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Elo rating system

The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess. It is named after a Hungarian-American physics professor; the Elo system was invented as an improved chess rating system over the used Harkness system, but is used as a rating system for multiplayer competition in a number of video games, association football, American football, Major League Baseball, table tennis, board games such as Diplomacy and other games. The difference in the ratings between two players serves as a predictor of the outcome of a match. Two players with equal ratings who play against each other are expected to score an equal number of wins. A player whose rating is 100 points greater than their opponent's is expected to score 64%. A player's Elo rating is represented by a number which may change depending on the outcome of rated games played. After every game, the winning player takes points from the losing one; the difference between the ratings of the winner and loser determines the total number of points gained or lost after a game.

If the high-rated player wins only a few rating points will be taken from the low-rated player. However, if the lower-rated player scores an upset win, many rating points will be transferred; the lower-rated player will gain a few points from the higher rated player in the event of a draw. This means. Players whose ratings are too low or too high should, in the long run, do better or worse correspondingly than the rating system predicts and thus gain or lose rating points until the ratings reflect their true playing strength. An Elo rating is a comparative rating only, is valid only within the rating pool where it was established. Arpad Elo was a master-level chess player and an active participant in the United States Chess Federation from its founding in 1939; the USCF used a numerical ratings system, devised by Kenneth Harkness, to allow members to track their individual progress in terms other than tournament wins and losses. The Harkness system was reasonably fair, but in some circumstances gave rise to ratings which many observers considered inaccurate.

On behalf of the USCF, Elo devised a new system with a more sound statistical basis. Elo's system replaced earlier systems of competitive rewards with a system based on statistical estimation. Rating systems for many sports award points in accordance with subjective evaluations of the'greatness' of certain achievements. For example, winning an important golf tournament might be worth an arbitrarily chosen five times as many points as winning a lesser tournament. A statistical endeavor, by contrast, uses a model that relates the game results to underlying variables representing the ability of each player. Elo's central assumption was that the chess performance of each player in each game is a distributed random variable. Although a player might perform better or worse from one game to the next, Elo assumed that the mean value of the performances of any given player changes only over time. Elo thought of a player's true skill as the mean of that player's performance random variable. A further assumption is necessary because chess performance in the above sense is still not measurable.

One cannot look at a sequence of moves and say, "That performance is 2039." Performance can only be inferred from wins and losses. Therefore, if a player wins a game, they are assumed to have performed at a higher level than their opponent for that game. Conversely, if the player loses, they are assumed to have performed at a lower level. If the game is a draw, the two players are assumed to have performed at nearly the same level. Elo did not specify how close two performances ought to be to result in a draw as opposed to a win or loss, and while he thought it was that players might have different standard deviations to their performances, he made a simplifying assumption to the contrary. To simplify computation further, Elo proposed a straightforward method of estimating the variables in his model. One could calculate easily from tables how many games players would be expected to win based on comparisons of their ratings to those of their opponents; the ratings of a player who won more games than expected would be adjusted upward, while those of a player who won fewer than expected would be adjusted downward.

Moreover, that adjustment was to be in linear proportion to the number of wins by which the player had exceeded or fallen short of their expected number. From a modern perspective, Elo's simplifying assumptions are not necessary because computing power is inexpensive and available. Moreover within the simplified model, more efficient estimation techniques are well known. Several people, most notably Mark Glickman, have proposed using more sophisticated statistical machinery to estimate the same variables. On the other hand, the computational simplicity of the Elo system has proven to be one of its greatest assets. With the aid of a pocket calculator, an informed chess competitor can calculate to within one point what their next published rating will be, which helps promote a perception that the ratings are fair; the USCF implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960, the system gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than the Harkness rating system. Elo's system was adopted by the World Chess Federation in 1970.

