The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier. During the periods of classical and medieval warfare, it evolved into being the leading weapon in cavalry charges, was unsuited for throwing or for repeated thrusting, unlike similar weapons of the javelin/pike family used by infantry. Lances were equipped with a vamplate – a small circular plate to prevent the hand sliding up the shaft upon impact. Though best known as a military and sporting weapon carried by European knights, the use of lances was widespread throughout Asia, the Middle East, North Africa wherever suitable mounts were available; as a secondary weapon, lancers of the medieval period bore swords, hammers, or maces for hand-to-hand combat, since the lance was a one-use-per-engagement weapon. The name is derived from the word lancea - the Roman auxiliaries' throwing knife. Compare λόγχη, a Greek term for "spear" or "lance". A lance in the original sense is javelin; the English verb to launch "fling, throw" is derived from the term, as well as the rarer or poetic to lance.
The term from the 17th century came to refer to spears not thrown, used for thrusting by heavy cavalry, in jousting. A thrusting spear, used by infantry is referred to as a pike; the Byzantine cavalry used lances exclusively in mixed lancer and mounted archer formations. The Byzantines used lance both underarm, couched; the best known usage of military lances was that of the full-gallop closed-ranks charge of a group of knights with underarm-couched lances, against lines of infantry, archery regiments, defensive embankments, opposition cavalry. Two variants on the couched lance charge developed, the French method, en haie, with lancers in a double line and the German method, with lancers drawn up in a deeper formation, wedge-shaped, it is believed that this became the dominant European cavalry tactic in the 11th century after the development of the cantled saddle and stirrups, of rowel spurs. Cavalry thus outfitted and deployed had a tremendous collective force in their charge, could shatter most contemporary infantry lines.
Recent evidence has suggested, that the lance charge was effective without the benefit of stirrups. Because of the extreme stopping power of a thrusting spear, it became a popular weapon of infantry in the Late Middle Ages; these led to the rise of the longest type of spears, the pike. This adaptation of the cavalry lance to infantry use was tasked with stopping lance-armed cavalry charges. During the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, these weapons, both mounted and unmounted, were so effective that lancers and pikemen not only became a staple of every Western army, but became sought-after mercenaries. In Europe, a jousting lance was a variation of the knight's lance, modified from its original war design. In jousting, the lance tips would be blunt spread out like a cup or furniture foot, to provide a wider impact surface designed to unseat the opposing rider without spearing him through; the centre of the shaft of such lances could be designed to be hollow, in order for it to break on impact, as a further safeguard against impalement.
They were at least 4m long, had hand guards built into the lance tapering for a considerable portion of the weapon's length. These are the versions that can most be seen at medieval reenactment festivals. In war, lances were much more like stout spears and balanced for one-handed use, with sharpened tips; as a small unit that surrounded a knight when he went into battle during the 14th and 15th centuries, a lance might have consisted of one or two squires, the knight himself, one to three men-at-arms, an archer. Lances were combined under the banner of a higher-ranking nobleman to form companies of knights that would act as an ad-hoc unit; the advent of wheellock technology spelled the end of the heavy knightly lance in Western Europe, with newer types of heavy cavalry such as reiters and cuirassiers spurning the old one-use weapon and supplanting the older gendarme type Medieval cavalry. While many Renaissance captains such as Sir Roger Williams continued to espouse the virtues of the lance, many such as François de la Noue encouraged its abandonment in the face of the pistol's greater armor piercing power and greater general utility.
At the same time the adoption of pike and shot tactic by most infantry forces would neuter much of the power of the lancer's breakneck charge, making them a non-cost effective type of military unit due to their expensive horses in comparison to cuirassiers and reiters, who charging only at a trot could make do with lower quality mounts. After the success of pistol-armed Huguenot heavy horse against their Royalist counterparts during the French Wars of Religion, most Western European powers started rearming their lancers with pistols as an adjunct weapon and as a replacement, with the Spanish retaining the lance the longest. Only the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with its far greater emphasis on cavalry warfare, large populat
Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
Crataegus monogyna, known as common hawthorn, oneseed hawthorn, or single-seeded hawthorn, is a species of hawthorn native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world, it can be an invasive weed. Other common names include may, maythorn, whitethorn and haw; this species is one of several that have been referred to as Crataegus oxyacantha, a name, rejected by the botanical community as too ambiguous. In 1793 Medikus published the name C. apiifolia for a European hawthorn now included in C. monogyna, but that name is illegitimate under the rules of botanical nomenclature. The common hawthorn is a small tree 5 -- 14 metres tall, with a dense crown; the bark is dull brown with vertical orange cracks. The younger stems bear sharp thorns 12. 5mm long. The leaves are 20 to 40 mm long and lobed, sometimes to the midrib, with the lobes spreading at a wide angle; the upper surface is dark green paler underneath. The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in late spring in corymbs of 5–25 together.
