxophonist Davey Payne. An album was of no interest to major record labels. Next door to Dury's manager's office, was the newly formed Stiff Records, a perfect home for Dury's maverick style; the band was invited by Stiff to join the "Live Stiffs Tour", the band Ian Dury and the Blockheads was born, with the name ostensibly taken from the song of the same name which portrayed a drunken Essex Untermensch stereotype: The tour, which featured Elvis Costello and the Attractions, Nick Lowe, Wreckless Eric and Larry Wallis, was a great success, Stiff launched a concerted Ian Dury marketing campaign.
Under the management of Andrew King and Peter Jenner Ian Dury and the Blockheads gained a reputation as one of the top live new wave music acts. Their first single, "Sex & Drugs & Rock & Roll", marked Dury's Stiff debut and although it was banned by the BBC it was named Single of the Week by NME on its release, it was soon followed by the album New Boots and Panties!!, to achieve platinum status. The tune is based on part of Charlie Haden's bass solo on "Ramblin'" on Ornette Coleman's 1959 album Change of the Century. Dury and the band built up a dedicated following in the UK and other countries and scored several hit singles, including "What a Waste", "Hit Me with Your Rhythm Stick" and "Reasons to be Cheerful, Part 3"; the band's second album, Do It Yourself, was released in June 1979 in a Barney Bubbles-designed sleeve of which there were over a dozen variations, all based on samples from the Crown wallpaper catalogue. Bubbles designed the Blockhead logo, which received international acclaim and which continues to be used by the band as, for example, on their Live in Colchester 2004 DVD.
The hit single "Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick" was notably not included, however, on the original release of the album. The single and its accompanying music video featured a Davey Payne sax solo with dual saxophones, in evident homage to jazz saxophonist Rahsaan Roland Kirk, who had made this his trademark technique. Dury's lyrics are a distinctive combination of lyrical poetry, word play, observation of British everyday life, acute character sketches, vivid, earthy sexual humour. "This is what we find... ome improvement expert Harold Hill of Harold Hill, Of do-it-yourself dexterity and double-glazing skill, Came home to find another gentleman's kippers in the grill, So he sanded off his winkle with his Black & Decker drill." The song "Billericay Dickie" continues this sexual content, rhyming "I had a love affair with Nina, In the back of my Cortina" with "A seasoned-up hyena, Could not have been more obscener". The Blockheads' sound drew from its members' diverse musical influences, which included jazz and roll, reggae, Dury's love of music hall.
Jankel left the band temporarily and relocated to the U. S. after the release of "What A Waste" but he subsequently returned to the UK and began touring sporadically with the Blockheads returning to the group full-time for the recording of "Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick". Due to personality clashes with Dury, Jankel quit the group again in 1980, after the recording of the Do It Yourself LP, he returned to the U. S. to concentrate on his solo career. The group worked solidly over the eighteen months
It's All Coming Back to Me Now
"It's All Coming Back to Me Now" is a power ballad written by Jim Steinman. According to Steinman, the song was inspired by Wuthering Heights, was an attempt to write "the most passionate, romantic song" he could create; the Sunday Times posits that "Steinman protects his songs as if they were his children". Meat Loaf had wanted to record "It's All Coming Back..". for years, but Steinman saw it as a "woman's song". Steinman won a court movement preventing Meat Loaf from recording it. Girl group Pandora's Box went on to record it and it was subsequently made famous through a cover by Celine Dion, which upset Meat Loaf because he was going to use it for a planned album with the working title Bat Out of Hell III. Alternately, Meat Loaf has said the song was intended for Bat Out of Hell II and given to the singer in 1986, but that they both decided to use "I'd Do Anything for Love" for Bat II, save this song for Bat III; the song has had three major releases. The first version appeared on the concept album Original Sin, recorded by Pandora's Box.