Elo described his work in some detail in the book The Rating of Chessplayers and Present, published in 1978. Subsequent statistical tests have suggested that chess performance is almo

Faculty of Conflict and Catastrophe Medicine

The Faculty of Conflict and Catastrophe Medicine operates under the Society of Apothecaries though it is considered a separate organisation with its own registered charity status. It was established in 2005, shortly after the London bombings where on review it was felt that medical organisations would benefit from training in dealing with extreme situations i.e. Conflict and Catastrophe Medicine; the main focus of the Faculty is the provision of education through its year-long postgraduate diploma Conflict and Catastrophe course. The faculty awards a student elective prize every year; the Faculty of Conflict and Catastrophe hold. The Faculty has hosted Ari Leppaniemi on the topic of advancements in surgery Kate Adie Stephanie Simmonds – on the topic of humanitarian Aid as a donor, UN and NGO stakeholder' Dr Roel Coutinho on the topic of Infectious Diseases in a Global Setting Dr Emer McGilloway on the topic of History and Recent Advances in the Rehabilitation of Brain Injured Personnel Society of Apothecaries Apothecaries' Rose Prize Apothecaries' Hall entrance

California State Route 39

State Route 39 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California that travels through Orange and Los Angeles counties. Its southern terminus is in Huntington Beach. SR 39's northern terminus is at Islip Saddle on Angeles Crest Highway in the Angeles National Forest, but its northernmost 4.5-mile segment has been closed to the public since 1978 due to a massive mud and rockslide. It would cost a total of $100 million USD to repair the road. A portion of SR 39 from Stanton Avenue in Buena Park to Interstate 5 is now under the city of Buena Park's control, as Caltrans relinquished that portion in 2013. Since 2001, a portion of SR 39 that runs through the city of Stanton has been considered for relinquishment to the city. If so, the portion that runs through the city of Anaheim will still be state controlled. Major places of interest along SR 39 are Knott's Berry Farm, an amusement park, Adventure City, another amusement park targeted for children, Huntington Beach, a local beach, a Medieval Times location, the Buena Park Auto Center, the Westridge Golf Course in La Habra.

State Route 39 runs along Beach Boulevard, with the exception of the segment between the southern city limit of Buena Park and Interstate 5, relinquished to the city in 2013. At Beach Boulevard's northerly terminus, Whittier Boulevard, Route 39 turns east to the intersection of Whittier Boulevard with Harbor Boulevard, taking over a former segment of Route 72. Route 72 remains on Whittier Boulevard west of Beach Boulevard. From 0.1-mile north of Grovecenter Street to the north limit of Azusa, 0.7-mile northeast of Rock Springs Way adopted Route 39 has been relinquished. However, to aid motorists wishing to continue on Route 39, California Route 39 shields remain through the relinquished area, it is noted that the portion of Route 39 within West Covina was relinquished to that city in accordance with Section 339 of the California Streets and Highways Code in 2005. In the city of Azusa from just north of Interstate 210 to just north of Sierra Madre Avenue, former Route 39 is a couplet: northbound traffic is on Azusa Avenue, southbound traffic is on San Gabriel Avenue.

At the north limit of Azusa, adopted Route 39 begins again as San Gabriel Canyon Road. Route 39 winds through the San Gabriel Mountains in the Angeles National Forest for 22.6 miles until it reaches a gate barring the road 0.25 miles north of Crystal Lake Road in the Crystal Lake Recreation Area. The last six miles of the route, including the connection to Route 2, are closed to public highway traffic, as the roadbed has been closed since 1978, due to major rock slides that year and again in 2005 which damaged more of the remaining roadbed; as of 2019, Google Maps lists this section of the road as an "available" route to connect to Route 2, but the section is, in fact, closed. A replacement of the section north of East Fork Road, in the next canyon to the east, was built in 1936 and 1961, but was never completed; the section includes two tunnels. In one local hiking guide the section is identified as the "Road to Nowhere" and the "Convict Road", although the official name is the Shoemaker Road and was planned to be an escape route in times of nuclear warfare.