The flowers are pollinated by midges and other insects and in the year bear numerous haws. The haw is a small, oval dark red fruit about 10 mm long, berry-like, but structurally a pome containing a single seed. Haws are important for wildlife in winter thrushes and waxwings; the common hawthorn is distinguished from the related but less widespread Midland hawthorn by its more upright growth, the leaves being lobed, with spreading lobes, in the flowers having just one style, not two or three. However they are inter-fertile and hybrids occur frequently. Crataegus monogyna is one of the most common species used as the "hawthorn" of traditional herbalism; the plant parts used are sprigs with both leaves and flowers, or alternatively the fruit. Hawthorne has been investigated by evidence-based medicine for treating cardiac insufficiency. Crataegus monogyna is a source of antioxidant phytochemicals extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers. Common hawthorn is extensively planted as a hedge plant for agricultural use.
Its spines and close branching habit render it stock- and human-proof, with some basic maintenance. The traditional practice of hedge laying is most practised with this species, it is a good fire wood which burns with little smoke. Numerous hybrids exist, some of; the most used hybrid is C. × media, of which several cultivars are known, including the popular'Paul's Scarlet' with dark pink double flowers. Other garden shrubs that have sometimes been suggested as possible hybrids involving the common hawthorn, include the various-leaved hawthorn of the Caucasus, only occasionally found in parks and gardens; the fruit of hawthorn, called haws, are edible raw but are made into jellies and syrups, used to make wine, or to add flavour to brandy. Botanically they are pomes. A haw is small and oblong, similar in size and shape to a small olive or grape, red when ripe. Haws develop in groups of three along smaller branches, they are delicate in taste. In this species they have only one seed, but in other species of hawthorn there may be up to five seeds.
Petals are edible, as are the leaves, which if picked in spring when still young are tender enough to be used in salads. Hawthorn petals are used in the medieval English recipe for spinee, an almond-milk based pottage recorded in'The Forme of Cury' by the Chief Master-Cook of King Richard II, c. 1390. An ancient specimen, reputedly the oldest tree of any species in France, is to be found alongside the church at Saint Mars sur la Futaie, Mayenne; the tree has a height of 9 m, a girth of 265 cm. The inscription on the plaque beneath reads: "This hawthorn is the oldest tree in France, its origin goes back to St Julien". A famous specimen in England was the Glastonbury or Holy Thorn which, according to legend, sprouted from the staff of Joseph of Arimathea after he thrust it into the ground while visiting Glastonbury in the 1st century AD; the tree was noteworthy because it flowered twice in a year, once in the late spring, normal, but once after the harshness of midwinter had passed. The original tree at Glastonbury Abbey, felled in the 1640s during the English Civil War, has been propagated as the cultivar'Biflora'.
A replacement was planted by the local council in 1951, but was cut down by vandals in 2010. The oldest known living specimen in East Anglia, in the United Kingdom, is known as The Hethel Old Thorn, is located in the churchyard in the small village of Hethel, south of Norwich, in Norfolk, it is reputed to be more than 700 years old. The hawthorn is associated with Faerie in Ireland, as such is not disturbed by those who believe in the danger fairies traditionally represent; the hawthorn button-top gall on Hawthorn, is caused by the dipteron gall-midge Dasineura crataegi. Haweater List of Lepidoptera that feed on hawthorns Folklore about hawthorns the European species C. laevigata and/or C. monogyna and hybrids between these two species. Philips, R.. Trees
A worker cooperative is a cooperative, owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may be exercised in a number of ways. A cooperative enterprise may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which management is elected by every worker-owner, it can refer to a situation in which managers are considered, treated as, workers of the firm. In traditional forms of worker cooperative, all shares are held by the workforce with no outside or consumer owners, each member has one voting share. In practice, control by worker-owners may be exercised through individual, collective, or majority ownership by the workforce. A worker cooperative, has the characteristic that each of its workers owns one share, all shares are owned by the workers; the International organisation representing worker cooperatives is CICOPA. CICOPA has two regional organisations: CECOP - CICOPA Americas. Worker cooperatives rose to prominence during the Industrial Revolution as part of the labour movement.
