General Electric Company is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston. As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, power, renewable energy, digital industry, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance and oil and gas. In 2018, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 18th-largest firm in the U. S. by gross revenue. In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 20 as the 14th-most profitable company but has since severely underperformed the market as its profitability collapsed. Two employees of GE—Irving Langmuir and Ivar Giaever —have been awarded the Nobel Prize. During 1889, Thomas Edison had business interests in many electricity-related companies including Edison Lamp Company, a lamp manufacturer in East Newark, New Jersey. P. Morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edison's lighting experiments. In 1889, Morgan & Co. a company founded by J. P. Morgan and Anthony J. Drexel, financed Edison's research and helped merge those companies under one corporation to form Edison General Electric Company, incorporated in New York on April 24, 1889.
The new company acquired Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company in the same year. In 1880, Gerald Waldo Hart formed the American Electric Company of New Britain, which merged a few years with Thomson-Houston Electric Company, led by Charles Coffin. In 1887, Hart left to become superintendent of the Edison Electric Company of Missouri. General Electric was formed through the 1892 merger of Edison General Electric Company of Schenectady, New York, Thomson-Houston Electric Company of Lynn, with the support of Drexel, Morgan & Co. Both plants continue to operate under the GE banner to this day; the company was incorporated in New York, with the Schenectady plant used as headquarters for many years thereafter. Around the same time, General Electric's Canadian counterpart, Canadian General Electric, was formed. In 1896, General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly formed Dow Jones Industrial Average, where it remained a part of the index for 122 years, though not continuously.
In 1911, General Electric absorbed the National Electric Lamp Association into its lighting business. GE established its lighting division headquarters at Nela Park in Ohio; the lighting division has since remained in the same location. Owen D. Young, through GE, founded the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, after purchasing the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, he aimed to expand international radio communications. GE used RCA as its retail arm for radio sales. In 1926, RCA co-founded the National Broadcasting Company, which built two radio broadcasting networks. In 1930, General Electric was charged with antitrust violations and decided to divest itself of RCA. In 1927, Ernst Alexanderson of GE made the first demonstration of his television broadcasts at his General Electric Realty Plot home at 1132 Adams Rd, New York. On January 13, 1928, he made what was said to be the first broadcast to the public in the United States on GE's W2XAD: the pictures were picked up on 1.5 square inch screens in the homes of four GE executives.
The sound was broadcast on GE's WGY. Experimental television station W2XAD evolved into station WRGB which, along with WGY and WGFM, was owned and operated by General Electric until 1983. Led by Sanford Alexander Moss, GE moved into the new field of aircraft turbo superchargers. GE introduced the first set of superchargers during World War I, continued to develop them during the interwar period. Superchargers became indispensable in the years prior to World War II. GE supplied 300,000 turbo superchargers for use in bomber engines; this work led the U. S. Army Air Corps to select GE to develop the nation's first jet engine during the war; this experience, in turn, made GE a natural selection to develop the Whittle W.1 jet engine, demonstrated in the United States in 1941. GE was ranked ninth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Although, their early work with Whittle's designs was handed to Allison Engine Company. GE Aviation emerged as one of the world's largest engine manufacturers, bypassing the British company, Rolls-Royce plc.
Some consumers boycotted GE light bulbs and other products during the 1980s and 1990s. The purpose of the boycott was to protest against GE's role in nuclear weapons production. In 2002, GE acquired the wind power assets of Enron during its bankruptcy proceedings. Enron Wind was the only surviving U. S. manufacturer of large wind turbines at the time, GE increased engineering and supplies for the Wind Division and doubled the annual sales to $1.2 billion in 2003. It acquired ScanWind in 2009. In 2015, GE Power garnered press attention when a model 9FB gas turbine in Texas was shut down for two months due to the break of a turbine blade; this model uses similar blade technology to GE's newest and most efficient model, the 9HA. After the break, GE developed heat treatment methods. Gas turbines represent a significant portion of GE Power's revenue, represent a significant portion of the power generation fleet of several utility companies in the United States. Chubu Electric of Japan and Électricité de France had units that were impacted.