It was recorded by Celine Dion for her album Falling into You, her version was a commercial hit, reaching No. 2 in the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 and No. 3 in the UK Singles Chart. Meat Loaf recorded it as a duet with Norwegian singer Marion Raven for Bat III and released it as a single in 2006; this version reached No. 1 in No. 2 in Scotland. A music video was produced for each of the three versions; this is evident when the dead characters seem to be resurrected in the memories of the main vocalist. Although in the case of Celine Dion's video, the theme is less about the living being doomed and more about a lost love. Influenced by Emily Brontë's novel Wuthering Heights, Steinman compared the song to'Heathcliff digging up Cathy's corpse and dancing with it in the cold moonlight'. In the Jim Steinman Opens Pandora's Box promotional video, he says that the novel: is always made much too polite; this isn't the Wuthering Heights of Kate Bush -- that little fanciful Wuthering Heights. The scene they always cut out is the scene when Heathcliff digs up Catherine's body and dances in the moonlight and on the beach with it.
I think you can't get passionate than that. I was trying to write a song about dead things coming to life. I was trying to write a song about being enslaved and obsessed by love, not just enchanted and happy with it, it was about the dark side of love. I just tried to put everything I could into it, I'm real proud of it. In another interview, Steinman expands on his comments about the song being about the'dark side of love'. It's about obsession, that can be scary because you're not in control and you don't know where it's going to stop, it says that, at any point in somebody's life, when they loved somebody enough and that person returns, a certain touch, a certain physical gesture can turn them from being defiant and disgusted with this person to being subservient again. And it's not just a pleasurable feeling that comes back, it's the complete terror and loss of control that comes back, and I think that's a great weapon. The website AllMusic called the song'a tormented ballad about romantic loss and regret built on a spooky yet heart-wrenching piano melody'.
The torment is present in the song's opening. However, the defiance in the verses are replaced by the return of the'subservient' feelings in the chorus; the song ends with a quiet reprise of the chorus. Critics have identified Wagner, of whom Steinman is an admirer, as an inspiration. Specifying this song, the Sunday Times said "the theme of Wagner's opera Tristan and Isolde, with its extreme passions and obsessive love, informs all his best work". A 2007 article in the Toronto Star claims that the song was written as Steinman's "tryout" as lyricist for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Sunset Boulevard. In 1989, Steinman produced a concept album, Original Sin, with an all-female group called Pandora's Box; the album featured many tracks that would be recorded by other artists Meat Loaf. Elaine Caswell was the lead vocalist for "It's All Coming Back To Me Now", who collapsed five times during its recording. Caswell has since performed the song as part of The Dream Engine at Joe's Pub in New York City. For the track, Roy Bittan performed with Steinman and Jeff Bova on keyboards.
Guitars were with Steve Buslowe on bass guitar and Jimmy Bralower on drums. Todd Rundgren arranged the background vocals, which were performed by Ellen Foley, Gina Taylor, Deliria Wilde; the song was released as a single in the United Kingdom during October 1989, but only reached No. 51 in the singles charts. In its review of the album, Kerrang! magazine called the song'excruciatingly operatic'. Ken Russell directed the video, filmed at Pinewood Studios in Buckinghamshire. Steinman wrote the script, based on Russell's "Nessun Dorma" segment in the compilation opera
Mick Jones (The Clash guitarist)
Michael Geoffrey Jones is a British musician and songwriter best known as the lead guitarist, co-lead vocalist, co-founder and songwriter for The Clash until 1983. In 1984, he formed Big Audio Dynamite with Don Letts. Jones has played with the group Carbon/Silicon along with Tony James since 2002 and has toured the world as part of the Gorillaz live band. In late 2011, Jones collaborated with Pete Wylie and members of the Farm to form the Justice Tonight Band. Michael Geoffrey Jones was born on 26 June 1955 in Wandsworth, England, to a Welsh father, Tommy Jones, a Russian Jewish mother, Renee Zegansky, he spent much of his early life living with Stella Class, in South London. Jones' cousin is the Conservative MP for Welwyn Hatfield. Jones went to Strand School in South London and art school, because " thought that's how you get into bands and stuff", but before The Dolls, I used to follow bands around. I followed Mott the Hoople down the country. I'd go to Liverpool or Newcastle or somewhere—sleep on the Town Hall steps, bunk the fares on the trains, hide in the toilet when the ticket inspector came around.
