Dame Alice Ellen Terry, known professionally as Ellen Terry, was a renowned English actress of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Born into a family of actors, Terry began performing as a child, acting in Shakespeare plays in London, toured throughout the British provinces in her teens. At 16, she married the 46-year-old artist George Frederic Watts, she soon returned to the stage but began a relationship with the architect Edward William Godwin and retired from the stage for six years. She resumed acting in 1874 and was acclaimed for her portrayal of roles in Shakespeare and other classics. In 1878 she joined Henry Irving's company as his leading lady, for more than the next two decades she was considered the leading Shakespearean and comic actress in Britain. Two of her most famous roles were Portia in The Merchant of Venice and Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing, she and Irving toured with great success in America and Britain. In 1903 Terry took over management of London's Imperial Theatre, focusing on the plays of George Bernard Shaw and Henrik Ibsen.
The venture was a financial failure, Terry turned to touring and lecturing. She continued to find success on stage until 1920, while appearing in films from 1916 to 1922, her career lasted nearly seven decades. Terry was born in Coventry, the third surviving child born into a theatrical family, her parents, Benjamin, of Irish descent, Sarah, of Scottish ancestry, were comic actors in a Portsmouth-based touring company, had 11 children. At least five of them became actors: Kate, Marion and Fred. Two other children and Charles, were connected with theatre management. Kate and Marion were successful on stage. Terry made her first stage appearance at age nine, as Mamillius, opposite Charles Kean as Leontes, in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale at London's Princess's Theatre in 1856, she played the roles of Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream, Prince Arthur in King John, Fleance in Macbeth, continuing at the Princess's Theatre until the Keans' retirement in 1859. During the theatre's summer closures, Terry's father presented drawing-room entertainments at the Royal Colosseum, Regent's Park, on tour.
In 1859, she appeared in the Tom Taylor comedy Nine Points of the Law at the Olympic Theatre. For the next two years and her sister Kate toured the British provinces in sketches and plays, accompanied by their parents and a musician. Between 1861 and 1862, Terry was engaged by the Royalty Theatre in London, managed by Madame Albina de Rhona, where she acted with W. H. Kendal, Charles Wyndham and other famous actors. In 1862, she joined her sister Kate in J. H. Chute's stock company at the Theatre Royal, where she played a wide variety of parts, including burlesque roles requiring singing and dancing, as well as roles in Much Ado About Nothing and The Merchant of Venice. In 1863, Chute opened the Theatre Royal, where 15-year-old Terry appeared at the opening as Titania in A Midsummer Night's Dream returned to London to join J. B. Buckstone's company at the Haymarket Theatre in Shakespeare roles as well as Sheridan and modern comedies. Terry was involved in numerous relationships. In London, during her engagement at the Haymarket Theatre and her sister Kate had their portraits painted by the eminent artist George Frederic Watts.
His famous portraits of Terry include Choosing, in which she must select between earthly vanities, symbolised by showy but scentless camellias, nobler values symbolised by humble-looking but fragrant violets. His other famous portraits of her include Ophelia and Watchman, with Kate, The Sisters, he proposed marriage to Terry in spite of his being three decades her senior. She was impressed with Watts's art and elegant lifestyle, she wished to please her parents by making an advantageous marriage, she left the stage during the run of Tom Taylor's hit comedy Our American Cousin at the Haymarket, in which she played Mary Meredith. Terry and Watts married on 20 February 1864 at St Barnabas, seven days before her 17th birthday, when Watts was 46, she was uncomfortable in the role of child bride, Watts's circle of admirers, including Mrs Prinsep, were not welcoming. Terry and Watts separated after only 10 months. However, during that short time, she had the opportunity to meet many cultured and important people, such as poets Robert Browning, Alfred, Lord Tennyson.
Because of Watts's paintings of her and her association with him, she "became a cult figure for poets and painters of the Pre-Raphaelite and Aesthetic movements, including Oscar Wilde". She returned to acting by 1866. In 1867, Terry performed in several Tom Taylor pieces, including A Sheep in Wolf's Clothing at the Adelphi Theatre, The Antipodes at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Still Waters Run Deep at the Queen's Theatre, Long Acre, she would play there that year for the first time opposite Henry Irving in the title roles of Katherine and Petruchio, David Garrick's one-act version of The Taming of the Shrew. In 1868, despite her parents' objection, she began a relationship with the progressive architect-designer and essayist Edward William Godwin, another man whose taste she admired, whom she had met some years before, they retreated to a house in Harpenden, where she retired from acting for six years. Terry was still married to Watts, not finalising the divorce until 1877, so she and Godwin could not marry.
The Blue Coat School is a mixed gender Church of England academy for 11- to 18-year-olds, located in the town of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England. The school caters for pupils aged offering A-level and GCSE courses, it is one of the few schools in the country to hold Leading Edge Partnership programme and science college status. Prior to becoming leading edge, Blue Coat had been a beacon school; this means the school has social responsibility to help develop other secondary schools in the area, as well as themselves. The motto of the school is from the Latin: Semper Quaereamus Virtutem – "Let us always seek virtue". Thomas Henshaw, who died in 1810, left the sum of £40,000 for the endowment of the Blue Coat School; the estate was tied up in litigation for many years but was released. As no provision had been made for the cost of the building, a public meeting was held in Oldham in September 1825, when offers of land were received, a public appeal was launched for funds to build the school. From the design of the architect Richard Lane, a start was made in 1829 when the foundation stone was laid, the school was opened in 1834.
Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, the school continued to maintain and instruct between 100 and 130 boys. In July 1952, the trustees decided that, as the number of boarders in residence was decreasing, Blue Coat should be closed as a residential school and the building converted for use as a secondary modern day school; this plan was effected, the school became co-educational accommodating 400 students. The Oldham Henshaw and Church of England Educational Trust, constituted in 1950, had as one of its aims the building and maintenance of new secondary schools, one of its objectives was to provide a Special Agreement secondary school by extending and reorganising the Blue Coat into a comprehensive school; this plan was realised in September 1966 when the Blue Coat School became comprehensive. It is now a nine form entry voluntary aided comprehensive school admitting 218 boys and girls each year, with a sixth form, the majority of whom go on to Higher Education. Voluntary aided status means that the governors of the school are responsible for the upkeep of all buildings and have to rely on the financial support and generosity of parents and friends of the school.
Recent government grants have enabled the school to venture into a multimillion-pound building scheme. So far additions have been a wheelchair lift to increase disabled access. In 1994 the school completed a major fund-raising campaign, enabling it to build a new science department building, completed in 1995. Completed in 2005, the new multimillion-pound sports hall opened on the west side of the school grounds, due to this increase in PE space, the school has converted the old girls' gym into the new whole-school restaurant this building was extended with more eating areas downstairs, a second floor mezzanine for the 6th form students. With the whole school catered for in the restaurant, the house block which contained the old canteens was closed down; this has now been turned from a dated 1960s 6 classroom building into a 12 classroom 21st century building still housing the 3 houses on each floor. The building near the entrance gates has been refurbished and had structural work done, forming a new building for more music activities, such as those who have music lessons to improve musical abilities.
The Blue Coat school serves a broad catchment area, providing an education for those who live in the areas of Oldham, Manchester and Rochdale. Physically, the school is located within easy walking distance of Oldham Town Centre. There are around 1100 pupils in the main school, with an additional 300 in the sixth form. There are over 150 members of staff, teaching or otherwise. During a school year, there are three communions and the assemblies during the school time have a strong Christian theme. Reflecting the strong Christian ethos of the school, Religious Studies continues to be compulsory taught subject for pupils at GCSE level; as is the case in most English secondary schools, in years seven to nine, pupils study a broad range of subjects in Key Stage 3, before taking Standard Attainment Tests in the core subjects of Mathematics and Science in year 9. These examinations test the competency of both the pupils' understanding of each subject as well as the standard of their teaching. Years ten and eleven Key Stage 4 involves work which leads to General Certificate of Secondary Education qualifications.
Pupils must take the core subjects of Mathematics, Science, R. S. In addition to these, pupils are given the option of four more subjects, one being a language and another being a Humanity, plus two extras which could be Drama Studies, Information Technology, Physical Education, Business Studies, or one of several Design and Technology courses, they will choose a reserve subject, in case they cannot get in a class of one of the subjects or there isn't enough people to make a class. The reserve subject will replace this subject. After finishing GCSEs, further education is not compulsory. Pupils can choose to stay at the sixth form for years thirteen. Alternatively they could choose another sixth form college, such as Oldham Sixth Form College in Oldham or Ashton Sixth Form College in Ashton-under-Lyne. However, some students look for work for a variety of reasons. Should pupils stay on at Blue Coat in year 12, they will be required to choose four subjects to study for AS-leve
Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics. While at the interface of physics and chemistry, chemical physics is distinct from physical chemistry in that it focuses more on the characteristic elements and theories of physics. Meanwhile, physical chemistry studies the physical nature of chemistry. Nonetheless, the distinction between the two fields is vague, scientists practice in both fields during the course of their research; the United States Department of Education defines chemical physics as "A program that focuses on the scientific study of structural phenomena combining the disciplines of physical chemistry and atomic/molecular physics. Includes instruction in heterogeneous structures and surface phenomena, quantum theory, mathematical physics and classical mechanics, chemical kinetics, laser physics." Chemical physicists probe the structure and dynamics of ions, free radicals, polymers and molecules.
Areas of study include the quantum mechanical behavior of chemical reactions, the process of solvation, inter- and intra-molecular energy flow, single entities such as quantum dots. Experimental chemical physicists use a variety of spectroscopic techniques to better understand hydrogen bonding, electron transfer, the formation and dissolution of chemical bonds, chemical reactions, the formation of nanoparticles. Theoretical chemical physicists create simulations of the molecular processes probed in these experiments to both explain results and guide future investigations; the goals of chemical physics research include understanding chemical structures and reactions at the quantum mechanical level, elucidating the structure and reactivity of gas phase ions and radicals, discovering accurate approximations to make the physics of chemical phenomena computationally accessible. Chemical physicists are looking for answers to such questions as: Can we experimentally test quantum mechanical predictions of the vibrations and rotations of simple molecules?
Or those of complex molecules? Can we develop more accurate methods for calculating the electronic structure and properties of molecules? Can we understand chemical reactions from first principles? Why do quantum dots start blinking after absorbing photons? How do chemical reactions take place? What is the step-by-step process that occurs when an isolated molecule becomes solvated? Or when a whole ensemble of molecules becomes solvated? Can we use the properties of negative ions to determine molecular structures, understand the dynamics of chemical reactions, or explain photodissociation? Why does a stream of soft x-rays knock enough electrons out of the atoms in a xenon cluster to cause the cluster to explode? Chemical Physics Letters Journal of Physical Chemistry A Journal of Physical Chemistry B Journal of Physical Chemistry C The Journal of Chemical Physics Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics Chemical Physics Intermolecular force Molecular dynamics Quantum chemistry Solid-state physics Surface science Van der Waals molecule