United States Naval Aviator
A Naval Aviator is a commissioned officer or warrant officer qualified as a pilot in the United States Navy, United States Marine Corps or United States Coast Guard. In the U. S. Navy, most Naval Aviators are unrestricted line officers, eligible for command at sea. A small number of URL officers trained as Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers who hold technical degrees at the undergraduate and/or postgraduate level may opt to laterally transfer to the restricted line as Aerospace Engineering Duty Officers. AEDOs are test pilot school graduates and retain their flying status, with most of their billets being in the Naval Air Systems Command. An smaller number of Naval Aviators are in the U. S. Navy Medical Corps as Naval Flight Surgeons; these are either former URL officers designated as Naval Aviators who attend medical school and transfer to the Medical Corps, or an smaller percentage of "dual designator" Naval Flight Surgeons who are selected to be Student Naval Aviators and undergo pilot training as Medical Corps officers.
The vast majority of Naval Flight Surgeons, although they are on flight status, are not dual designated and are not Naval Aviators. All U. S. Marine Corps officers are line officers, either unrestricted line, limited duty, or warrant officer, eligible to command MAGTF units commensurate with their grade and occupational specialty. S. Marine Corps does not have restricted line officers or staff corps officers, as does the U. S. Navy. All current USMC naval aviators and naval flight officers are unrestricted line officers, analogous to the Navy's URL officers; the U. S. Coast Guard categorizes all of its officers with its naval aviators being considered "operational" officers in the same manner as its cutterman officers in the Coast Guard's surface cutter fleet; until 1981, the U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps had a small number of senior enlisted personnel trained as pilots; such individuals were referred to as naval aviation pilots, colloquially "NAPs" or "APs." The since retired NAPs continue to have a professional organization known as the Silver Eagles, which remains informally aligned with other naval aviation professional organizations such as the Association of Naval Aviation, the Tailhook Association, the Maritime Patrol Association, the Naval Helicopter Association, among others.
The naval aviation pilot wings worn by NAPs were identical in design to the naval aviator insignia worn by commissioned officers. The Silver Eagle title was a reflection; the U. S. Navy still has an unknown number of senior officers on active duty in the Regular Navy or serving in the Navy Reserve who were accessed as NAVCADs; these individuals entered service via the NAVCAD program during the mid/late 1980s and early 1990s when the program was reinstated following a hiatus of over twenty years. NAVCADs were non-commissioned cadets who were required to have a minimum of 60 college credit hours to enter flight training and were accessed only through the now defunct Aviation Officer Candidate School program. Upon completion of AOCS, NAVCADS would enter into flight training and upon successful completion of training and designation as a naval aviator would be commissioned as officers with a reserve commission in an active duty status. After completion of their initial operational flying tour, they would receive an assignment to complete their bachelor's degree.
NAVCADs who failed to complete flight training were contractually obligated to enter fleet service as undesignated enlisted personnel. The last civilian applicants were accepted into the NAVCAD program in 1992 and the program was canceled on October 1, 1993. Except for an small number of enlisted personnel selected to attend flight school subsequent to completing the STA-21, OCS, USMMA, USNA or USCGA programs, all other student naval aviators must first obtain an officer commission. To become a naval aviator, non-prior service personnel must be between the ages of 19 and 27 when entering flight training. Adjustments can be made up to 24 months for those with prior service, up to 48 months for those in the military at the time of application or for Marine Corps platoon leader's course applicants with prior enlisted service. Navy and Marine Corps officers are commissioned through five sources: the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. A smaller number were commissioned via the Navy's limited duty officer or chief warrant officer programs, but this track has since been discontinued.
Coast Guard Officers receive their commissions either from the United States Coast Guard Academy or Coast Guard Officer Candidate School, both located in New London, Connecticut. Graduates of these programs are commissioned as Navy ensigns in the U. S. Navy or U. S. Coast Guard, or as second lieutenants in the Marine Corps. All individuals must p
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases. Naval aviation is projected to a position nearer the target by way of an aircraft carrier. Carrier-based aircraft must be sturdy enough to withstand demanding carrier operations, they must be able to launch in a short distance and be sturdy and flexible enough to come to a sudden stop on a pitching flight deck. These aircraft are designed for many purposes, including air-to-air combat, surface attack, submarine attack and rescue, matériel transport, weather observation and wide area command and control duties. Early experiments on the use of kites for naval reconnaissance took place in 1903 at Woolwich Common for the Admiralty. Samuel Franklin Cody demonstrated the capabilities of his 8 foot long black kite and it was proposed for use as either a mechanism to hold up wires for wireless communications or as a manned reconnaissance device that would give the viewer the advantage of considerable height.