As employment moved to industrial areas and job sectors declined, workers began organizing and controlling businesses for themselves. Workers cooperative were sparked by "critical reaction to industrial capitalism and the excesses of the industrial revolution." The formation of some workers cooperatives were designed to "cope with the evils of unbridled capitalism and the insecurities of wage labor". The philosophy that underpinned the cooperative movement stemmed from the socialist writings of thinkers including Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Robert Owen, considered by many as the father of the cooperative movement, made his fortune in the cotton trade, but believed in putting his workers in a good environment with access to education for themselves and their children; these ideas were put into effect in the cotton mills of New Lanark, Scotland. It was here. Spurred on by the success of this, he had the idea of forming "villages of co-operation" where workers would drag themselves out of poverty by growing their own food, making their own clothes and becoming self-governing.
He tried to form such communities in Orbiston in Scotland and in New Harmony, Indiana in the United States of America, but both communities failed. Similar early experiments were made in the early 19th century and by 1830 there were several hundred co-operatives. Dr William King made Owen's ideas more practical, he believed in starting small, realized that the working classes would need to set up co-operatives for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction. He founded a monthly periodical called The Co-operator, the first edition of which appeared on 1 May 1828; this gave a mixture of co-operative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using cooperative principles. The first successful organization was the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, established in England in 1844; the Rochdale Pioneers established the ` Rochdale Principles'. This became the basis for the growth of the modern cooperative movement; as the mechanization of the Industrial Revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty, these tradesmen decided to band together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford.
With lessons from prior failed attempts at co-operation in mind, they designed the now famous Rochdale Principles, over a period of four months they struggled to pool one pound sterling per person for a total of 28 pounds of capital. On 21 December 1844, they opened their store with a meagre selection of butter, flour, oatmeal and a few candles. Within three months, they expanded their selection to include tea and tobacco, they were soon known for providing high quality, unadulterated goods; the Co-operative Group formed over 140 years from the merger of many independent retail societies, their wholesale societies and federations. In 1863, twenty years after the Rochdale Pioneers opened their co-operative, the North of England Co-operative Society was launched by 300 individual co-ops across Yorkshire and Lancashire. By 1872, it had become known as the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Through the 20th century, smaller societies merged with CWS, such as the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society and the South Suburban Co-operative Society.
When the current cooperative movement resurfaced in the 1960s it developed on a new system of "collective ownership" where par value shares were issued as symbols of egalitarian voting rights. A member may only own one share to maintain the egalitarian ethos. Once brought in as a member, after a period of time on probation so the new candidate can be evaluated, he or she was given power to manage the coop, without "ownership" in the traditional sense. In the UK this system is known as common ownership; some of these early cooperatives still exist and most new worker cooperatives follow their lead and develop a relationship to capital, more radical than the previous system of equity share ownership. In the United States there is no coherent legislation regarding worker cooperatives nationally, much less Federal laws, so most worker cooperatives make use of traditional consumer cooperative law and try to fine-tune it for their purposes. In some cases the members of the cooperative in fact "own" the enterprise by buying a share that represents a fraction of the market value of the cooperative.
In Britain this type of cooperative was traditionally known as a producer cooperative, and
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
An elizate, is an early form of local government in the Basque Country, common in Biscay but existed in the other provinces. The terms elizate and elexate translate as "church door"; the Spanish term anteiglesia translates as "before church" or "parvise". The peculiar name derives from the Basque custom where the family heads of a settlement connected to a particular parish would gather after mass at the entrance or portico of the church to make decisions regarding issues affecting their community, their medieval history is linked to the emergence of the Batzar Nagusiak or "Grand Meetings" those of Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the establishment of parochial churches. Each elizate would elect a representative who would represent the elizate at a Batzar Nagusia, so the elizate represents an early form of local democracy; these enjoyed considerable autonomy in decision-making from the higher administrative authorities. An elizate was steered by a fiel sindiko, who would organise meetings and bear a makila as a sign of authority.
A fiel was chosen for one year through a number of methods. Some were nominated by the outgoing fiel, in some places the position of fiel would rotate through all farmholders of the elizate and in others the most married farmholder would be named fiel; each elizate was subdivided into smaller units called kofradiak which corresponded to the individual boroughs of an elizate. A group of elizates was a merindad. Through time elizates became municipalities. In Biscay, during the time of the Lordship of Biscay, the territory of all anteiglesias were referred to as Plain Land, as opposed to the more stratified cities, it was further incorporated into the administration. They became subject to the fueros which at the same time re-affirmed the status of nobility to all farmholders; this meant that unlike in most of feudal Europe, the farmers owned their land. After centuries of political change few elizate remain today, two of the most notable in Iurreta and Derio. In 1962, in Francoist Spain, the name of the elizates was changed to auzo and they were merged into municipalities.