A ca. 1967 replacement, much closer to the existing alignment, was stopped prematurely, so the middle of the segment between East Fork Road and the closure gate, with its many hairpin curves, still exists. SR 39 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, the urban portions of SR 39 are part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 39 is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. Although defined to be a continuous route, there is a break in adopted Route 39 at the intersection of Whittier Boulevard with Harbor Boulevard, where an "END 39" sign appears. Since 1992, when the Harbor Boulevard extension opened, the California Streets and Highways Code defines the continuation of Route 39 as "Harbor Boulevard to the vicinity of Fullerton Road, Colima Road west, Azusa Avenue north" through southwestern Rowland Heights.

After the overlap on Beach Boulevard, Route 39 used to turn north on Hacienda Road to the junction with the I-10 and followed for a mile before separating on Azusa Avenue, but that portion has since been relinquished to Los Angeles County and Route 39 was relocated to end on Harbor Boulevard. The planned alignment of Route 39 continues its northward progress on Azusa Avenue to the northwest in Hacienda Heights. Adopted Route 39 resumes and signs for Route 39 appear on Azusa Avenue after the junction with the San Bernardino Freeway, Interstate 10 in West Covina; the adopted route continues for 1.0-mile to the Covina/West Covina city limit, 0.1-mile north of Grovecenter Street. Prior to the present before reaching Harbor Boulevard, SR 39 continued north from Whittier Boulevard along Hacienda Road to the Los Angeles/Orange County line north on Hacienda Boulevard and Glendora Avenue to US 60, 70, 99 in West Covina, it continued east with US 60, 70, 99 to Azusa Avenue where it turned north to follow the present alignment as described beginning in the fourth paragraph of the preceding section.

The Hacienda Glendora segment can still be seen as Route 39 on some maps. Prior to 1991, Harbor Boulevard would become Fullerton Road heading northward at the Los Ang

Judah bar Ilai

Judah bar Ilai known as Yehuda bar Ma'arava and Rabbi Judah, was a rabbi of the 2nd century. Of the many Judahs in the Talmud, he is the one referred to as "Rabbi Judah" and is the most mentioned sage in the Mishnah. Judah bar Ilai was born at Usha in the Galilee, his teachers were his father Rabbi Ilai I, Rabbi Akiba, Rabbi Tarfon. He studied under Tarfon in early youth, was so associated with R. Tarfon that he performed menial services for him, he was ordained by Rabbi Judah ben Baba at a time. Judah bar Ilai was forced to flee Hadrian's persecution. At the beginning of Hadrian's persecution, Judah ben Ilai was forced to flee from Usha and conceal himself. When, after the revocation of Hadrian's edicts of persecution, the pupils of Akiba held their reunions and councils in Usha, Judah received the right to express his opinion before all others, thus being "Rosh ha-Medabbebrim", on the ground that he was the best authority on the traditions, he was intimately associated with the patriarch Simeon ben Gamliel II, in whose house he is said to have been entrusted with the decision in matters pertaining to the religious law.

He was able to win the confidence of the Romans by his praise of their civilizing tendencies as shown in their construction of bridges and marketplaces. Judah's personal piety was most rigid, he drank no wine except on the days when the Law required, preferred to eat only vegetable food. On Friday, after he had bathed and clad himself in white to prepare for the Sabbath, he seemed to his pupils an angel. According to a rule of interpretation, Judah b. Ilai is meant in all passages reading, "It once happened to a pious man", he was passionate and irascible, but such was his self-control that he seemed the reverse. Thus he once showed exceptional mildness; the study of the Law was his dearest occupation. Yet his interest in the joys and sorrows of his fellow men was keener still. Whenever a funeral or a wedding-procession passed, he interrupted his study to join it. Judah lived in the utmost poverty, his wife made with her own hands a cloak which served them both in turn: the wife as she went to the market.

He declined all assistance, since he had accustomed himself to the simplest mode of life, on principle desired to have no delight in this world. Judah lived to a ripe old age, surviving all of his colleagues. Among his disciples who paid him the last honors was Judah ha-Nasi, his grave was shown at Ein Zeitim beside the tomb of his father. Obadiah of Bartenura, after visiting his tomb, wrote in 1495: "About as far from Safed as one may walk on a Sabbath is the grave of the talmudic master Rabbi Judah bar Ilai. On the grave is a handsome tomb at which candles are lit..." Italian pilgrim Moses Basola wrote: "They say that once a Muslim woman climbed the tree on the grave in order to gather almonds, upon which the other women told her to first ask the saint's permission. But she showered them with curses, she fell off the tree. She pledged the gold bracelets on her hands to the saint, purchasing olive trees with them. Subsequently others made pledges as well, at present he has four hundred olive trees.