In 1908 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith approved the formation of an "Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence" to investigate the potential for naval aviation. In 1909 this body accepted the proposal of Captain Reginald Bacon made to the First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher that rigid airships should be constructed for the Royal Navy to be used for reconnaissance; this resulted in the construction of Mayfly in 1909, the first air component of the navy to become operational, the genesis of modern naval aviation. The first pilots for the Royal Navy were transferred from the Royal Aero Club in June 1910 along with two aircraft with which to train new pilots, an airfield at Eastchurch became the Naval Flying School, the first such facility in the world. Two hundred applications were received, four were accepted: Lieutenant C R Samson, Lieutenant A M Longmore, Lieutenant A Gregory and Captain E L Gerrard, RMLI; the French established a naval aviation capability in 1910 with the establishment of the Service Aeronautique and the first flight training schools.
U. S. naval aviation began with pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss who contracted with the United States Navy to demonstrate that airplanes could take off from and land aboard ships at sea. One of his pilots, Eugene Ely, took off from the cruiser USS Birmingham anchored off the Virginia coast in November 1910. Two months Ely landed aboard another cruiser, USS Pennsylvania, in San Francisco Bay, proving the concept of shipboard operations. However, the platforms erected on; the U. S. Navy and Glenn Curtiss experienced two firsts during January 1911. On 27 January, Curtiss flew the first seaplane from the water at San Diego Bay and the next day U. S. Navy Lt. Theodore G. Ellyson, a student at the nearby Curtiss School, took off in a Curtiss "grass cutter" plane to become the first naval aviator. $25,000 was appropriated for the Bureau of Navigation to purchase three airplanes and in the spring of 1911 four additional officers were trained as pilots by the Wright brothers and Curtiss. A camp with a primitive landing field was established on the Severn River at Greenbury Point, near Annapolis, Maryland.
The group expanded with the addition of six aviators in 1912 and five in 1913, from both the Navy and Marine Corps, conducted maneuvers with the Fleet from the battleship USS Mississippi, designated as the Navy's aviation ship. Meanwhile, Captain Henry C. Mustin tested the concept of the catapult launch in August 1912, in 1915 made the first catapult launching from a ship underway; the first permanent naval air station was established at Pensacola, Florida, in January 1914 with Mustin as its commanding officer. On April 24 of that year, for a period of 45 days afterward, five floatplanes and flying boats flown by ten aviators operated from Mississippi and the cruiser Birmingham off Veracruz and Tampico, Mexico conducting reconnaissance for troops ashore in the wake of the Tampico Affair. In January 1912, the British battleship HMS Africa took part in aircraft experiments at Sheerness, she was fitted for flying off aircraft with a 100-foot downward-sloping runway, installed on her foredeck, running over her forward 12-inch gun turret from her forebridge to her bow and equipped with rails to guide the aircraft.
The Gnome-engined Short Improved S.27 "S.38", pusher seaplane piloted by Lieutenant Charles Samson become the first British aircraft to take-off from a ship while at anchor in the River Medway, on 10 January 1912. Africa transferred her flight equipment to her sister ship Hibernia. In May 1912, with Commander Samson again flying the "S.38", the first instance of an aircraft to take off from a ship, under way occurred. Hibernia steamed at 10.5 knots at the Royal Fleet Review in England. Hibernia transferred her aviation equipment to battleship London. Based on these experiments, the Royal Navy concluded that aircraft were useful aboard ship for spotting and other purposes, but that interference with the firing of guns caused by the runway built over the foredeck and the danger and impracticality of recovering seaplanes that alighted in the water in anything but calm weather more than offset the desirability of having airplanes aboard. In 1912, the nascent naval air detachment in the United Kingdom was amalgamated to form the Royal Flying Corps and in 1913 a seaplane base on the Isle of Grain, an airship base at Kingsnorth and eight new airfields were approved for construction.