The current term, auzo, is undistinguishable from the subdivisions of a city, which are called by the same term. The Water Tribunal of Valencia, Spain is unrelated to elizates, but holds sessions at the church door. Kasper, M. Baskische Geschichte Primus: 1997 Trask, L; the History of Basque Routledge: 1997 Anteiglesia in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia
The Juntas Generales are representative assemblies in the Southern Basque Country that go back to the 14th century. The three main Juntas Generals in the Basque Country were - and are - the Juntas Generales of Biscay, the Juntas Generales of Gipuzkoa and the Juntas Generales of Álava; the equivalent in Navarre was the Cortes—or The Three States House of the Commons—to become the present-day Parliament of Navarre. They were part of an early form of democratic institutions. At the local level, the heads of households would meet on Sundays after church at the church door in a meeting called elizate to debate and decide on local issues. An elizate in turn would elect someone to represent the local community at the juntas, which existed from the district level right up to the provincial Juntas Generales. Little is known about the historical background of these local and regional institutions prior to the 14th century. Broadly speaking, two historical periods can be distinguished: The period from the 14th century to 1876 when the Juntas Generales were abolished The period from 1979 to the present when the Juntas Generales were reinstated.
After the First Carlist War, the fueros were much weakened and fully abolished after the Second Carlist War in 1876. Although the Spanish Government of the time established the conciertos económicos involving low taxes, protective tariffs and self-collection of taxes, Madrid demolished Basque institutions including the Juntas Generales. Following the Spanish transition to democracy in the 1970s the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country re-instated the Juntas Generales in Biscay, Gipuzkoa and Álava in 1979. Unlike the other Basque provinces, Navarre had evolved into the Kingdom of Navarre and had developed to a large extent feudal traditions and institutions in line with other European kingdoms of the time; as a result, it was excluded from the development of such early democratic institutions. However, the royal authority was but one layer of the governmental institutions, the latter—diputacion or government council, "The Three States" —were based on the Navarrese charters stemming from similar values and institutions to the other Basque regions.
It did have a charter however, the 1841 Ley Paccionada de Fueros which Navarre managed to protect when the fueros of Biscay, Gipuzkoa and Álava were abolished in 1879. General Assembly of Gipuzkoa Both and the Juntas Generales of Biscay are based in Gernika-Lumo, at the famous Casa de Juntas. Prior to the abolition of the foral laws and the Juntas Generales of Biscay, the Basque señoríos met under the Oak of Gernika to swear they would respect the ancient laws of Biscay. Of all historical Juntas Generales, this is the most known and important one as it was in Gernika the Spanish monarchs were required to swear to uphold the Basque freedoms since the incorporation of Biscay and Gipuzkoa into the Kingdom of Castile from 1200 onwards; the modern Juntas Generales of Biscay were form a unicameral assembly. Its 51 members, the batzarkideak or apoderados, are elected by the people of Biscay every four years alongside the municipal elections, their duties are to: form the Provincial Government of Biscay (the Diputación Foral de Vizcaya /Bizkaiko Foru Aldundia to elect a president to develop the foral laws of Biscay to administer the province's budgetThe party political composition since 1979 has been as follows: 1Since the 1995 elections the EE has been part of the PSE.
The lehendakari of the Juntas Generales of Biscay has hailed from the Basque Nationalist Party since 1987: Is the Representative Assambly of Alava. It has 51 representatives; the Lehendakari is Ramiro Gonzalez from EAJ-PNV, with 13 representatives. The leader of the Opposition is Marta Alaña from PP; the next parties with deputies are Podemos, PSE-EE, Irabazi and Ciudadanos. Other Lehendakaris were Ramon Rabanera and Javier de Andres and Xabier Aguirre. While they were overall less known due to the northern districts—Labourd, Lower Navarre, Soule—falling behind in terms of economic development, they had assemblies that were independent of those of the French state and held charters - the fors, the northern equivalent of the fueros, their powers and sovereignty were curtailed by the French Crown, notably in 1620 and 1659-1660 following the Treaty of the Pyrenees, but remained in place and relevant about decisions affecting regional life until the Napoleonic period. Basque señoríos Basque and Pyrenean fueros Custom Elizate History of the Basque people Juntas Generales de Álava Juntas Generales de Guipúzcoa Juntas Generales de Vizcaya