click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Elliptical galaxy

An elliptical galaxy is a type of galaxy with an ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless image. They are one of the three main classes of galaxy described by Edwin Hubble in his Hubble sequence and 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae, along with spiral and lenticular galaxies. Elliptical galaxies are, together with lenticular galaxies with their large-scale disks, ES galaxies with their intermediate scale disks, a subset of the "early-type" galaxy population. Most elliptical galaxies are composed of older, low-mass stars, with a sparse interstellar medium and minimal star formation activity, they tend to be surrounded by large numbers of globular clusters. Elliptical galaxies are believed to make up 10–15% of galaxies in the Virgo Supercluster, they are not the dominant type of galaxy in the universe overall, they are preferentially found close to the centers of galaxy clusters. Elliptical galaxies range in size from tens of millions to over one hundred trillion stars. Edwin Hubble hypothesized that elliptical galaxies evolved into spiral galaxies, discovered to be false, although the accretion of gas and smaller galaxies may build a disk around a pre-existing ellipsoidal structure.

Stars found inside of elliptical galaxies are on average much older than stars found in spiral galaxies. M49 M59 M60 M87 M89 M105 IC one of the largest galaxies in the observable universe. Maffei 1, the closest giant elliptical galaxy. CGCG 049-033, known for having the longest galactic jet discovered. Centaurus A, an elliptical/lenticular radio galaxy with peculiar morphology and unusual dust lanes Elliptical galaxies are characterized by several properties that make them distinct from other classes of galaxy, they are ovoid masses of stars, starved of star-making gases. The smallest known elliptical galaxy is about one-tenth the size of the Milky Way; the motion of stars in elliptical galaxies is predominantly radial, unlike the disks of spiral galaxies, which are dominated by rotation. Furthermore, there is little interstellar matter, which results in low rates of star formation, few open star clusters, few young stars. Large elliptical galaxies have an extensive system of globular clusters.

The dynamical properties of elliptical galaxies and the bulges of disk galaxies are similar, suggesting that they may be formed by the same physical processes, although this remains controversial. The luminosity profiles of both elliptical galaxies and bulges are well fit by Sersic's law, a range of scaling relations between the elliptical galaxies' structural parameters unify the population; every massive elliptical galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center. Observations of 46 elliptical galaxies, 20 classical bulges, 22 pseudobulges show that each contain a black hole at the center; the mass of the black hole is correlated with the mass of the galaxy, evidenced through correlations such as the M–sigma relation which relates the velocity dispersion of the surrounding stars to the mass of the black hole at the center. Elliptical galaxies are preferentially found in compact groups of galaxies. Unlike flat spiral galaxies with organization and structure, elliptical galaxies are more three-dimensional, without much structure, their stars are in somewhat random orbits around the center.

Elliptical galaxies vary in both size and mass with diameters ranging from 3000 lightyears to more than 700,000 lightyears, masses from 105 to nearly 1013 solar masses. This range is much broader for this galaxy type than for any other; the smallest, the dwarf elliptical galaxies, may be no larger than a typical globular cluster, but contain a considerable amount of dark matter not present in clusters. Most of these small galaxies may not be related to other ellipticals; the Hubble classification of elliptical galaxies contains an integer that describes how elongated the galaxy image is. The classification is determined by the ratio of the major to the minor axes of the galaxy's isophotes: 10 × Thus for a spherical galaxy with a equal to b, the number is 0, the Hubble type is E0. While the limit in the literature is about E7, it has been known since 1966 that the E4 to E7 galaxies are misclassified lenticular galaxies with disks inclined at different angles to our line of sight; this has been confirmed through spectral observations revealing the rotation of their stellar disks.

Hubble recognized that his shape classification depends both on the intrinsic shape of the galaxy, as well as the angle with which the galaxy is observed. Hence, some galaxies with Hubble type E0 are elongated, it is sometimes said that there are two physical types of ellipticals: the giant ellipticals with "boxy"-shaped isophotes, whose shapes result from random motion, greater in some directions than in others. This is, however, an abuse of the nomenclature, as there two types of early-type galaxy, those with disks and those without. Given the existence of ES galaxies with intermediate-scale disks, it is reasonable to expect that there is a continuity from E to ES, onto the S0 galaxies with their large-scale stellar disks that dominate the light at large radii. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies appear to be a distinct class: their properties are more similar to those of irregulars and late spiral-type galaxies. At the large e

James Bonamy

James Michael Bonamy is an American country music artist. He has released two studio albums (1996's What I Live to Do and 1997's Roots and Wings, both on the Epic Records Nashville label; these albums produced seven singles on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts, of which the highest-peaking was "I Don't Think I Will" at number 2. Bonamy was born in Winter Park, Florida in 1972. Growing up around the beach as well as around dirt car-racing tracks near his home, he played outside linebacker and fullback in high school football. Bonamy's father was of Lebanese descent, he graduated from Mainland High School in Daytona Beach, Florida in 1990. After graduating in the fall of 1990, he followed his brother to the University of Alabama, he spent most of his freshman year sitting in the off-campus apartment he and his brother shared, playing guitar and trying to write country songs. After performing on a local radio show in Alabama, he quit school to work at a gift shop in Orlando, Florida.