The first aircraft participation in naval manoeu
VA-52 (U.S. Navy)
VA-52 was an Attack Squadron of the U. S. Navy, it was established as U. S. Navy Reserve Fighter Squadron VF-884 on 1 November 1949, called to active duty on 20 July 1950, it was redesignated VF-144 on 4 February 1953, VA-52 on 23 February 1959. The squadron was nicknamed the Bitter Birds from about 1951–1953, the Knightriders from about 1960 onward, its insignia evolved through several versions from 1951–1960. VA-52 was decommissioned on 31 March 1995. 20 July 1950: VF-884 called to active duty as a result of the Korean War. 28 July 1950: Squadron reported for active duty at NAS San Diego. March 1951: In the part of March, VF-884 aircraft conducted their first combat operations, flying close air support missions along Korea’s eastern coast from USS Boxer. 24 May 1951: VF-884’s first Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Commander G. F. Carmichael died after parachuting from his F4U, hit by enemy ground fire. 4 October 1952: Lieutenant E. F. Johnson was attacked and shot down by enemy MiG-15 aircraft; this was the first CVG-101 aircraft shot down by enemy aircraft.
8 November 1952: Lieutenant Commander Bowen, VF-884’s third Commanding Officer, was listed as missing in action when his aircraft crashed near Pyongyang, North Korea. 4 February 1953: VF-884 was redesignated VF-144 during its second combat tour in Korea aboard USS Kearsarge. In this change, the reserve squadron number was replaced by an active squadron number. 21 February 1953: VF-144 completed the last line period of its second combat tour in Korea. Its primary missions had been close air support of ground troops, interdiction of enemy main supply routes, the destruction of military supplies and troops. 18 August 1958: The squadron returned to NAS Miramar following USS Ranger's first major deployment. The cruise took the squadron from Virginia to California, via Cape Horn, transferring Ranger from the Atlantic Fleet to the Pacific Fleet. 23 February 1959: The squadron’s mission was changed to attack and it was redesignated VA-52. 13 July–1 August 1964: VA-52 aircraft participated in Yankee Team operations in South Vietnam and Laos, involving aerial reconnaissance to detect Communist military presence and operations.
Other missions included Search and Rescue. 2–4 August 1964: During a Desoto Patrol mission, USS Maddox was attacked by three motor torpedo boats on 2 August off the coast of North Vietnam. Following this incident the squadron flew 44 sorties in support of the destroyers on the Desoto Patrol. 4 August 1964: During the night, two destroyers on Desoto Patrol, USS Turner Joy and USS Maddox, believing themselves under attack by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats, called for air support. Several A-1H Skyraiders from the squadron, along with several F-8 Crusaders, were launched from USS Ticonderoga. Commander George H. Edmondson and Lieutenant Jere A. Barton reported gun flashes and bursts of light at their altitude which they felt came from enemy antiaircraft fire. 5 August 1964: Four VA-52 A-1s, piloted by Commander L. T. McAdams, Lieutenant Commander L. E. Brumbach and Lieutenant s R. E. Moore and P. A. Carter, participated in Operation Pierce Arrow, retaliatory strikes against North Vietnam. Along with other aircraft from CVG-5, they struck the Vinh oil storage facilities and destroyed about ninety percent of the complex.
The four aircraft returned with no battle damage. 6–29 October 1964: The squadron conducted rescue combat air patrol missions in support of “Yankee Team” operations. 7 February 1966: Lieutenant Harvey M. Browne was awarded the Silver Star for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity during rescue missions in the Republic of Vietnam. 13 April 1966: Commander John C. Mape was killed in action. 21 April 1966: The squadron completed its second combat tour of duty in Vietnam, having participated in Operation Rolling Thunder, designed to interdict the enemy’s lines of communication into Laos and South Vietnam. 9 March 1967: Commander John F. Wanamaker received the Silver Star for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity during operations against North Vietnam. 27 April 1967: This was the last day of line operations for VA-52 and the completion of her third combat tour to Vietnam. During this deployment, squadron operations included rescue combat air patrol missions, coastal reconnaissance, Operation Steel Tiger missions and Operation Sea Dragon operations.
Steel Tiger involved concentrated strikes in southern Laos. Sea Dragon involved spotting for naval gunfire support against waterborne cargo and coastal radar and gun battery sites. 7 September 1968: VA-52 deployed aboard USS Coral Sea. This was the first A-6 Intruder deployment aboard a Midway-class aircraft carrier. 8 December 1970 – 23 June 1971: During this period VA-52’s main emphasis was on operations in Laos against the enemy’s lines of communication and their transportation networks. 23 November 1971: Commander Lennart R. Salo became the first Naval Flight Officer to command an A-6 Intruder squadron. 3 April 1972: VA-52 commenced line operations from Yankee Station a few days earlier than scheduled as a result of the North Vietnamese invasion on 30 March. During this line period heavy air raids were conducted against North Vietnam; these were the first major heavy air raids into North Vietnam since October 1968 and became known as Operation Freedom Train. 16 April 1972: VA-52 conducted strikes in the Haiphong and Thanh Hoa as part of Operation Freedom Porch.