I'd climb over the fence. It was great times, I always knew I wanted to be in a band and play guitar; that was it for me. He started gaining recognition as a guitarist in the early 1970s with his glam rock band, The Delinquents. A short time he met Tony James and formed the protopunk London SS. By 1976, that band had broken up and remaining members Jones, Paul Simonon and Keith Levene were seeking a new direction; when he was 21, he and Paul Simonon were introduced to Joe Strummer by Bernie Rhodes in a squat in Shepherd's Bush. The band rehearsed in a former railway warehouse in Camden Town and The Clash was formed. Jones played lead guitar, co-wrote songs from the band's inception until he was fired by Strummer and Simonon in 1983. One of the songs he wrote, "Train in Vain," was about Jones' relationship with Viv Albertine, guitarist of The Slits. Jones' lack of punctuality played a major role in his dismissal from the band. Jones agreed to give a rare interview about the disintegration of The Clash and the reasons behind his dismissal from'his own band' in Danny Garcia's 2012 documentary film and book The Rise and Fall of the Clash.
For his time with The Clash, along with the rest of the band, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2003. While promoting the band's 2013 box set, Sound System, which Jones says will be the final time he works on Clash music, he discussed the band reuniting prior to Strummer's death. There were a few moments at the time I was up for it, Joe was up for it. Paul wasn't, and neither was Topper Headon, who didn't wind up coming in the end. It didn't look. I mean, you play at that ceremony when you get in. Joe had passed by that point, so we didn't. We were never in agreement, it was never at a point. Most for us, we became friends again after the group broke up, continued that way for the rest of the time; that was more important to us than the band. In an October 2013 interview with BBC 6Music, Jones confirmed that Strummer did have intentions of a Clash reunion and in fact new music was being written for a possible album. In the months prior to Strummer's death and Strummer began working on new music for what he thought would be the next Mescaleros album.
Jones said "We wrote a batch – we didn't use to write one, we used to write a batch at a time – like gumbo. The idea was he was going to go into the studio with the Mescaleros during the day and send them all home. I'd come in all night and we'd all work all night." Jones said. Jones was curious as to what would become of the songs he and Strummer were working on and Strummer informed him that they were going to be used for the next Clash album. After his expulsion from The Clash, Jones was a founding member of General Public. Though he is listed in the credits of the band's 1984 début album All the Rage as a member, Jones left General Public part way through the recording process and was replaced by Kevin White. White's picture appears on the back cover. Jones did play guitar on many of the album's tracks, including the North American top 40 single "Tenderness". Leaving General Public behind, in 1984 Jones formed Big Audio Dynamite with film director Don Letts, who had directed various Clash videos and the Clash documentary Westway to the World.
The band's début album This Is Big Audio Dynamite was released the following year, with the song "E=MC²" getting heavy rotation in dance clubs, both singles "Medicine Show" and "E=MC2" charting in the UK. For Big Audio Dynamite's second album, No. 10, Upping St. Jones reunited with Strummer. Together, the two wrote several songs on the album, including "Beyond the Pale", "V. Thirteen", "Sightsee M. C!". Their reunion did not last long, following that collaboration, the two did not work together again for some time. Big Audio Dynamite's third album, Tighten Up, Vol. 88, featured album cover art painted by the ex-Clash bassist, Paul Simonon. Shortly following its release, Jones developed chickenpox and pneumonia, spent several months in hospital. After his recovery, Jones released one more album with Big Audio Dynamite, Megatop Phoenix, before reshuffling the line-up, renaming the band Big Audio Dynamite II and releasing The Globe album; the BAD II lineup had an international #1 hit with their song "Rush", topping the Billboar
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Clash were an English rock band formed in London in 1976 as a key player in the original wave of British punk rock. They have contributed to the post-punk and new wave movements that emerged in the wake of punk and employed elements of a variety of genres including reggae, funk and rockabilly. For most of their recording career, the Clash consisted of lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Joe Strummer, lead guitarist and lead vocalist Mick Jones, bassist Paul Simonon, drummer Nicky "Topper" Headon. Headon left the group in 1982, internal friction led to Jones' departure the following year; the group continued with new members, but disbanded in early 1986. The Clash achieved commercial success in the United Kingdom with the release of their self-titled debut album, The Clash, in 1977, their third album, London Calling, released in the UK in December 1979, earned them popularity in the United States when it was released there the following month. It was declared the best album of the 1980s a decade by Rolling Stone.
