Elon Reeve Musk is an engineer, industrial designer, technology entrepreneur. He is a citizen of South Africa and the United States, is the founder, CEO and chief engineer/designer of SpaceX, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2018. In December 2016, he was ranked 21st on the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People, was ranked joint-first on the Forbes list of the Most Innovative Leaders of 2019, he is listed by Forbes as the 20th-richest person in the world. He is the longest tenured CEO of any automotive manufacturer globally. Born and raised in Pretoria, South Africa, Musk attended the University of Pretoria before moving to Canada when he was 17 to attend Queen's University, he transferred to the University of Pennsylvania two years where he received a Bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School and a Bachelor's degree in physics from the College of Arts and Sciences. He began a Ph. D. in applied physics and material sciences at Stanford University in 1995 but dropped out after two days to pursue a business career.
He subsequently co-founded Zip2 with his brother Kimbal, a web software company, acquired by Compaq for $340 million in 1999. Musk founded X.com, an online bank. It merged with Confinity in 2000, which had launched PayPal the previous year and was bought by eBay for $1.5 billion in October 2002. In May 2002, Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company, of which he is CEO and lead designer, he joined Tesla, Inc. an electric vehicle manufacturer, in 2004, the year after it was founded, became its CEO and product architect. In 2006, he inspired the creation of a solar energy services company. In 2015, Musk co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit research company that aims to promote friendly artificial intelligence. In July 2016, he co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing brain–computer interfaces. In December 2016, Musk founded The Boring Company, an infrastructure and tunnel-construction company focused on tunnels specialized for electric vehicles.
Apart from Tesla, Musk is not an investor in the stock market. In addition to his primary business pursuits, Musk has envisioned a high-speed transportation system known as the Hyperloop, has proposed a vertical take-off and landing supersonic jet electric aircraft with electric fan propulsion, known as the Musk electric jet. Musk has said the goals of SpaceX, SolarCity revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity, his goals include reducing global warming through sustainable energy production and consumption, reducing the risk of human extinction by establishing a human colony on Mars. Elon Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in Pretoria, South Africa, the son of Maye Musk, a model and dietitian from Regina, Saskatchewan and Errol Musk, a South African electromechanical engineer and sailor, he has a younger brother, a younger sister, Tosca. His maternal grandfather, Dr. Joshua Haldeman, was an American-born Canadian, his paternal grandmother was British, he has Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry.
After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived with his father in the suburbs of Pretoria, a choice made by Musk two years after his parents separated but which he subsequently regretted. Musk is estranged from his father whom he has referred to as "a terrible human being", he has a half-brother. During his childhood, Musk was an avid reader. At the age of 10, he developed an interest in computing with the Commodore VIC-20, he taught himself computer programming and, by the age of 12, sold the code of a BASIC-based video game he created called Blastar to PC and Office Technology magazine for $500. A web version of the game is available online, his childhood reading included Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, from which he drew the lesson that "you should try to take the set of actions that are to prolong civilization, minimize the probability of a dark age and reduce the length of a dark age if there is one". Musk was bullied throughout his childhood and was once hospitalized when a group of boys threw him down a flight of stairs and smashed his head into the pavement until he lost consciousness.
The damage to his nose required corrective surgery. Musk attended Waterkloof House Preparatory School and Bryanston High School before graduating from Pretoria Boys High School. Although Musk's father insisted that Elon go to college in Pretoria, Musk became determined to move to the United States, saying "I remember thinking and seeing that America is where great things are possible, more than any other country in the world." Knowing it would be easy to get to the United States from Canada, he moved to Canada against his father's wishes in June 1989, just before his 18th birthday, after obtaining a Canadian passport through his Canadian-born mother. While awaiting Canadian documentation, Musk attended the University of Pretoria for five months. Once in Canada, Musk entered Queen's University in 1989, avoiding mandatory service in the South African military, he left in 1992 to study physics at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1994, Musk held two internships in Silicon Valley during the summer: at an energy storage start-up called Pinnacle Research Institute, which researched electrolytic ultracapacitors fo
Piotr Zak is the name of a fictional Polish composer whose alleged composition Mobile for Tape and Percussion was broadcast twice on the BBC Third Programme on 5 June 1961 in a performance played by "Claude Tessier" and "Anton Schmidt". In fact, the composer and the performers were pseudonyms of BBC producers Hans Keller and Susan Bradshaw, who concocted the deliberately unmusical percussive piece as a hoax; the success of the hoax, however, is open to question. While Mobile for Tape and Percussion was reviewed by several critics, all of the reviews were roundly negative, with the piece being instantly identified as a "non-musical" studio prank; the broadcast of the work was preceded by alleged biographical information about Zak in the form of a programme note written by Schmidt. The text read by the announcer was as follows: Piotr Zak, of Polish extraction but lives in Germany, was born in 1939, his earliest works are conservative, but he has come under the influence of Stockhausen and John Cage.