This episode of the woman took place about sixty years ago." Judah teaches the Mishnah of Eliezer, which he had received from his father. He explains the traditional halakhot by particularizations introduced by the phrases "Ematai?" and "Bameh debarim amurim?". His most frequent teachings, are the doctrines of his master Akiba, his own halakhot he sets forth in the form of midrashim, for in his view and midrash are identical. Those who devote themselves only to "mishnah" (that is, to the stereotyped halakhah without its Scriptural basis, he terms "enemies", yet it is only they who expound the Bible who receive this latter name. In his Biblical interpretation and in the deduction of legal requirements from it, Judah adheres to the method of his teacher Akiba, whose rules of exegesis he adopts, it is thus that he explains a word superfluous, employs the rules of "al tiḳri" and "noṭariḳon". He interprets according to the older Halakah in cases where he deduces a definition from the literal wording of a passage, bases his explanation on its obvious meaning, "debarim ki-ketavan".

Most of the Sifra is to be attributed to Judah, nearly all the anonymous statements in it being his, "Setam Sifra R. Yehudah". Of his exegetical principles only one need be noted: "In the Holy Scriptures certain phrases which border on blasphemy have been altered". Many aggadic utterances and traditions of Judah's have been preserved, his traditions regarding the Temple at Jerusalem are numerous.

Manuel González García (bishop)

Saint Manuel González García was a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the Bishop of Palencia from 1935 until his death. He was the founder of the Eucharistic Missionaries of Nazareth and established both the Disciples of Saint John and the Children of Reparation, he was known for his strong devotion to the Eucharist and became known as the "Bishop of the Tabernacle" due to this devotion. The sainthood cause for the late bishop opened in 1981 and he became titled as a Servant of God while Pope John Paul II named him as Venerable on 6 April 1998 upon the confirmation that he exercised heroic virtue in his life. John Paul II beatified the late bishop on 29 April 2001. Pope Francis canonized him as a saint on 16 October 2016, he is the patron of all his religious orders and of the Diocese of Palencia where he served as a bishop. Manuel González García was born to Martín González Lara and Antonia García on 25 February 1877 in Seville and had four brothers. Out of the five he was the fourth born to his parents.

In his childhood he joined a church choir and, prior to the age of ten, served as part of the choir in the Cathedral of Seville. Following the realization of his religious vocation during his late childhood, he enlisted in the seminary of Seville at the age of twelve in September 1889 for studies for the priesthood, it was there. He was held in high regard by his teachers, he earned his doctorates in both canon law. He travelled to Rome to commemorate a jubilee of Pope Leo XIII, he received the subdiaconate in 1900 and received the diaconate that same year. He was ordained to the priesthood on 21 September 1901 by the Archbishop of Seville Marcelo Spinola y Maestre - future cardinal and Blessed - in the chapel of the episcopal palace of Seville. While a seminarian, García worked at El Correo de Andalucía, he celebrated his first Mass on 29 September 1901 in the Church of the Holy Trinity. It was during his first Mass that he entrusted himself to the intercession of Mary, Help of Christians. In 1902, Bishop Spinola sent him to preach a mission in one of the parishes, Garcia found the church to be unclean and abandoned.

He knelt before the tabernacle and decided and there to dedicate himself to Eucharistic works in praise of Jesus Christ. One of his first positions as a new priest was to act as the chaplain of the nursing home of the Sisters of the Poor of Seville. On 1 March 1902 he was appointed as the parish priest of San Pedro de Huelva and took office there on 9 March, a week later. In Huelva he paid careful attention to the disadvantaged people and promoted schools devoted to assisting them and bringing to them teachings pertaining to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ. In addition he was concerned with the working class and helped to provide food for the children whose parents worked as miners. García, on 4 March 1910, first established the Disciples of Saint John, who were to be devoted to the Eucharist and to Saint John, he travelled to Rome in late 1912 and on 28 November had a private audience with Pope Pius X, who demonstrated a keen interest in his work and his devotion to the Eucharist. Pope Benedict XV appointed him to be the Auxiliary Bishop of Malaga and the Titular Bishop of Olympus on 6 December 1915.