He performed in a program called "Country Music USA" at the Opryland USA theme park in Nashville, Tennessee. Bonamy competed on Star Search. In 1995, he was signed to Epic Records, his debut album, What I Live to Do, was released in 1996 under the production of Doug Johnson; the first single, "Dog on a Toolbox," peaked at number 64 on the Hot Country Songs charts, having been withdrawn as a single because label staff thought that there were too many songs about dogs at the time. After this song was withdrawn, its original b-side, "She's Got a Mind of Her Own" was shipped as the second single; this song peaked at 26 on the country music charts, followed by the number 2 hit "I Don't Think I Will" and the number 27 "All I Do Is Love Her." At the 1997 Country Music Association awards, Bonamy was nominated as Top New Male Vocalist, TNN Music City News nominated him as Star of Tomorrow. In addition, he toured in 1997 with Clay Walker and Terri Clark. Dan Kuchar of Country Standard Time gave the album a mixed review, praising Bonamy's voice but criticizing the songwriting on most of the tracks and saying that the album did not have a distinctive sound.

A second album and Wings, followed in 1997. Its lead-off single "The Swing" was his last top 40 hit at number 31. Bonamy wrote the track "I Knew I'd Need My Heart Someday" with Johnson and Pat Bunch, chose the title track at the suggestion of Epic's A&R director, Debbie Zavitson; this album received a mixed review from Country Standard Time, with Larry Stevens praising "Daddy Never Had a Chance in Hell" but criticizing the rest of the album for having a more pop-oriented sound. Thom Owens of Allmusic gave a three-star rating out of five, saying that he considered it an improvement over the debut. Bonamy has not recorded an album since 1997. By 2002, he had moved to Cypress, where he worked at a communications company, he served full time as a Worship Pastor at Christ Fellowship in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida from 2010-2012. He is married to Amy Jane and has three sons, Daniel and Sal, lives in Longview, Texas where he is a Pastor at his church home, Grace Creek Church

USS R-21 (SS-98)

USS R-21 was an R-class coastal and harbor defense submarine of the United States Navy. Her keel was laid down on 19 April 1917 by the Lake Torpedo Boat Company in Connecticut, she was launched on 10 July 1918 sponsored by Mrs. Dallas C. Laizure and commissioned on 17 June 1919 with Lieutenant Commander Morris D. Gilmore in command. Attached to Submarine Division 1, R-21 operated out of the submarine base at New London, Connecticut, she conducted diving and approach tactical training in Long Island Sound, conducted several training cruises in the vicinity of Block Island with other units of the division. Following a recruiting cruise to New Haven and Bridgeport, Rhode Island, from 20 August to 27 August, she returned to New London for upkeep. R-21 continued practice dives off the coast into the fall with a call at the Torpedo Station, Rhode Island, on 21 October, she departed New London on 1 November 1919 in company with R-22, R-24, R-27, Eagle No. 31. Proceeding via Hampton Roads, North Carolina, Georgia, Key West, Havana and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

Following several practice dives out of Coco Solo, she transited the Panama Canal on 27 January 1920 for drydock work at Balboa. Returning to Coco Solo, R-21 continued to refine her diving and torpedo tactics through the spring and summer. During two trips to Almirante Bay, 30 March-2 April and 17–20 May, she practiced with other units of the first division. Given hull classification symbol SS-98 in July, R-21 again transited the canal to Balboa 27 September for a month in drydock. Upon returning to Coco Solo, she was laid up for 11 months of extensive overhaul, she sailed north on 26 September 1921 via Guantanamo Bay, Key West, New York City, arriving New London on 27 October. She sailed to New Hampshire, on 27 December for refitting. A successful test dive on 26 May 1922 meant. Through the spring and summer months she operated out of New Newport; the craft of Submarine Division 1 sailed from New London on 2 October 1922 for Coco Solo. R-21 served as flagship as the boats cruised via Hampton Guantanamo.