In 1982, they reached new heights of success with the release of Combat Rock, which spawned the US top 10 hit "Rock the Casbah", helping the album to achieve a 2× Platinum certification there. Their final album, Cut the Crap, was released in 1985; the Clash's politicized lyrics, musical experimentation, rebellious attitude had a far-reaching influence on rock, alternative rock in particular. They became referred to as "The Only Band That Matters" a promotional slogan introduced by the group's record label, CBS. In January 2003, shortly after the death of Joe Strummer, the band—including original drummer Terry Chimes—were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked the Clash number 28 on its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time. Before the Clash's founding, the band's future members were active in different parts of the London music scene. John Graham Mellor sang and played rhythm guitar in the pub rock act The 101ers, which formed in 1974. By the time the Clash came together two years he had abandoned his original stage name, "Woody" Mellor, in favour of "Joe Strummer", a reference to his rudimentary strumming skills on the ukulele as a busker in the London Underground.
Mick Jones played guitar in protopunk band London SS, which rehearsed for much of 1975 without playing a live show and recording only a single demo. London SS were managed by Bernard Rhodes, a sometime associate of impresario Malcolm McLaren and a friend of the members of the McLaren-managed band, the Sex Pistols. Jones and his bandmates became friendly with Sex Pistols Glen Matlock and Steve Jones, who would assist them as they tried out potential new members. Among those who auditioned for London SS without making the cut were Paul Simonon, who tried out as a vocalist, drummer Terry Chimes. Nicky Headon drummed with the band for a week quit. After London SS broke up in early 1976, Rhodes continued as Jones's manager. In February, Jones saw the Sex Pistols perform for the first time: "You knew straight away, it, this was what it was going to be like from now on, it was a new scene, new values -- so different from. A bit dangerous." At the instigation of Rhodes, Jones contacted Simonon in March, suggesting he learn an instrument so he could join the new band Jones was organising.
Soon Jones, Simonon on bass, Keith Levene on guitar and "whoever we could find to play the drums" were rehearsing. Chimes got the job, although he soon quit; the band was still searching for a lead singer. Chimes recalls one Billy Watts handling the duties for a time. Rhodes had his eye with whom he made exploratory contact. Jones and Levene were impressed as well. Strummer, for his part, was primed to make the switch. In April, he had taken in the opening act for one of his band's gigs—the Sex Pistols. Strummer explained:I knew something was up, so I went out in the crowd, sparse, and I saw the future—with a snotty handkerchief—right in front of me. It was clear. Pub rock was, "Hello, you bunch of drunks, I'm gonna play these boogies and I hope you like them." The Pistols came out that Tuesday evening and their attitude was, "Here's our tunes, we couldn't give a flying fuck whether you like them or not. In fact, we're gonna play them if you fucking hate them."On 30 May and Levene met surreptitiously with Strummer after a 101'ers gig.
Strummer was invited to meet up at the band's rehearsal location on Davis Road. After Strummer turned up, Levene grabbed his guitar, stood several inches away from Strummer, looked him in the eye and began playing "Keys to Your Heart", one of Strummer's own tunes. Rhodes gave him 48 hours to decide whether he wanted to join the new band that would "rival the Pistols." Within 24 hours, Strummer agreed. Simonon remarked, "Once we had Joe on board it all started to come together." Strummer introduced the band to his old school friend Pablo LaBritain, who sat in on drums during Strummer's first few rehearsals with the group. LaBritain's stint with the band did not last long, Terry Chimes—whom Jones referred to as "one of the best drummers" in their circle—became the band's regular drummer. In Westway to the World, Jones says, "I don't think Terry was hired or anything, he had just been playing with us." Chimes did not take to Strummer at first: "He was like twenty-two or twenty-three or something that seemed'old' to me then.
And he had these retro clothes and this croaky voice". Simonon came up with the band's name after they had dubbed themselves the Weak Heartd