9 May 1972: Operation Pocket Money, the mining of Haiphong harbor, was launched. VA-52’s Intruders took part in a diversionary attack at Phu Qui railroad yard while aircraft from Coral Sea conducted the actual mining. 10 May 1972: Operation Linebacker operations began and involved concen
USS Randolph (CV-15)
USS Randolph was one of 24 Essex-class aircraft carriers built during World War II for the United States Navy. The second US Navy ship to bear the name, she was named for Peyton Randolph, president of the First Continental Congress. Randolph was commissioned in October 1944, served in several campaigns in the Pacific Theater of Operations, earning three battle stars. Decommissioned shortly after the end of the war, she was modernized and recommissioned in the early 1950s as an attack carrier, eventually became an antisubmarine carrier. In her second career she operated in the Atlantic and Caribbean. In the early 1960s she served as the recovery ship for two Project Mercury space missions, including John Glenn's historic first orbital flight, she was decommissioned in 1969 and sold for scrap in 1975. Randolph was one of the "long-hull" Essex-class ships, she was laid down on 10 May 1943 at Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.. Newport News, Virginia, she was sponsored by Rose Gillette. Randolph commissioned on 9 October 1944, Captain Felix Locke Baker, USN in command.
Following shakedown off Trinidad, Randolph got underway for the Pacific. On 31 December, she reached San Francisco where Air Group 87 was detached and Air Group 12 reported on board for four months duty. On 20 January 1945, Randolph departed San Francisco for Ulithi, from which she sortied on 10 February with Task Force 58, she launched attacks on 16 -- 17 February against the Tachikawa engine plant. The following day, she made a strike on the island of Chichi Jima. On 20 February, she launched three aerial sweeps in support of ground forces invading Iwo Jima and two against Haha Jima. During the next four days, further strikes hit Iwo Jima and combat air patrols were flown continuously. Three sweeps against airfields in the Tokyo area and one against Hachijo Jima followed on 25 February before the carrier returned to Ulithi. Riding at anchor at Ulithi on 11 March, a Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" kamikaze hit Randolph on the starboard side aft just below the flight deck, killing 27 men and wounding 105 during Operation Tan No. 2.
Repaired at Ulithi, Randolph joined the Okinawa Task Force on 7 April. Combat air patrols were flown daily until 14 April, when strikes were sent against Okinawa, Ie Shima, Kakeroma Island; the following day, an air support mission of fighters and torpedo planes hit Okinawa and a fighter sweep struck an airfield in southern Kyūshū. Under daily air attack from 17 April on, Randolph continued to send her aircraft on CAP and support missions throughout the month. In May, planes from the carriers hit the Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan, Kikai naval base and airfields, Kyūshū airfields. Becoming the flagship of TF 58 on 15 May, Randolph continued her support of the occupation of Okinawa until 29 May, when she retired via Guam to the Philippines. On her next war cruise, as a part of Admiral Halsey's 3rd Fleet, Randolph made a series of strikes up and down the Japanese home islands. With Air Group 16 replacing Air Group 12, the ship launched eight raids on 10 July against airfields in the Tokyo area, principally those on the peninsula east of Tokyo Bay.
On the 14th, her planes struck the airfields and shipping near Tsugaru Strait. In this attack, two of the important Honshū-Hokkaidō train ferries were sunk and three were damaged. Attacks on the Japanese home islands continued for the next few days, on 18 July, the Japanese battleship Nagato – lying camouflaged alongside a pier at the Yokosuka Naval Base – was bombed. Moving southwest and other carriers were off the coast of Shikoku on 24 July, for an anti-shipping sweep of the Inland Sea, during which the carrier-battleship Hyūga was damaged and airfields and industrial installations on Kyūshū, Honshū, Shikoku were hit hard. Randolph's pilots estimated that from 10–25 July they had destroyed 25 to 30 ships, ranging in size from small luggers to a 6000-ton freighter, had damaged 35 to 40 others. Randolph's strikes continued right up to the morning of the 15 August surrender, when her planes hit Kisarazu Airfield and surrounding installations. Following the end of the war, Randolph headed home.