After 11 days out, R-24 developed engine trouble and was temporarily taken under tow by R-21. The Cuba-bound steamer SS Bethore rendered assistance, R-21 arrived at Coco Solo on 27 October. R-21 spent the rest of her active Navy days operating out of Coco Solo and undergoing repairs at Balboa, she sailed from Coco Solo for the last time 15 February 1923 in company with a tender and eight other submarines. Two days R-21's engines malfunctioned and she was towed into Guantanamo by the tender. Repairs were accomplished and R-21 sailed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 22 February, arriving there via Charleston, South Carolina, on 9 November 1923. Decommissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 21 June 1924, R-21 was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 9 May 1930 and sold for scrap 30 July 1930; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS R-21 at NavSource Naval History

B.A.R. (Bay Area Representatives)

B. A. R. is a collaborative studio album by American rappers Lil Frayser Boy. It was released on February 2014 via Phixieous Entertainment; the album was first mentioned on Lil Wytes album Phinally Phamous on the song "Big Ass Guns" back in 2004. Not much was known about it except that it was a collaboration album by Lil Wyte and Frayser boy and that it was said to be released sometime in 2005; the album never materialized though and wasn't mentioned again until 2012. On January 24, 2012, Lil Wyte posted on Twitter that he and Frayser Boy were starting work on B. A. R. Though nothing else was said about it afterwards on in 2013 August after releasing No Filter with JellyRoll the idea resurfaced on Twitter after Lil Wyte confirmed his new solo album No Sick Days and his album with Frayser Boy having the same title as it had. On the 10th of October they pre-released their first song from the album called "Moment Of Truth". On October 24, Frayser Boy confirmed that the album would be released in November though on November 19, Lil Wyte confirmed that the album is finished and it would be released in January.

On November 25, Lil Wyte posted a snippet of a track from the album on Facebook called "Fake Rappers". On the 3rd of December Lil Wyte confirmed that the release date of the album is January 21. On December 7, Lil Wyte uploaded part of the album's track list on instagram; the album cover was revealed on the 9th of December. On December 24, Lil Wyte confirmed on Facebook that the release date was pushed back to February 4. On January 1, 2014, a video was released for "Moment Of Truth". Producers on the album include Greenway, Big Boi Beats, Gezin Beats, Limit Beats, The Colleagues and Lil' Lody. Guests on the album include JellyRoll, La Chat, Miscellaneous, MJG and Thug Therapy. Guest rappers were confirmed by Lil Wyte on Twitter. Non album track "Moment of Truth"Notes "Moment of Truth" contains samples of "Moment of Truth", as performed by Willie Tee. "Come On Let's Go" features uncredited vocals by Gangsta Boo

Freddie Figgers

Freddie Figgers is a computer programmer, an African American Entrepreneur. He is the founder of [. Figgers lives in Coral Gates but was born in Quincy, Florida on September 26, 1989. Freddie as a newborn was left at the dumpster by his mother. Nathan and Betty Figgers adopted him. To help his father with the Alziemers disease, Freddie built a shoe with a GPS tracker with two-way communication; when he was 15 years old, Freddie started a cloud computing services company. At the age of 16 years, Freddie started Figgers Communication. By the time Freddie was 24, he had 80 custom software programs built and executed. Freddie has four patents, including the Figgers F1 Phone. Figgers has a license spectrum band from FCC. Figgers is involved in his Florida community by sponsoring youth programs, paying senior citizens bills and helping to bail for homes in foreclosure, as well as offering college scholarships to area high school seniors. Freddie Figgers website

List of members of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders

Including their antecedents, the 91st Regiment. A Major John Thompson McKellar Anderson VC DSO Sir Ian Fife Campbell Anstruther, of that Ilk, 8th Baronet of Balcaskie and 13th Baronet of Anstruther General Charles George James Arbuthnot, colonel of the 91st Regiment. B John Anderson Barstow MC, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Elder Beattie CMG CBE MC, Major John Hay Beith, CBE MC, Captain Claude Thomas Bissell, CC, FRSC, Major William Davidson Bissett VC Adam Black DCM Lieutenant General Sir Alexander Crawford Simpson Boswell KCB CBE DL, Major-General James Robert Brunker, John Crawford Buchan VC Adam Busby C David Cameron, Major General David Tennant Cowan CB, CBE, DSO, MC, 2Lt John Crawford Buchan VC Lieutenant-Colonel Charles William Campbell, 9th Earl of Breadalbane and Holland MC, DL, JP' General Duncan Campbell of Lochnell c1763-1837, Gavin Campbell, 1st Marquess of Breadalbane KG, PC, JP, DL, Captain Ian Campbell, 12th and 5th Duke of Argyll FRSA, Brigadier Lorne MacLaine Campbell VC, DSO & Bar, OBE, TD, Niall Diarmid Campbell, 10th and 3rd Duke of Argyll, Brigadier General Alfred Edward John Cavendish CMG Brigadier Henry James Douglas Clark, Thomas Horatio Arthur Ernest Cochrane, 1st Baron Cochrane of Cults DL, JP, LLD, Captain Sir Ivar Iain Colquhoun, 8th Baronet, JP, DL, Gen. James Robertson Craufurd Lieutenant Colonel Jock Cunningham.

