Lawrence County, Kentucky
Lawrence County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,860, its county seat is Louisa. The county is named for James Lawrence, co-founded by Isaac Bolt, who served as a Lawrence County Commissioner and Justice of the Peace. Lawrence County is the home of bluegrass country music star Tyler Childers, it is the birthplace of the late Chief Justice of the United States Frederick Moore Vinson and former Kentucky Governor Paul E. Patton. In regard to alcoholic beverage sales, Lawrence County is a wet county as of 2014, meaning the sale of alcoholic beverages is no longer prohibited everywhere in the county. Lawrence County was established in 1821 from land given by Greenup Counties. Four courthouses have served Lawrence County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 420 square miles, of which 416 square miles is land and 4.5 square miles is water. The bridge from Louisa, in eastern Lawrence County, to Fort Gay, West Virginia is something of a geographic and architectural oddity.
The quarter-mile concrete span spans across the Levisa Fork and the Tug River that come together and form the Big Sandy River, connects two states and has a right turn at its halfway point, which connects traffic to the Point Section neighborhood of Louisa. Yatesville Lake was opened in 1992 and is a 2,300 acres reservoir managed by the Army Corps of Engineers. Yatesville Lake provides flood control for the region as well as recreational opportunities; the Corps manages a boat ramp at the Rich Creek area. Carter County Boyd County Wayne County, West Virginia Martin County Johnson County Morgan County Elliott County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,569 people, 5,954 households, 4,477 families residing in the county; the population density was 37 per square mile. There were 7,040 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.93% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races.
0.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,954 households out of which 35.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.30% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.80% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $21,610, the median income for a family was $26,113. Males had a median income of $30,735 versus $19,174 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,008.
About 25.30% of families and 30.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.00% of those under age 18 and 27.30% of those age 65 or over. Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Lawrence County, Kentucky Lawrence County Schools Lawrence County Tourism Commission The Kentucky Highlands Project
1984 United States presidential election in Minnesota
The 1984 United States presidential election in Minnesota took place on November 6, 1984, in Minnesota as part of the 1984 United States presidential election. The Democratic Party candidate, former Vice President Walter Mondale, narrowly won his home state over incumbent President Ronald Reagan by just 3,761 votes, giving him his only state victory in the election, resulting in the state weighing in at around 18% more Democratic than the nation at large. Minnesota was the only state not to back Reagan in either of his presidential campaigns. Since all 49 other states went to the Republican Party in 1984, this established Minnesota's status as the state with the longest streak of voting Democratic; as of the 2016 presidential election, it still has not voted for a Republican presidential candidate since 1972. However, the District of Columbia has voted Democratic in all presidential elections since 1964 when it was first granted the right to vote for president. United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1972, the only state to vote Democratic in 1972, like Minnesota was in 1984
1972 United States presidential election
The 1972 United States presidential election was the 47th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon defeated Democratic Senator George McGovern of South Dakota. Nixon swept aside challenges from two Republican congressmen in the 1972 Republican primaries to win re-nomination. McGovern, who had played a significant role in reforming the Democratic nomination system after the 1968 election, mobilized the anti-war movement and other liberal supporters to win his party's nomination. Among the candidates he defeated were early front-runner Edmund Muskie, 1968 nominee Hubert Humphrey, Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, the first African-American to run for a major party's presidential nomination. Nixon emphasized the strong economy and his success in foreign affairs, while McGovern ran on a platform calling for an immediate end to the Vietnam War, the institution of a guaranteed minimum income. Nixon maintained a consistent lead in polling.
Separately, Nixon's reelection committee broke into the Watergate Hotel to wiretap the Democratic National Committee's headquarters, a scandal that would be known as "Watergate". McGovern's campaign was further damaged by the revelation that his running mate, Thomas Eagleton, had undergone psychiatric electroshock therapy as a treatment for depression. Eagleton was replaced on the ballot by Sargent Shriver. Nixon won the election in a landslide, taking 60.7% of the popular vote and carrying 49 states, he was the first Republican to sweep the South. McGovern took just 37.5% of the popular vote, while John G. Schmitz of the American Independent Party won 1.4% of the vote. Nixon received 18 million more votes than McGovern, he holds the record for the widest popular vote margin in any United States presidential election; the 1972 presidential election was the first since the ratification of the 26th Amendment, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Within two years of the election, both Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned from office, the former due to Watergate and the latter to a separate corruption charge, Nixon was succeeded by Gerald Ford.
Overall, fifteen people declared their candidacy for the Democratic Party nomination. They were: George McGovern, Senator from South Dakota Hubert Humphrey, Senator from Minnesota and former Vice President, presidential nominee in 1968 George Wallace, Governor of Alabama Edmund Muskie, Senator from Maine, vice presidential nominee in 1968 Eugene J. McCarthy, former Senator from Minnesota Henry M. Jackson, Senator from Washington Shirley Chisholm, Representative of New York's 12th congressional district Terry Sanford, former Governor of North Carolina John Lindsay, Mayor of New York City, New York Wilbur Mills, Representative of Arkansas's 2nd congressional district Vance Hartke, Senator from Indiana Fred Harris, Senator from Oklahoma Sam Yorty, Mayor of Los Angeles, California Patsy Mink, Representative of Hawaii's 2nd congressional district Walter Fauntroy, Delegate from Washington, D. C. Reubin Askew, former Governor of Florida Senate Majority Whip Ted Kennedy, the youngest brother of late President John F. Kennedy and late United States Senator Robert F. Kennedy, was the favorite to win the 1972 nomination, but he announced he would not be a candidate.