Transiting the Panama Canal in late September, she arrived at Naval Station Norfolk on 15 October, where she was rigged for "Magic Carpet" service. Before the end of the year, she completed two trips to the Mediterranean area to return American servicemen. In 1946, she became a training ship for reservists and midshipmen, made a Mediterranean cruise in the latter half of the year. After another voyage to the Caribbean, she embarked midshipmen in the early summer of 1947 for a cruise to northern European waters. Randolph was placed out of commission, in reserve, 25 February 1948, berthed at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. In June 1951, Randolph commenced her SCB-27A modernization program at Norfolk Naval Shipyard. To handle the new generation of carrier aircraft, the flight deck structure was reinforced. Stronger elevators, more powerful hydraulic catapults, new arresting gear were installed; the island structure was rebuilt, the anti-aircraft turrets were removed, blisters were added to the hull.
Reclassified CVA-15 on 1 October 1952, Randolph recommissioned on 1 July 1953. After shakedown off Guantanamo Bay with Carrier Air Group 10, she took on Carrier Air Group 14, departed Norfolk for the Mediterranean, joined the 6th Fleet on 3 February 1954. Deployed to the Mediterranean for 6 months of Fleet and NATO exercises in 1954–1955, Randolph entered the Norfolk Nava
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
A test pilot is an aircraft pilot with additional training to fly and evaluate experimental, newly produced and modified aircraft with specific manoeuvres known as flight test techniques. In the 1950s, test pilots were being killed at the rate of about one a week, but the risks have shrunk to a fraction of that due to the maturation of aircraft technology, better ground-testing and simulation of aircraft performance, fly-by-wire technology and the use of unmanned aerial vehicles to test experimental aircraft features. Still, piloting experimental aircraft remains more dangerous than most other types of flying. A test pilot must be able to: Understand a test plan. Communicate flight test observations to engineers and relate engineering results to the pilot community, thus bridging the gap between those who design and build aircraft with those who employ the aircraft to accomplish a mission. Test pilots must have an excellent knowledge of aeronautical engineering, in order to understand how and why planes are tested.
They must be above-average pilots with excellent analytical skills and the ability to fly whilst following a flight plan. Test pilots can be production test pilots. Modern test pilots receive formal training from highly-selective military test pilot schools, although other test pilots receive training and experience from civilian institutions and/or manufacturers' test pilot development programs. Test flying as a systematic activity started during the First World War, at the Royal Aircraft Establishment in the United Kingdom. An "Experimental Flight" was formed at the Central Flying School. During the 1920s, test flying was further developed by the RAE in the UK, by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in the United States. In the 1950s, NACA was transformed into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA. During these years, as work was done into aircraft stability and handling qualities, test flying evolved towards a more qualitative scientific profession. At the insistence of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the first American astronauts, the Mercury Seven, were all military test pilots, as were some of the astronauts.
The world's oldest test pilot school is what is now called the Empire Test Pilots' School, at RAF Boscombe Down in the UK. There are a number of similar establishments over the world. In America, the United States Air Force Test Pilot School is located at Edwards Air Force Base, the United States Naval Test Pilot School is located at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland and EPNER, the French test pilot school, is located in Istres, France; the only civilian school in the United States is the National Test Pilot School, a not-for-profit educational institute located in Mojave, California. In Russia, there is a Russian aviation industry Fedotov Test Pilot School located in Zhukovsky within the Gromov Flight Research Institute. Aircraft pilot List of test pilot schools The Right Stuff by Tom Wolfe List of Russian aviators Hallion, Richard P. Test Pilots: Frontiersmen of Flight. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0874745498 Warsitz, Lutz: THE FIRST JET PILOT - The Story of German Test Pilot Erich Warsitz and Sword Books Ltd.
England, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84415-818-8 The Society of Experimental Test Pilots Society of Flight Test Engineers Empire Test Pilots School, United Kingdom National Test Pilot School, California U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School, Edwards AFB, California U. S. Naval Test Pilot School, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland EPNER Fedotov Test Pilot School, Russia Memorial website for test pilots who died in flying accidents in the UK Flight list of display and test pilots at 1957 Farnborough air show Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment, Canadian Flight Test Centre Indian Air Force Test Pilots School, Bangalore The Scott Crossfield Foundation website on Erich Warsitz Official European test for pilots