Spanish Civil War International BrigadesD Colonel John McAusland Denny Charles Davidson Dunbar, DCM, Brig.-Maj. Archibald Campbell Douglas, 4th Baron Blythswood KCVO Lance Corporal John Dunlay VC, Lt-Col Raymond Durie of Durie, E George Carlyle Emslie, Baron Emslie. PC, MBE, Major John Francis Ashley Erskine, Lord Erskine GCSI, GCIE, Walter John Francis Erskine, 12th Earl of Mar and 14th Earl of Kellie KT JP F General John Fane, 11th Earl of Westmorland GCB, GCH, PC G 2Lt James Hill Galt Major John Ingles Gilmour DSO MC, Brigadier General Duncan John Glasfurd, Major-General Walter Tuckfield Goldsworthy, Ernest Gordon Sir Charles Stephen Gore Lieutenant General Andrew John Noble Graham CB CBE, Colonel Douglas Beresford Malise Ronald Graham, 5th Duke of Montrose KT, Lieutenant Colonel Sir John Reginald Noble Graham, 3rd Baronet VC OBE, Peter Grant VC, Air Vice Marshal Alexander Gray CB, MC, RAF, Hon. Ronald Henry Fulke Greville, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Witheridge Gubb, H Captain David Sidney Hall James "Big Jim" Healy, Acting Captain Arthur Henderson VC, MC, Lieutenant General Sir David Henderson KCB, KCVO, DSO, LLD, Captain Ian Henry David Henderson MC Alexander Forbes Hendry MC TD, Major Jack Herbert Lieutenant-Colonel Graham Seton Hutchison, Major-General Sir John Kennedy GBE CB CMG DSO, I J K L Pipe Major William Lawrie, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Lowther Ewart Clark Leask KCB DSO OBE, John Aidan Liddell VC, MC, M William Sutherland Macdonald MC, MB, CHB, DPH]] John Duncan Mackie CBE MC, Captain Henry Maitland Macintosh, Lt David Lowe MacIntyre VC, CB, David MacKay VC, Capt. Duncan Ronald Gordon Mackay.

D. F. C. Lieutenant-Colonel John Frederick MacKay VC, Colonel Charles Allan Maclean, CBE, MC, Croix de Guerre with palm, MA. General Sir Gordon Holmes Alexander MacMillan, Lord MacMillan of MacMillan of Knap, KCB, KCVO, CBE, DSO, MC, Lieutenant General Sir John Richard Alexander MacMillan KCB CBE Air Vice Marshal Sir Norman Duckworth Kerr MacEwen CB, CMG, DSO, RAF, Captain George Fielden MacLeod, Baron MacLeod of Fuinary, MC, Captain Dugald Malcolm, CMG CVO TD Major-General William McBean VC, Air Vice-Marshal Andrew MacGregor, Lt Col Colin Mitchell, Major Kenneth Muir VC, Colour-sergeant James Munro VC, William Hutchison Murray, N Captain Ian Patrick Robert Napier MC, Francis James Patrick Lilley, O Captain Charles Lindsay Orr-Ewing, P General Sir Charles Patrick Ralph Palmer, KCVO, KBE, Sgt John Paton VC, Richard Dunn Pattison, Glencairn Balfour Paul CMG, Q R Air Vice Marshal Sir George Ranald MacFarlane Reid KCB, DSO, MC, Sir Norman Robert Reid, Acting Sergeant John Rennie, GC, Major Frederick Joseph Ricketts Sir David Robertson, Major General Horatio Gordon Robley, Colonel Donald Grant Ross OBE, DLS Vernon Scannell, Col Sir Hugh Shaw-Stewart, 8th Baronet Brigadier I A Sim, CBE TD Colonel John Douglas Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim OBE, DL, FRGS Major Gordon Smith, Sir William McNair Snadden, 1st Baronet JP, Victor Marlborough Silvester OBE, Finlay Ballantyne Speedie MM Lt Col John David "Dave" Stewart DSO Brig Ian Stewart, Maj William George Drummond Stewart VC, 2Lt Walter Riddell Sutherland T Brigadier Ronald John Frederick "Ronni