The favorite for the Democratic nomination became Senator Ed Muskie, the 1968 vice-presidential nominee. Muskie's momentum collapsed just prior to the New Hampshire primary, when the so-called "Canuck letter" was published in the Manchester Union-Leader; the letter a forgery from Nixon's "dirty tricks" unit, claimed that Muskie had made disparaging remarks about French-Canadians – a remark to injure Muskie's support among the French-American population in northern New England. Subsequently, the paper published an attack on the character of Muskie's wife Jane, reporting that she drank and used off-color language during the campaign. Muskie made an emotional defense of his wife in a speech outside the newspaper's offices during a snowstorm. Though Muskie stated that what had appeared to the press as tears were melted snowflakes, the press reported that Muskie broke down and cried, shattering the candidate's image as calm and reasoned. Nearly two years before the election, South Dakota Senator George McGovern entered the race as an anti-war, progressive candidate.
McGovern was able to pull together support from the anti-war movement and other grassroots support to win the nomination in a primary system he had played a significant part in designing. On January 25, 1972, New York Representative Shirley Chisholm announced she would run, became the first African-American woman to run for the Democratic or Republican presidential nomination. Hawaii Representative Patsy Mink announced she would run and became the first Asian American to run for the Democratic presidential nomination. On April 25, George McGovern won the Massachusetts primary. Two days journalist Robert Novak quoted a "Democratic senator" revealed to be Thomas Eagleton as saying: "The people don't know McGovern is for amnesty and legalization of pot. Once middle America – Catholic middle America, in particular – finds this out, he's dead." The label stuck and McGovern became known as the candidate of "amnesty and acid". It became Humphrey's battle cry to stop McGovern—especially in the Nebraska primary.
Alabama Governor George Wallace, an anti-integrationist, did well in the South and among alienated and dissatisfied voters in the North. What might have become a forceful campaign was cut short when Wallace was shot in an assassination attempt by Arthur Bremer on May 15. Wallace was left paralyzed from the waist down; the day
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1936, it responded to needs for relief and recovery from the Great Depression. Major federal programs included the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Civil Works Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Social Security Administration, they provided support for farmers, the unemployed and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt; the programs focused on what historians refer to as the "3 Rs": relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy back to normal levels and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority with its base in liberal ideas, the South, traditional Democrats, big city machines and the newly empowered labor unions and ethnic minorities. The Republicans were split, with conservatives opposing the entire New Deal as hostile to business and economic growth and liberals in support; the realignment crystallized into the New Deal coalition that dominated presidential elections into the 1960s while the opposing conservative coalition controlled Congress in domestic affairs from 1937 to 1964. By 1936, the term "liberal" was used for supporters of the New Deal and "conservative" for its opponents. From 1934 to 1938, Roosevelt was assisted in his endeavors by a "pro-spender" majority in Congress. In the 1938 midterm election and his liberal supporters lost control of Congress to the bipartisan conservative coalition. Many historians distinguish between a First New Deal and a Second New Deal, with the second one more liberal and more controversial.
The First New Deal dealt with the pressing banking crises through the Emergency Banking Act and the 1933 Banking Act. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided $500 million for relief operations by states and cities, while the short-lived CWA gave locals money to operate make-work projects in 1933–1934; the Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to prevent a repeated stock market crash. The controversial work of the National Recovery Administration was part of the First New Deal; the Second New Deal in 1935–1938 included the Wagner Act to protect labor organizing, the Works Progress Administration relief program, the Social Security Act and new programs to aid tenant farmers and migrant workers. The final major items of New Deal legislation were the creation of the United States Housing Authority and the FSA, which both occurred in 1937; the FSA was one of the oversight authorities of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, which administered relief efforts to Puerto Rican citizens affected by the Great Depression.
The economic downturn of 1937–1938 and the bitter split between the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations labor unions led to major Republican gains in Congress in 1938. Conservative Republicans and Democrats in Congress joined in the informal conservative coalition. By 1942–1943, they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and the CCC and blocked major liberal proposals. Nonetheless, Roosevelt turned his attention to the war effort and won reelection in 1940–1944. Furthermore, the Supreme Court declared the NRA and the first version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional, but the AAA was rewritten and upheld. Republican president Dwight D. Eisenhower left the New Deal intact expanding it in some areas. In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard Nixon retained. However, after 1974 the call for deregulation of the economy gained bipartisan support.