This led to his episcopal consecration on 16 January 1916. He was appointed as the Bishop of Málaga in 1920 and held the post until Pope Pius XI appointed him as the Bishop of Palencia in 1935, he received the gratitude and the affection of all, including King Alfonso XIII, who stated in a telegram: "I greet with affection and reverently kiss his pastoral ring". He founded the Eucharistic Missionaries of Nazareth while in Palencia and went on to found the Children of Reparation, as well as the Disciples of Saint John. On 11 May 1936, the episcopal palace of Malaga caught on fire and the fire saw the destruction of art and archival materials, Garcia came into the palace through the backdoor to see the arsonists who lit the fire. García fell ill in 1939 during a visit to Zaragoza which saw him transferred to Madrid for treatment, he died in 1940 in a clinic and was buried in the Cathedral of Palencia, where he requested to be buried so that he could be close to the tabernacle. His wish was: "I ask to be buried next to a tabernacle, so that my bones, after death, as my tongue and my pen in life, are saying to those who pass: there is Jesus!

There it is! Do not leave him abandoned!" The process of beatification started on 31 July 1981 in Spain to gather documentation needed for the cause and the commencement of the cause allowed for him to receive the posthumous title Servant of God. This saw two processes open in Palencia. One in Malaga was held in 1979 and another in Palencia from 1981 until a year later; the compiled dossier known as the Positio documented his life of heroic virtue and was sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in 1991. This led to Pope John Paul II proclaiming him to be Venerable on 6 April 1998 on the account of such virtue. After an independent tribunal investigated a miracle attributed to him it was validated in 1998 and received papal approval; the miracle took place in Palencia in December 1953 and was the healing of tuberculosis of Sara Ruiz

Stanislav Igolinsky

Stanislav Igolinsky is a Russian pianist. In 1971 he finished Magnet musical school at the Leningrad Conservatory in class of Volf M. V. and in class of Volfenzon S. J.. In 1976 Igolinsky graduated from the Moscow State Conservatory, from the Postgraduate study-training in class of Professor Voskresensky M. S. In 1972 Igolinsky took the 1 prize at the Fourth All-Union competition of pianists in Minsk. In 1974 he received the 2 premium at the Fifth International competition named after Tchaikovsky in Moscow. In 1975 he took the 2 prize at the International competition named after Queen Elizabeth in Brussels. Stanislav Igolinsky gave concerts in 200 cities of CIS, in Belgium, Austria, Japan, Finland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Taiwan, he acted with such well-known conductors as Svetlanov, Kitayenko, Dmitriyev, Domarkas, Sinaisky, Kersies, Oberfrank, Stryia, Zanderling, Beloglavek. In repertoire of him are the works of Bach, Mozart, Schubert, Liszt, Brahms, Debussy, Musorgsky, Rachmaninov, Prokofiev, more than 30 concerts for piano with orchestra, piano quartets and quintets, sonatas for violin and piano.

The pianist acts with the violinist Vladislav Igolinsky, with the State quartet after the name of Taneyev. From 1979 till 2000 Stanislav Igolinsky was the soloist of St.-Petersburg-Concert. From 1984 till 1991, from 2002 till 2005 he taught at the St.-Petersburg Conservatory. Since 2005 Igolinsky works as a Doctor at the Moscow State Conservatory. Now Dr. Igolinsky gives the master-classes, participates in work of jury of the Russian and international piano competitions, he embarked in an international concert career. A former teacher at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, Igolinsky is since 2005 a Doctor in Moscow's, he is a People's Artist of Russia. Almaty Piano Competition Piano Division of the Moscow Conservatory