This work for tape and percussion was written between September of last year. Within the precise and complex framework defined by the score, there is considerable room for improvisation; the work was reviewed by three critics, who gave outright condemnatory reactions. Jeremy Noble's review in the Times stated "It was difficult to grasp more than the music's broad outlines because of the high proportion of unpitched sounds and because of their extreme diversity". Noble deemed the broadcast a "lapse" on the part of the BBC, wrote "such recognizably musical events as did occur seemed trivial". Further down the scale from Noble's faint praise, the Daily Telegraph's′ critic Donald Mitchell called the performance "wholly unrewarding", adding that Zak exploited the percussion with only limited enterprise and his tape emitted a succession of whistles and punctured sighs that proclaimed, all too shamelessly, their non-musical origins.... There was nothing, one felt, it was only the composer's ingenuousness, mysterious.
… How demanding Mozart seems after the innocence of Mr. Nono and Mr. Zak! Rollo Myers, writing in the Listener, was harsher still identifying the piece as a farce d'atelier with "no possible claim to be considered as music", characterising the BBC's broadcast of such a thing "a serious error of judgment". Myers continued, What made the whole thing all the more deplorable was the high-falutin' publicity surrounding it in which we were told, inter alia, that "... the tape exploits the full range of the aural spectrum, controlled by measurable quantities—frequency ratios, velocity graphs and decibel indexes"—all this to describe what seemed to me to be a series of the more unpleasant kinds of kitchen noises, accompanied by bangs and thumps, hisses and whistles. He concluded with praise for the other works on the programme, by Webern, Petrassi, "the always satisfying Serenade in B flat for thirteen wind instruments by Mozart—which may have been missed by the many listeners who, I am sure, switched off their sets for the repeat performance of the Zak".
Nearly two months after the event, a BBC spokesman denied that the work was a hoax, describing it instead as an "experiment", in which "the percussion instruments on the tape were played at random. I imagine, but we did not hoax the listeners. It was an experiment". A conflicting report published the next day claimed that the BBC confessed the entire programme had been a hoax, it was revealed that the piece had been produced by Hans Keller and Susan Bradshaw at the BBC. By striking randomly and with deliberate senselessness at a collection of percussion instruments, the two had produced a strenuously meaningless twelve-minute "work" of superficially "avant-garde" character. Revealing the true nature of the work was itself part of the publicity for the BBC broadcast of a radio documentary, The Strange Case of Piotr Zak, first aired on 13 August 1961, in which Keller discussed his hoax with music critics Jeremy Noble and Donald Mitchell. Both critics agreed that the manner of presentation required them to take the piece but, since they both had given it an unfavourable review, they could not be said to have been taken in by the hoax.
In the months and years after the original broadcast, some tellings of the story indicated that Zak's work received favourable reviews from critics unable to distinguish random noise from genuine avant-garde music. However, in an October 1961 editorial in The Musical Times, editor Andrew Porter noted of'The Zak Affair' that while some reports indicated that "critics were taken in by it.... Let it go on record that this was not the case." After discussing and quoting several contemporaneous reviews, Porter wrote that "the critics showed that they could distinguish between Zak and Stockhausen — whose Zyklus,'bashed out' by an imported solo percussionist at an earlier BBC concert, was praised." Despite Porter's editorial, "Pjotr Zak" wrote a piece for The Musical Times a few months later. Written in actuality by Keller, it appeared in the July 1962 issue. Zak's piece was a 700-word review of Stockhausen's score for Zyklus, a work that had debuted
Duncan "Don" Kirkham was an Australian racing cyclist. Kirkham was a regular competitor in Australian long distance cycling races, he won the Goulburn to Sydney Classic in 1910, setting the fastest time. In 1911 he was 2nd and set the fastest time, riding the 131 miles in a record time of 6h 19' 31". Kirkham's time was not beaten until 1925 by Richard "Fatty" Lamb, he had finished 5th in 1909. and finished outside the top 20 in 1912. In 6 attempts, Kirkham was never able to set the fastest time nor win the Warrnambool to Melbourne Classic, his best result being 2nd fastest time in 1922, he finished 28th in 1907, 128th in 1908, 18th in 1909, 19th in 1910 and 21st in 1923. Kirkham intended to retire after the 1924 Warrnambool, however he was knocked down by a motor car two weeks prior to the race, he competed in the 1914 Tour de France with Iddo Munro and finished 17th in the general classification. His best result was 9th in a 325 km mountain stage from Belfort to Longwy. After the Tour, whilst in Paris he won a bet in riding 25 miles in 60 minutes.
Kirkham took up farming during World War I and resumed racing in 1920. Kirkham was a successful six-day racer in Australia. Kirkham's last race was the Cycle Traders 100 mile in 1924, he was returning home from that race when he was hit by a car and was so badly injured that he was forced to retire. He coached Hubert Opperman in his first race, he died on 30 April 1930 in Victoria. He was buried in Dandenong Cemetery. Don Kirkham at Cycling Archives "Don Kirkham". Canberra Bicycle Museum. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Official Tour de France results for Don Kirkham