The New Deal regulation of banking lasted. Several New Deal programs remain active and those operating under the original names include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority; the largest programs still in existence today are the Social Security System and the Securities and Exchange Commission. From 1929 to 1933 manufacturing output decreased by one third, which economists call the Great Contraction. Prices fell by 20 %. Unemployment in the United States increased from 4% to 25%. Additionally, one-third of all employed persons were downgraded to working part-time on much smaller paychecks. In the aggregate 50% of the nation's human work-power was going unused. Before the New Deal, there was no insurance on deposits at banks; when thousands of banks closed, depositors lost their savings as at that time there was no national safety net, no public unemployment insurance and no Social Security.
Relief for the poor was the respons
Jefferson County, Kentucky
Jefferson County is a county located in the U. S. Commonwealth of Kentucky; as of the 2010 census, the population was 741,096. It is the most populous county in the commonwealth. Since a city-county merger in 2003, the county's territory and government have been coextensive with the city of Louisville, which serves as county seat; the administrative entity created by this merger is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Jefferson County is the anchor of the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana. Jefferson County—originally Jefferson County, Virginia—was established by the Virginia General Assembly in June 1780, when it abolished and partitioned Kentucky County into three counties: Fayette and Lincoln. Named for Thomas Jefferson, governor of Virginia at the time, it is one of Kentucky's nine original counties. In 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, George Rogers Clark's militia and 60 civilian settlers, established the first American settlement in the county on Corn Island in the Ohio River, at head of the Falls of the Ohio.
They moved to the mainland the following year. Richard Mentor Johnson, the 9th Vice President of the United States, was born in Jefferson County in 1780, while the family was living in a settlement along the Beargrass Creek; the last major American Indian raid in present-day Jefferson County was the Chenoweth Massacre on July 17, 1789. Whenever possible, the metro government avoids any self-reference including the name "Jefferson County" and has renamed the Jefferson County Courthouse as Metro Hall. Prior to the 2003 merger, the head of local government was the County Judge/Executive, a post that still exists but now has few powers; the office is held by Queenie Averette. Local government is now led by the Mayor of Louisville Metro, Greg Fischer. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 398 square miles, of which 380 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water; the Ohio River forms its northern boundary with the state of Indiana. The highest point is South Park Hill, elevation 902 feet, located in the southern part of the county.
The lowest point is 383 feet along the Ohio River just north of West Point. As of the census of 2000, there were 693,604 people, 287,012 households, 183,113 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,801 per square mile. There were 305,835 housing units at an average density of 794 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.38% White, 18.88% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.39% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 1.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 287,012 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.20% were married couples living together, 14.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.20% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,789, the median income for a family was $49,161. Males had a median income of $36,484 versus $26,255 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,352. About 9.50% of families and 12.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.10% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. NOTE: Since the formation of Louisville Metro on January 6, 2003, residents of the cities below became citizens of the newly expanded Metro, but none of the incorporated places dissolved in the process; the functions served by the county government for the towns were assumed by Louisville Metro. However, the former City of Louisville was absorbed into the new city-county government. † Formerly a census-designated place in the county, but, in 2003, these places became neighborhoods within the city limits of Louisville Metro.
Jefferson County Public Schools Jefferson County Sunday School Association Louisville/Jefferson County metro government, Kentucky National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Kentucky Jefferson County Clerks Office Jefferson County Sheriff's Office Louisville/Jefferson County Information Consortium Louisville Metro
Kentucky's 5th congressional district
Kentucky's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Kentucky. Located in the heart of Appalachia in Southeastern Kentucky, the rural district is the second most impoverished district in the nation and, as of the 2010 U. S. Census, it has the highest percentage of White Americans in the nation. Located within the district are the economic leading cities of Pikeville, Middlesborough, Jackson, Ashland and Somerset; the current 5th congressional district is one of the few ancestrally Republican regions south of the Ohio River. Much of the region now in the district supported the Union in the Civil War, identified with the Republicans after hostilities ceased. Much of the eastern portion of the district was once part of the disbanded 7th congressional district, long a Democratic stronghold; the 7th district was disbanded in 1992 after the 1990 census showed that the state's population could no longer support seven districts. Geographically, the district consists of flat land areas to the west, to Appalachia highland mountains to the east and southeast.
To the north to northeast of the district are rolling hills that end at the Ohio River. The district is represented by Republican Harold D. "Hal" Rogers, the dean of the Kentucky delegation. Congressman Rogers serves in various top leadership positions in the U. S. House of Representatives; as of September 2013, there were 510,329 registered voters: 253,798 Democrats, 235,470 Republicans, 21,061 "Others". All of the "Others" included 15,344 unclassified Others, 5,385 Independents, 241 Libertarians, 43 Greens, 21 Constitutionalists, 20 Reforms, 7 Socialist Workers; until January 1, 2006, Kentucky did not track party affiliation for registered voters who were neither Democratic nor Republican. The Kentucky voter registration card does not explicitly list anything other than Democratic Party, Republican Party, or Other, with the "Other" option having a blank line and no instructions on how to register as something else. Kentucky's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present